Sotah 4bסוטה ד׳ ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
Save "Sotah 4b"
Toggle Reader Menu Display Settings
4bד׳ ב

בדחטי או בדשערי ברכיכא או באקושא תיקו

Is this speaking of a case where the loaf is made of wheat, which is slippery and takes longer to remove, or is this speaking of a case where the loaf is made of barley, which is easily removed? Is this speaking of a case where the loaf is soft, so that it may catch upon the side of the basket, or a case where the loaf is hard, where this is not a concern? The Gemara states: These questions shall stand unresolved.

א"ר יצחק בר (רב) יוסף א"ר יוחנן כל אחד ואחד בעצמו שיער והאיכא בן עזאי דלא נסיב

The Gemara notes: Rav Yitzḥak bar Rav Yosef says that Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Each and every one of these Sages who presented an opinion with regard to the time needed for the initial stage of intercourse estimated based on himself, i.e., based on his own experience. The Gemara asks: But there is ben Azzai, who did not marry, so how could he estimate based on his own experience?

איבעית אימא נסיב ופירש הוה ואיבעית אימא מרביה שמיע ליה ואיבעית אימא (תהלים כה, יד) סוד ה' ליראיו

The Gemara answers: If you wish, say that he was married and separated from his wife. And if you wish, say that he heard from his teacher. And if you wish, say his knowledge can be understood based on the verse: “The counsel of the Lord is with them that fear Him” (Psalms 25:14), teaching that those who fear God are privy to knowledge beyond their personal experience.

דרש רב עוירא זמנין אמר לה משמיה דרבי אמי וזמנין אמר לה משמיה דרבי אסי כל האוכל לחם בלא נטילת ידים כאילו בא על אשה זונה שנאמר (משלי ו, כו) כי בעד אשה זונה עד ככר לחם

§ Having quoted an allusion from the verse: “For on account of a harlot a man is brought to a loaf of bread” (Proverbs 6:26), the Gemara offers another interpretation of that verse. Rav Avira interpreted a verse homiletically; there were times he said this interpretation in the name of Rabbi Ami and there were times he said it in the name of Rabbi Asi: Concerning anyone who eats bread without washing his hands, it is as if he engaged in sexual intercourse with a prostitute, as it is stated: “For on account of a harlot a man is brought to a loaf of bread.”

אמר רבא האי בעד אשה זונה עד ככר לחם בעד ככר לחם עד אשה זונה מיבעי ליה אלא אמר רבא כל הבא על אשה זונה לסוף מבקש ככר לחם

Rava said: This phrase: “For on account of a harlot a man is brought to a loaf of bread,” is not how the verse would present this idea. It should have stated: “On account of a loaf a man is brought to a harlot.” Rather, Rava says the verse should be interpreted as follows: Anyone who engages in sexual intercourse with a harlot will eventually be reduced to poverty and beg people for a loaf of bread.

א"ר זריקא אמר ר"א כל המזלזל בנטילת ידים נעקר מן העולם אמר רב חייא בר אשי אמר רב מים ראשונים צריך שיגביה ידיו למעלה מים אחרונים צריך שישפיל ידיו למטה תניא נמי הכי הנוטל ידיו צריך שיגביה ידיו למעלה שמא יצאו המים חוץ לפרק ויחזרו ויטמאו את הידים

The Gemara continues its discussion of washing hands. Rabbi Zerika says that Rabbi Elazar says: Anyone who treats the ritual of washing hands with contempt is uprooted from the world. Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi says that Rav says: With regard to the first water, i.e., the water used when washing one’s hands before a meal, one must raise his hands upward after washing. With regard to the last water, i.e., the water used when washing one’s hands at the conclusion of the meal before reciting Grace after Meals, one must lower his hands downward. This distinction is also taught in a baraita (Tosefta, Yadayim 2:2): One who washes his hands before a meal must raise his hands upward after washing, lest the water advance past the joint onto the part of the hands that he was not required to wash, becoming impure, and then return to the area he had washed, rendering his hands ritually impure.

אמר רבי אבהו כל האוכל פת בלא ניגוב ידים כאילו אוכל לחם טמא שנאמר (יחזקאל ד, יג) ויאמר ה' ככה יאכלו בני ישראל את לחמם טמא וגו'

Rabbi Abbahu says: Anyone who eats bread without wiping his hands dry after washing them causes the bread to become repulsive and is considered as if he were eating impure bread, since the verse refers to repulsive bread as impure bread, as it is stated: “And the Lord said: Even thus shall the children of Israel eat their bread unclean among the nations where I will drive them” (Ezekiel 4:13). Eating bread with wet hands causes the bread to become repulsive. The verse deems eating in an uncouth manner, as did the gentiles among whom the Jewish people were exiled, as akin to eating ritually impure bread.

ומאי (משלי ו, כו) ואשת איש נפש יקרה תצוד אמר רבי חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן כל אדם שיש בו גסות הרוח לבסוף נכשל באשת איש שנא' ואשת איש נפש יקרה תצוד

§ The Gemara now continues the interpretation of the above quoted verse: “For on account of a harlot a man is brought to a loaf of bread” (Proverbs 6:26). The Gemara asks: And what is the meaning of the continuation of the verse: “But the adulteress hunts for the precious life”? Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says that Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Any person who has arrogance within him will eventually stumble by sinning with an adulteress, as it is stated: “But the adulteress hunts for the precious life,” i.e., she sins with one who considers himself precious.

