אֶלָּא בֵּית סָאתַיִם! only within an area of two beit se’a, the area necessary to grow two se’a of produce? Two beit se’a was the area of the Tabernacle courtyard; it is also the area within which the Sages permitted one to carry on Shabbat in a case where there are partitions but the area was not originally enclosed for the purpose of residence. If one tied the foliage to prevent its swaying in the wind, he clearly established the partition for residence, and there should be no limits on the area in which he may carry.
מִשּׁוּם דְּהָוֵי דִּירָה שֶׁתַּשְׁמִישֶׁיהָ לַאֲוִיר, וְכׇל דִּירָה שֶׁתַּשְׁמִישֶׁיהָ לַאֲוִיר אֵין מְטַלְטְלִין בּוֹ אֶלָּא סָאתַיִם. The Gemara answers: The reason that it is permitted to carry only if the enclosed area is less than this size is because it is a residence whose uses are for the open air beyond it, i.e., it is used by guards who are watching the fields beyond it rather than as an independent residence. And the halakha with regard to any residence whose uses are for the open air beyond it is that one may carry in it only if its area is no larger than two beit se’a.
תָּא שְׁמַע: שָׁבַת בְּתֵל שֶׁהוּא גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה, וְהוּא מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת עַד בֵּית סָאתַיִם, וְכֵן בְּנֶקַע שֶׁהוּא עָמוֹק עֲשָׂרָה, וְהוּא מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת עַד בֵּית סָאתַיִם, וְכֵן קָמָה קְצוּרָה וְשִׁבּוֹלוֹת מַקִּיפוֹת אוֹתָהּ — מְהַלֵּךְ אֶת כּוּלָּהּ וְחוּצָה לָהּ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה. אַף עַל גַּב דְּקָאָזֵיל וְאָתֵי! הָתָם נָמֵי, דְּעָבֵיד לֵיהּ בְּהוּצָא וְדַפְנָא. Come and hear proof from another source: With regard to one who established his Shabbat residence on a mound that is ten handbreadths high and its area is anywhere from four cubits to two beit se’a; and similarly, with regard to one who established his Shabbat residence in a natural cavity of a rock that is ten handbreadths deep and its area is anywhere from four cubits to two beit se’a; and similarly, with regard to one who established his Shabbat residence in a field of reaped grain, and rows of stalks ten handbreadths high that have not been reaped surround it, serving as a partition enclosing the reaped area, he may walk in the entire enclosed area and outside it an additional two thousand cubits. Apparently, the stalks are a fit partition although they sway back and forth in the wind. The Gemara refutes this proof: There, too, it is a fit partition due to the fact that he established the partition by tying it with hard palm leaves and laurel leaves.
מַתְנִי׳ שְׁלוּחֵי מִצְוָה — פְּטוּרִין מִן הַסּוּכָּה. חוֹלִין וּמְשַׁמְּשֵׁיהֶן — פְּטוּרִין מִן הַסּוּכָּה. אוֹכְלִין וְשׁוֹתִין עֲרַאי חוּץ לַסּוּכָּה. MISHNA: Those on the path to perform a mitzva are exempt from the mitzva of sukka. The ill and their caretakers are exempt from the mitzva of sukka. One may eat and drink in the framework of a casual meal outside the sukka.
גְּמָ׳ מְנָא הָנֵי מִילֵּי? תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: ״בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ״ — פְּרָט לְעוֹסֵק בְּמִצְוָה, ״וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ״ — פְּרָט לְחָתָן. מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ: הַכּוֹנֵס אֶת הַבְּתוּלָה — פָּטוּר, וְאֶת הָאַלְמָנָה — חַיָּיב. GEMARA: The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived that one who is performing a mitzva is exempt from the mitzva of sukka? The Sages taught in a baraita that it is written in the Torah that one recites Shema at the following times: “When you sit in your house, and when you walk by the way, and when you lie down, and when you rise up” (Deuteronomy 6:7). The Sages interpret: “When you sit in your house,” to the exclusion of one who is engaged in the performance of a mitzva, who is not sitting at home; “and when you walk by the way,” to the exclusion of a groom, who is preoccupied with his mitzva of consummating the marriage and is not walking along the way. The baraita adds that from here the Sages stated: One who marries a virgin is exempt from reciting Shema on his wedding night, and one who marries a widow is obligated.
מַאי מַשְׁמַע? אָמַר רַב הוּנָא: כְּדֶרֶךְ. מָה דֶּרֶךְ רְשׁוּת, אַף כֹּל רְשׁוּת, לְאַפּוֹקֵי הַאי דִּבְמִצְוָה עָסוּק. The Gemara asks: From where may it be inferred in this verse that a groom is exempt from the mitzva of Shema? Rav Huna said: The circumstances when one is obligated to recite Shema are like the circumstances when one walks along the way: Just as the walking by the way described in the verse is voluntary and involves no mitzva, so too, all those obligated to recite Shema are similarly engaged in voluntary activities, to the exclusion of this groom, who is engaged in the performance of a mitzva.
מִי לָא עָסְקִינַן דְּקָאָזֵיל לִדְבַר מִצְוָה, וְקָא אָמַר רַחֲמָנָא לִיקְרֵי! אִם כֵּן לֵימָא קְרָא ״בְּשֶׁבֶת וּבְלֶכֶת״, מַאי ״בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ״ ״וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ״ — בְּלֶכֶת דִּידָךְ הוּא דְּמִיחַיְּיבַתְּ, הָא בְּלֶכֶת דְּמִצְוָה — פְּטִירַתְּ. The Gemara asks: The verse does not specify the way along which one is walking. Are we not dealing with one who is walking along the way for a matter of a mitzva, and nevertheless, the Merciful One says to recite Shema? Apparently, one is obligated to do so even if he set out to perform a mitzva. The Gemara answers: If it is so that the intention was to obligate even those who are engaged in performance of a mitzva, let the verse state: When sitting and when walking. What is the meaning of: “When you sit…and when you walk”? It comes to underscore: It is in your walking, undertaken for personal reasons and of one’s own volition, that you are obligated to recite Shema; in walking with the objective of performing a mitzva, you are exempt from reciting Shema.
אִי הָכִי, אֲפִילּוּ כּוֹנֵס אֶת הָאַלְמָנָה נָמֵי? כּוֹנֵס אֶת הַבְּתוּלָה טְרִיד, כּוֹנֵס אַלְמָנָה לָא טְרִיד. The Gemara asks: If so, even one who marries a widow should also be exempt, as he too is engaged in the performance of a mitzva. That, however, contradicts the baraita. The Gemara responds that there is a distinction between one marrying a virgin and one marrying a widow. One who marries a virgin is preoccupied by his concern lest he discover that his bride is not a virgin, while one who marries a widow is not preoccupied.
וְכׇל הֵיכָא דִּטְרִיד, הָכִי נָמֵי דְּפָטוּר?! אֶלָּא מֵעַתָּה, טָבְעָה סְפִינָתוֹ בַּיָּם — דִּטְרִיד, הָכִי נָמֵי דְּפָטוּר?! וְכִי תֵּימָא הָכִי נָמֵי, וְהָאָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר זַבְדָּא אָמַר רַב: אָבֵל חַיָּיב בְּכׇל הַמִּצְוֹת הָאֲמוּרוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה חוּץ מִן הַתְּפִילִּין, שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר בָּהֶן ״פְּאֵר״! The Gemara asks: And wherever one is preoccupied is he indeed exempt? But if that is so, then one whose ship sank at sea, who is preoccupied, should also be exempt. The Gemara reinforces its question: And if you say that indeed, that is so, didn’t Rabbi Abba bar Zavda say that Rav said: A mourner is obligated in all the mitzvot mentioned in the Torah, including reciting Shema, except for the mitzva to don phylacteries, from which he is exempt, as the term splendor is stated with regard to phylacteries? If a mourner, who is clearly pained and preoccupied, is obligated to recite Shema, then certainly all others who are preoccupied, even one whose ship sank at sea, whose loss was merely monetary (Birkat Hashem), should be obligated. Why, then, is a groom exempted due to his preoccupation and one who lost his property is not?
הָכָא טְרִיד טִירְדָּא דְמִצְוָה, הָתָם טְרִיד טִירְדָּא דִרְשׁוּת. The Gemara answers: Nevertheless, there is a distinction between the cases. Here, in the case of a groom, he is preoccupied with the preoccupation of a mitzva that he must perform; there, in the case of a ship lost at sea, he is preoccupied with the preoccupation of a voluntary act that he chooses to perform.
וְהָעוֹסֵק בְּמִצְוָה פָּטוּר מִן הַמִּצְוָה מֵהָכָא נָפְקָא? מֵהָתָם נָפְקָא, דְּתַנְיָא: ״וַיְהִי אֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ טְמֵאִים לְנֶפֶשׁ אָדָם וְגוֹ׳״ — אוֹתָם אֲנָשִׁים מִי הָיוּ? נוֹשְׂאֵי אֲרוֹנוֹ שֶׁל יוֹסֵף הָיוּ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי. § The Gemara asks: And is the halakhic principle that one who is engaged in a mitzva is exempt from performing another mitzva derived from here? It is derived from there, as it is taught in a baraita that it is written: “There were certain men who were impure by the corpse of a person and they could not observe the Pesaḥ on that day” (Numbers 9:6). Before proceeding with the discussion, the baraita seeks to clarify with regard to those men who became impure: Who were they? The baraita answers: They were the bearers of Joseph’s coffin, which the Jewish people brought with them in the desert. This is the statement of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili.