Sukkah 40bסוכה מ׳ ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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40bמ׳ ב

מרבה אני את הכבוסה ששוה בכל אדם ומוציא את המלוגמא שאינה שוה לכל אדם

Rabbi Yosei could respond: I include laundering, which applies equally to every person, as everyone needs clean clothes, and I exclude a remedy, which does not apply equally to every person; it is only for the ill.

מאן תנא להא דת"ר לאכלה ולא למלוגמא לאכלה ולא לזילוף לאכלה ולא לעשות ממנה אפיקטויזין כמאן כר' יוסי דאי רבנן הא איכא נמי משרה וכבוסה

The Gemara asks: Who is the tanna who taught that which the Sages taught in a baraita with regard to Sabbatical-Year produce: For food, and not for a remedy; for food, and not for sprinkling wine in one’s house to provide a pleasant fragrance; for food, and not to make it an emetic [apiktoizin] to induce vomiting? In accordance with whose opinion is this baraita? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, as, if it were in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, isn’t there also soaking and laundering that should have been excluded in the baraita, as in their opinion, use of Sabbatical-Year produce for those purposes is prohibited?

אמר ר' אלעזר אין שביעית מתחללת אלא דרך מקח ורבי יוחנן אמר בין דרך מקח בין דרך חילול

§ Rabbi Elazar said: Sabbatical-Year produce is deconsecrated only by means of purchase; however, it cannot be deconsecrated through redemption. Merely declaring that the sanctity of that produce is transferred to money or other produce is ineffective. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: It is deconsecrated both by means of purchase and by means of redemption.

מ"ט דר' אלעזר דכתיב (ויקרא כה, יג) בשנת היובל הזאת וגו' וסמיך ליה וכי תמכרו ממכר דרך מקח ולא דרך חילול ורבי יוחנן מ"ט דכתיב כי יובל היא קדש מה קדש בין דרך מקח בין דרך חילול אף שביעית בין דרך מקח בין דרך חילול

What is the rationale for the opinion of Rabbi Elazar? It is as it is written: “In this year of Jubilee you shall return every man unto his possession” (Leviticus 25:13), and juxtaposed to it it is written: “And if you sell an item to your neighbor” (Leviticus 25:14); this indicates that in the Jubilee Year, during which the halakhot of the Sabbatical Year are in effect, one deconsecrates the produce by means of purchase and not by means of redemption. The Gemara asks: And Rabbi Yoḥanan, what is the rationale for his opinion? It is as it is written: “For it is a Jubilee; it shall be consecrated unto you” (Leviticus 25:12); this indicates that just as one redeems consecrated items both by means of purchase and by means of redemption, so too, Sabbatical-Year produce can be redeemed both by means of purchase and by means of redemption.

ורבי יוחנן האי כי תמכרו ממכר מאי עביד ליה מיבעי ליה לכדר' יוסי בר חנינא דתניא א"ר יוסי בר חנינא בוא וראה כמה קשה אבקה של שביעית וכו' אדם נושא ונותן בפירות שביעית לסוף מוכר את מטלטליו ואת כליו שנאמר בשנת היובל הזאת תשובו איש אל אחוזתו וסמיך ליה וכי תמכרו ממכר לעמיתך וגו'

The Gemara asks: And Rabbi Yoḥanan, what does he do with this juxtaposition of the Jubilee Year to the verse: “If you sell an item”? The Gemara answers: He needs it to derive a halakha in accordance with that statement of Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina says: Come and see how severe even the hint of violation of the prohibition of the Sabbatical Year is; as the prohibition against commerce with Sabbatical-Year produce is not one of the primary prohibitions of the Sabbatical Year, and its punishment is harsh. A person who engages in commerce with Sabbatical-Year produce is ultimately punished with the loss of his wealth to the point that he is forced to sell his movable property and his vessels, as it is stated: “In this year of Jubilee you shall return every man unto his possession” (Leviticus 25:13), and juxtaposed to it, it is written: “And if you sell an item to your neighbor” (Leviticus 25:14).

ור' אלעזר האי קרא דר' יוחנן מאי עביד ליה מיבעי ליה לכדתניא (ויקרא כה, יב) כי יובל היא קדש מה קדש תופס את דמיו אף שביעית תופסת את דמיה

The Gemara asks: And Rabbi Elazar, what does he do with this verse from which Rabbi Yoanan derived his opinion? The Gemara answers: He needs it to derive in accordance with that which is taught in a baraita: “For it is a Jubilee; it shall be consecrated unto you” (Leviticus 25:12); just as the sanctity of consecrated items takes effect on money or objects in exchange for which they are redeemed, so too, the sanctity of Sabbatical-Year produce takes effect on money or objects in exchange for which it is redeemed.

תניא כוותיה דר' אלעזר ותניא כוותיה דרבי יוחנן תניא כוותיה דרבי אלעזר שביעית תופסת את דמיה שנאמר כי יובל היא קדש תהיה לכם מה קדש תופס את דמיו ואסור אף שביעית תופסת את דמיה ואסורה

It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar, and it is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan. The Gemara elaborates that it is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar: Sabbatical-Year sanctity takes effect on money or objects in exchange for which the produce is redeemed, as it is stated: “For it is a Jubilee; it shall be consecrated unto you”; just as the sanctity of consecrated items takes effect on money or objects in exchange for which they are redeemed and it is prohibited to use the money for non-sacred purposes, so too, the sanctity of Sabbatical-Year produce takes effect on money or objects in exchange for which it is redeemed, and it is prohibited to use this money for purposes for which Sabbatical-Year produce may not be used.

אי מה קדש תופס דמיו ויוצא לחולין אף שביעית תופסת את דמיה ויוצאת לחולין תלמוד לומר תהיה בהוייתה תהא

Or perhaps extend the analogy and derive that just as the sanctity of consecrated items takes effect on money or objects in exchange for which they are redeemed, and the consecrated item assumes non-sacred status, so too, the sanctity of Sabbatical-Year produce takes effect on money or objects in exchange for which it is redeemed, and the Sabbatical-Year produce assumes non-sacred status. Therefore, the verse states: “It shall be consecrated unto you,” meaning: It shall be as it is. Although the sanctity of Sabbatical-Year produce takes effect on the money, the produce remains consecrated as well.

הא כיצד לקח בפירות שביעית בשר אלו ואלו מתבערין בשביעית לקח בבשר דגים יצא בשר ונכנסו דגים לקח בדגים יין יצאו דגים ונכנס יין לקח ביין שמן יצא יין ונכנס שמן

The Gemara explains: How so? If one purchased meat with Sabbatical-Year produce, both this, the produce, and that, the meat, must be removed during the Sabbatical Year. The meat may be eaten only as long as the produce in exchange for which it was purchased may be eaten, i.e., as long as produce of that kind remains in the field. However, if he purchased fish in exchange for the meat, the meat emerges from its consecrated status, and the fish assumes consecrated status. If he then purchased wine in exchange for the fish, the fish emerges from its consecrated status, and the wine assumes consecrated status. If he purchased oil in exchange for the wine, the wine emerges from its consecrated status, and the oil assumes consecrated status.

הא כיצד אחרון אחרון נכנס בשביעית ופרי עצמו אסור מדקתני לקח לקח אלמא דרך מקח אין דרך חילול לא

How so? The last item purchased assumes the consecrated status of produce of the Sabbatical Year, and the produce itself remains consecrated and forbidden and never loses its consecrated status. The Gemara notes: From the fact that the baraita teaches each case using the term: Purchased, purchased, apparently it means that by means of transaction, yes, the sanctity of the Sabbatical Year takes effect; however, by means of redemption, no, the sanctity of the Sabbatical Year does not take effect.

תניא כוותיה דר' יוחנן אחד שביעית ואחד מעשר שני מתחללין על בהמה חיה ועוף בין חיין בין שחוטין דברי ר' מאיר וחכמים אומרים על שחוטין מתחללין על חיין אין מתחללין גזירה שמא יגדל מהן עדרים

The Gemara continues: It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan. Both Sabbatical-Year produce and second-tithe produce are deconsecrated upon domesticated animals, undomesticated animals,and fowl, whether they are alive or whether they are slaughtered; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: Upon slaughtered animals, they are deconsecrated; upon animals that are alive, they are not deconsecrated. The reason is that a rabbinic decree was issued lest one raise flocks from them. If one breeds a herd from that consecrated animal, the entire herd would be sacred and the potential for misuse of second-tithe property would be great.

אמר רבא מחלוקת

Rava said: This dispute between Rabbi Meir and the Rabbis