Sotah 35b:12סוטה ל״ה ב:יב
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35bל״ה ב

מאן אמריך (להא) דאימריית ומאן אתא עלך דאיפייסת

Who angered you, i.e., the Ark, so much that you became so angry that you gave yourself into captivity? And who came to you to appease you?

(שמואל א ו, יט) ויך בעם שבעים איש וחמשים אלף איש רבי אבהו ורבי אלעזר חד אמר שבעים איש היו וכל אחד ואחד שקול כחמשים אלף וחד אמר חמשים אלף היו וכל אחד ואחד שקול כשבעים סנהדרין

The verse states: “And He smote of the people seventy men, fifty thousand men” (I Samuel 6:19). Rabbi Abbahu and Rabbi Elazar disagree over the interpretation of the verse. One says that there were seventy men, and each and every one of them was equivalent to fifty thousand men. And one says that there were fifty thousand men, and each and every one was equivalent to the seventy men in the Sanhedrin.

(שמואל ב ו, יג) ויהי כי צעדו נושאי ארון ה' ששה צעדים ויזבח שור ומריא וכתיב (דברי הימים א טו, כו) שבעה פרים ושבעה אילים אמר רב פפא בר שמואל על כל פסיעה ופסיעה שור ומריא על כל שש ושש פסיעות שבעה פרים ושבעה אילים

With regard to David’s journey with the Ark to Jerusalem, the verse states: “And when they who carried the Ark of the Lord had gone six paces, he sacrificed an ox and a fatling” (II Samuel 6:13). And it is written elsewhere that he sacrificed “seven oxen and seven rams” (I Chronicles 15:26). Rav Pappa bar Shmuel says: For each and every step David took, he sacrificed an ox and a fatling, and for every six steps that he took, he sacrificed seven oxen and seven rams.

אמר ליה רב חסדא אם כן מילאת את כל ארץ ישראל במות אלא אמר רב חסדא על כל שש ושש פסיעות שור ומריא על כל ששה סדרים של שש פסיעות שבעה פרים ושבעה אילים

Rav Ḥisda said to him: If that is so, and he sacrificed an offering for every step that he took, you have filled all of Eretz Yisrael with altars, as they had to build a new altar for each offering. Rather, Rav Ḥisda said: For every six steps he sacrificed an ox and a fatling, and for every six sets of six steps he sacrificed seven oxen and seven rams.

כתיב (דברי הימים א יג, ט) כידון וכתיב (שמואל ב ו, ו) נכון אמר רבי יוחנן בתחלה כידון ולבסוף נכון

It is written that Uzzah died “when they came to the threshing floor of Chidon” (I Chronicles 13:9), and elsewhere it is written that it was “the threshing floor of Nacon” (II Samuel 6:6). Rabbi Yoḥanan says: At first the Ark was similar to a javelin [kidon], as it caused Uzzah’s death. But ultimately, after the people asked for forgiveness, it was established [nakhon], i.e., placed, in the house of Obed Edom, where it was a source of blessing.

נמצאת אתה אומר שלשה מיני אבנים היו אחד שהקים משה בארץ מואב שנאמר (דברים א, ה) בעבר הירדן בארץ מואב הואיל משה באר וגו' ולהלן הוא אומר (דברים כז, ג) וכתבת עליהן את כל דברי התורה הזאת וגו' ואתיא באר באר

§ The Gemara returns to the discussion of how the Ark was brought into Eretz Yisrael. You are found saying that there were three sets of stones. One is a set that Moses erected in the land of Moab, as it is stated: “Beyond the Jordan, in the land of Moab, Moses took upon himself to expound [be’er] this law, saying” (Deuteronomy 1:5). And it states there with regard to the mitzva to erect the stones on Mount Ebal: “And you shall write on the stones all the words of this law clearly elucidated [ba’er]” (Deuteronomy 27:8). It is derived through a verbal analogy between the word be’er that appears with regard to Moses, and the word ba’er that appears with regard to the mitzva to write the Torah on the stones on Mount Ebal that Moses also wrote down the Torah on stones.

ואחד שהקים יהושע בתוך הירדן שנאמר (יהושע ד, ט) ושתים עשרה אבנים הקים יהושע בתוך הירדן ואחד שהקים בגלגל שנאמר (יהושע ד, כ) ואת שתים עשרה האבנים האלה אשר לקחו וגו'

And there is one set that Joshua erected in the Jordan, as it is stated: “Joshua also set up twelve stones in the midst of the Jordan, in the place where the feet of the priests that bore the Ark of the Covenant stood, and they are there to this day” (Joshua 4:9). And there is one set that Joshua erected in Gilgal, as it is stated: “And these twelve stones, which they took out of the Jordan, Joshua set up in Gilgal” (Joshua 4:20).

ת"ר כיצד כתבו ישראל את התורה רבי יהודה אומר על גבי אבנים כתבוה שנאמר (דברים כז, ח) וכתבת על האבנים את כל דברי התורה הזאת וגו' ואחר כך סדו אותן בסיד

The Sages taught: How did the Jewish people write the Torah? Rabbi Yehuda says: They wrote it on stones, as it is stated: “And you shall write on the stones all the words of this law” (Deuteronomy 27:8). And afterward they plastered them over with plaster.

אמר לו רבי שמעון לדבריך היאך למדו אומות של אותו הזמן תורה אמר לו בינה יתירה נתן בהם הקב"ה ושיגרו נוטירין שלהן וקילפו את הסיד והשיאוה ועל דבר זה נתחתם גזר דינם לבאר שחת שהיה להן ללמד ולא למדו

Rabbi Shimon said to him: According to your statement that they plastered over the writing, how did the nations of the world study Torah? He said to him: The Holy One, Blessed be He, granted them an extra degree of understanding, and they sent their scribes [noteirin], and they peeled off the plaster and copied it down. And on account of this matter their decree to be sent to the pit of destruction was sealed, as once the Torah was in their possession they should have studied it, and they did not study.

ר' שמעון אומר על גבי סיד כתבוה וכתבו להן למטה (דברים כ, יח) למען אשר לא ילמדו אתכם לעשות ככל וגו' הא למדת שאם היו חוזרין בתשובה היו מקבלין אותן

Rabbi Shimon says: That is not what happened. Rather, the Jewish people wrote the text of the Torah on top of the plaster, and they wrote below for the gentiles to read that the verse commands the Jewish people to destroy the gentile inhabitants of Eretz Yisrael: “Lest they teach you to do like all their abominations” (Deuteronomy 20:18). You derive from the fact that they wrote this verse that if the gentiles who lived in Eretz Israel would have repented, the Jews would have accepted them, i.e., allowed them to live in Eretz Yisrael.

אמר רבא בר שילא מ"ט דרבי שמעון דכתיב (ישעיהו לג, יב) והיו עמים משרפות סיד על עסקי סיד

Rava bar Sheila said: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Shimon? As it is written: “And the peoples shall be as the burnings of plaster” (Isaiah 33:12). This is homiletically interpreted to mean that the nations were punished on account of matters of plaster, i.e., they did not study the Torah that was written on plaster.

ור' יהודה כי סיד מה סיד אין לו תקנה אלא שריפה אף אותם הכותים אין להם תקנה אלא שריפה

The Gemara asks: And how does Rabbi Yehuda, who holds that the Torah was not written on plaster, interpret this verse? The Gemara answers: He explains that the gentiles are like plaster; just as plaster has no remedy but burning, i.e., it is created by burning stone, so too, the nations of the world have no remedy other than burning in Gehenna.

כמאן אזלא הא דתניא (דברים כא, י) ושבית שביו לרבות כנענים שבחוצה לארץ שאם חוזרין בתשובה מקבלין אותן

In accordance with whose opinion is that which is taught in a baraita: The verse states: “When you go forth to battle against your enemies, and the Lord your God delivers them into your hands, and you take them captive” (Deuteronomy 21:10), implying that there is no obligation to destroy them, to include not only gentiles who are not Canaanites, but even Canaanites that are living outside of Eretz Yisrael, as, if they repent, they are accepted and allowed to live in Eretz Yisrael.