אמר רבא האי נפש יקרה נפש גבוהה מיבעי ליה ועוד היא תצוד מיבעי ליה אלא אמר רבא כל הבא על אשת איש אפילו למד תורה דכתיב בה (משלי ג, טו) יקרה היא מפנינים מכהן גדול שנכנס לפני ולפנים היא תצודנו לדינה של גיהנם

Rava said: This phrase: “The precious life,” is not how the verse would present this idea. It should have stated: An arrogant life. And further, it should have stated: A precious life, she hunts for the adulteress, indicating that the precious soul will entrap the adulteress, and not vice versa, as the verse indicates as written. Rather, Rava says that the verse should be interpreted as follows: Anyone who engages in sexual intercourse with an adulteress, even if that man studied Torah, about which it is written: “She is more precious than rubies [peninim]” (Proverbs 3:15), which, based on its etymological connection with the Hebrew term for the Holy of Holies, lifnai velifnim, is interpreted by the Sages to mean that one who studies Torah is more precious than a High Priest, who enters the innermost sanctum, still, this transgression of adultery will entrap him into the judgment of Gehenna, and the Torah he studied will not be able to save him.

א"ר יוחנן משום ר"ש בן יוחי כל אדם שיש בו גסות הרוח כאילו עובד עבודת כוכבים כתי' הכא (משלי טז, ה) תועבת ה' כל גבה לב וכתיב התם (דברים ז, כו) ולא תביא תועבה אל ביתך

Rabbi Yoḥanan says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: Any person who has arrogance within him is considered as if he were an idol worshipper, as it is written here: “Everyone that is proud in heart is an abomination to the Lord” (Proverbs 16:5), and it is written there concerning the destruction of idols: “And you shall not bring an abomination into your house” (Deuteronomy 7:26).

ורבי יוחנן דידיה אמר כאילו כפר בעיקר שנאמר (דברים ח, יד) ורם לבבך ושכחת את ה' אלהיך וגו'

And Rabbi Yoḥanan said his own statement: Any person who has arrogance within him is considered as if he has denied the core belief in God’s existence, as it is stated: “Then your heart be lifted up, and you forget the Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 8:14).

ר' חמא בר חנינא אמר כאילו בא על כל העריות כתי' הכא תועבת ה' כל גבה לב וכתי' התם (ויקרא יח, כז) כי את כל התועבות האל וגו'

Rabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina says: Any person who has arrogance within him is considered as if he engaged in sexual intercourse with all of those with whom relations are forbidden, as it is written here: “Everyone who is proud in heart is an abomination to the Lord” (Proverbs 16:5), and it is written there, at the end of the passage concerning forbidden sexual relationships: “For all these abominations have the men of the land done” (Leviticus 18:27).

עולא אמר כאילו בנה במה שנאמר (ישעיהו ב, כב) חדלו לכם מן האדם אשר נשמה באפו כי במה נחשב הוא אל תיקרי במה אלא במה

Ulla says: Any person who has arrogance within him is considered as if he built a personal altar for idol worship, as it is stated: “Cease you from man, in whose nostrils there is breath, for how little [bammeh] is he to be accounted” (Isaiah 2:22), referring to an arrogant person. Do not read the verse as it is written, bammeh, how little. Rather, read it as bama, altar.

מאי יד ליד לא ינקה אמר רב כל הבא על אשת איש אפי' הקנהו להקב"ה שמים וארץ כאברהם אבינו דכתיב ביה (בראשית יד, כב) הרימותי ידי אל ה' אל עליון קונה שמים וארץ לא ינקה מדינה של גיהנם

Having interpreted the phrase: “Everyone who is proud in heart is an abomination to the Lord” (Proverbs 16:5), the Gemara interprets the continuation of the verse. What is the meaning of: “Hand to hand, he shall not be unpunished” (Proverbs 16:5)? Rav says: Anyone who engages in sexual intercourse with an adulteress, even if he were to have attributed possession of heaven and earth to the Holy One, Blessed be He, just as Abraham our forefather did, that it is written with regard to him: “I have lifted up my hand to the Lord, God Most High, Maker of heaven and earth” (Genesis 14:22), he will not be unpunished from the judgment of Gehenna. Abraham is described as one whose hands were lifted to declare the glory of God, yet this verse declares that even if one who engaged in forbidden sexual intercourse were to use his hands in the same way, still, due to his sin, the verse says: “He shall not be unpunished.”

קשיא להו לדבי רבי שילא האי יד ליד לא ינקה ידי מיבעי ליה

This interpretation poses a difficulty to the Sages of the school of Rabbi Sheila: This phrase: “Hand to hand, he shall not be unpunished,” is not how the verse would present this idea. It should have stated: My hand, as that is the term employed in the verse with regard to Abraham.

אלא אמרי דבי רבי שילא אפילו קיבל תורה כמשה רבינו דכתיב ביה (דברים לג, ב) מימינו אש דת למו לא ינקה מדינה של גיהנם

Rather, the Sages of the school of Rabbi Sheila say: This teaches that even if one who engages in sexual intercourse with an adulteress had received the Torah from the hand of God like Moses our teacher did, that it is written with regard to him: “At His right hand was a fiery law unto them” (Deuteronomy 33:2), i.e., God gave the Torah from His right hand into the hand of Moses in order to give to the Jewish people, the sinner will not be unpunished from the judgment of Gehenna.

קשיא ליה לר' יוחנן האי יד ליד יד מיד מיבעיא ליה

This interpretation also poses a difficulty to Rabbi Yoḥanan: This phrase “hand to hand” is not how the verse would present this idea. It should have stated: Hand from hand, as that is the term employed in the verse with regard to Moses.

אלא א"ר יוחנן

Rather Rabbi Yoḥanan says: