היודע לשחוט אוכלין משחיטתו אמר רב הונא והוא שגדול עומד על גביו
If he is one who knows how to slaughter an animal, one may eat from animals that he slaughtered. Rav Huna said: That is the halakha provided that an adult is standing over him overseeing the slaughter.
יכול לאכול כזית דגן מרחיקין מצואתו וממימי רגליו ארבע אמות אמר רב חסדא והוא שיכול לאוכלו בכדי אכילת פרס אמר רב חייא בריה דרב ייבא ובגדול אע"פ שאינו יכול לאכול בכדי אכילת פרס דכתיב (קהלת א, יח) ויוסיף דעת יוסיף מכאוב
If he is one who is able to eat an olive-bulk of grain, one distances himself four cubits from his feces and from his urine before praying or reciting Shema, as the feces and urine of a child at that stage of development produce offensive odors like those of an adult. Rav Ḥisda said: That is the halakha provided that the minor can eat the olive-bulk of grain in the time it takes to eat a half-loaf of bread. However, if it takes him longer, one need not distance himself before praying. Rav Ḥiyya, son of Rav Yeiva, said: And with regard to an adult, even if he is unable to eat an olive-bulk of grain in the time it takes to eat a half-loaf of bread, one must distance himself from his feces before praying, as it is written: “And he that increases knowledge, increases sorrow” (Ecclesiastes 1:18), meaning that as one grows older he becomes more flawed.
יכול לאכול כזית צלי שוחטין עליו את הפסח שנאמר (שמות יב, ד) איש לפי אכלו רבי יהודה אומר עד שיכול לברר אכילה כיצד נותנין לו צרור וזורקו אגוז ונוטלו:
If he is one who is able to eat an olive-bulk of roasted meat, one slaughters the Paschal lamb on his behalf, and he is included in the group assembled to eat the Paschal lamb, as it is stated: “According to every man’s eating you shall make your count for the lamb” (Exodus 12:4). Rabbi Yehuda says: Ability to consume an olive-bulk is insufficient to include him in the group; rather, he is not included until he is able to discern what he is eating. How is that determined? If one gives him a pebble and he throws it away, and if one gives him a nut and he takes it, he may be included in the group for eating the Paschal lamb.
הדרן עלך לולב הגזול
May we return to you, chapter "A Stolen Lulav."
מתני׳ לולב וערבה ששה ושבעה ההלל והשמחה שמונה סוכה וניסוך המים שבעה החליל חמשה וששה
MISHNA: The lulav is taken and the altar is encircled together with the willow branch either six or seven days, depending on which day of the Festival occurs on Shabbat. The obligation to recite the full hallel and the mitzva of rejoicing, i.e., eating the meat of the peace-offering, is in effect for eight days, seven days of Sukkot and the Eighth Day of Assembly. The mitzva of sukka and the ritual of the water libation on the altar are in effect for seven days. The flute is played in the Temple for five or six days, depending on which day of the Festival occurs on Shabbat, to enhance the rejoicing on the Festival.
לולב שבעה כיצד יו"ט הראשון של חג שחל להיות בשבת לולב שבעה ושאר כל הימים ששה
The mishna elaborates: The lulav is taken for seven days. How so? If the first day of the Festival occurs on Shabbat, since the mitzva to take the lulav on the first day is a mitzva by Torah law, it overrides Shabbat and one takes the lulav that day. As a result, the lulav is then taken for seven days. And if the first day occurs on one of the rest of the days of the week and one of the other days of the Festival coincides with Shabbat, the lulav is taken only six days. Since the mitzva to take the lulav is a mitzva by rabbinic law throughout the rest of Sukkot, it does not override Shabbat.
ערבה שבעה כיצד יום השביעי של ערבה שחל להיות בשבת ערבה שבעה ושאר כל הימים ששה
The altar is encircled with the willow branch for seven days. How so? If the seventh day of the mitzva of the willow branch occurs on Shabbat, since on that day it is a mitzva by Torah law, it overrides Shabbat and the mitzva of the willow branch is then performed for seven days. And if the seventh day occurs on one of the rest of the days of the week, and one of the other days of the Festival coincides with Shabbat, since the mitzva of the willow branch is then by rabbinic law and consequently does not override Shabbat, it is performed for only six days.
מצות לולב כיצד (בשבת) יום טוב הראשון של חג שחל להיות בשבת מוליכין את לולביהן להר הבית והחזנין מקבלין מהן וסודרין אותן על גבי איצטבא והזקנים מניחין את שלהן בלשכה ומלמדין אותם לומר כל מי שמגיע לולבי לידו הרי הוא לו במתנה
How is the mitzva of lulav fulfilled in the Temple when the first day of the Festival occurs on Shabbat? If the first day of the Festival occurs on Shabbat, all the people bring their lulavim to the Temple Mount on Friday. The attendants receive the lulavim from them and arrange them on a bench [itztaba], while the Elders place their lulavim in the chamber. They were given permission to do so due to the concern that they would be injured the following morning in the rush of people in search of their lulavim. And the court teaches the people to say: With regard to anyone whom my lulav reaches his possession, it is his as a gift. They did so to avoid the likely situation where people would inadvertently take lulavim that did not belong to them, as on the first day of the Festival one does not fulfill his obligation with a lulav that does not belong to him.
למחר משכימין ובאין והחזנין זורקין אותם לפניהם והן מחטפין ומכין איש את חבירו וכשראו ב"ד שבאו לידי סכנה התקינו שיהא כל אחד ואחד נוטל בביתו:
The next day everyone rises early and comes to the Temple, and the attendants throw the lulavim before them. And in the confusion, the people snatch the lulavim and in the process strike one another. And when the court saw that they came to potential danger, they instituted that each and every person will take his lulav in his house and fulfill the mitzva there.
גמ׳ אמאי טלטול בעלמא הוא ולידחי שבת אמר רבה גזרה שמא יטלנו בידו וילך אצל בקי ללמוד
GEMARA: Apropos the prohibition against taking a lulav on Shabbat, the Gemara asks: Why is this prohibited? After all, taking the lulav is merely moving the object and is prohibited due to the rabbinic prohibition of set-aside. Since the mitzva to take the lulav is a mitzva by Torah law, let it override this relatively minor Shabbat prohibition. Rabba said: This prohibition is a decree lest one take the lulav in his hand and go to an expert to learn how to wave the lulav or how to recite its blessing,