מַאן אַמְרְיָךְ (לְהָא) דְּאִימָּרַיְיתְּ וּמַאן אֲתָא עֲלָךְ דְּאִיפַּיַּיסְתְּ Who angered you, i.e., the Ark, so much that you became so angry that you gave yourself into captivity? And who came to you to appease you?
וַיַּךְ בָּעָם שִׁבְעִים אִישׁ חֲמִשִּׁים אֶלֶף אִישׁ רַבִּי אֲבָהוּ וְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר חַד אָמַר שִׁבְעִים אִישׁ הָיוּ וְכׇל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד שָׁקוּל כַּחֲמִשִּׁים אֶלֶף וְחַד אָמַר חֲמִשִּׁים אֶלֶף הָיוּ וְכׇל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד שָׁקוּל כְּשִׁבְעִים סַנְהֶדְרִין The verse states: “And He smote of the people seventy men, fifty thousand men” (I Samuel 6:19). Rabbi Abbahu and Rabbi Elazar disagree over the interpretation of the verse. One says that there were seventy men, and each and every one of them was equivalent to fifty thousand men. And one says that there were fifty thousand men, and each and every one was equivalent to the seventy men in the Sanhedrin.
וַיְהִי כִּי צָעֲדוּ נֹשְׂאֵי אֲרוֹן ה׳ שִׁשָּׁה צְעָדִים וַיִּזְבַּח שׁוֹר וּמְרִיא וּכְתִיב שִׁבְעָה פָרִים וְשִׁבְעָה אֵילִים אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא בַּר שְׁמוּאֵל עַל כׇּל פְּסִיעָה וּפְסִיעָה שׁוֹר וּמְרִיא עַל כׇּל שֵׁשׁ וְשֵׁשׁ פְּסִיעוֹת שִׁבְעָה פָרִים וְשִׁבְעָה אֵילִים With regard to David’s journey with the Ark to Jerusalem, the verse states: “And when they who carried the Ark of the Lord had gone six paces, he sacrificed an ox and a fatling” (II Samuel 6:13). And it is written elsewhere that he sacrificed “seven oxen and seven rams” (I Chronicles 15:26). Rav Pappa bar Shmuel says: For each and every step David took, he sacrificed an ox and a fatling, and for every six steps that he took, he sacrificed seven oxen and seven rams.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַב חִסְדָּא אִם כֵּן מִילֵּאתָ אֶת כׇּל אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּמוֹת אֶלָּא אָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא עַל כׇּל שֵׁשׁ וְשֵׁשׁ פְּסִיעוֹת שׁוֹר וּמְרִיא עַל כׇּל שִׁשָּׁה סְדָרִים שֶׁל שֵׁשׁ פְּסִיעוֹת שִׁבְעָה פָרִים וְשִׁבְעָה אֵילִים Rav Ḥisda said to him: If that is so, and he sacrificed an offering for every step that he took, you have filled all of Eretz Yisrael with altars, as they had to build a new altar for each offering. Rather, Rav Ḥisda said: For every six steps he sacrificed an ox and a fatling, and for every six sets of six steps he sacrificed seven oxen and seven rams.
כְּתִיב כִּידֹן וּכְתִיב נָכוֹן אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בַּתְּחִלָּה כִּידוֹן וּלְבַסּוֹף נָכוֹן It is written that Uzzah died “when they came to the threshing floor of Chidon” (I Chronicles 13:9), and elsewhere it is written that it was “the threshing floor of Nacon” (II Samuel 6:6). Rabbi Yoḥanan says: At first the Ark was similar to a javelin [kidon], as it caused Uzzah’s death. But ultimately, after the people asked for forgiveness, it was established [nakhon], i.e., placed, in the house of Obed Edom, where it was a source of blessing.
נִמְצֵאתָ אַתָּה אוֹמֵר שְׁלֹשָׁה מִינֵי אֲבָנִים הָיוּ אֶחָד שֶׁהֵקִים מֹשֶׁה בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב הוֹאִיל מֹשֶׁה בֵּאֵר וְגוֹ׳ וּלְהַלָּן הוּא אוֹמֵר וְכָתַבְתָּ עֲלֵיהֶן אֶת כׇּל דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וְגוֹ׳ וְאָתְיָא בֵּאֵר בֵּאֵר § The Gemara returns to the discussion of how the Ark was brought into Eretz Yisrael. You are found saying that there were three sets of stones. One is a set that Moses erected in the land of Moab, as it is stated: “Beyond the Jordan, in the land of Moab, Moses took upon himself to expound [be’er] this law, saying” (Deuteronomy 1:5). And it states there with regard to the mitzva to erect the stones on Mount Ebal: “And you shall write on the stones all the words of this law clearly elucidated [ba’er]” (Deuteronomy 27:8). It is derived through a verbal analogy between the word “be’er” that appears with regard to Moses, and the word “ba’er” that appears with regard to the mitzva to write the Torah on the stones on Mount Ebal that Moses also wrote down the Torah on stones.
וְאֶחָד שֶׁהֵקִים יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בְּתוֹךְ הַיַּרְדֵּן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וּשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה אֲבָנִים הֵקִים יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בְּתוֹךְ הַיַּרְדֵּן וְאֶחָד שֶׁהֵקִים בַּגִּלְגָּל שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְאֵת שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה הָאֲבָנִים הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר לָקְחוּ וְגוֹ׳ And there is one set that Joshua erected in the Jordan, as it is stated: “Joshua also set up twelve stones in the midst of the Jordan, in the place where the feet of the priests that bore the Ark of the Covenant stood, and they are there to this day” (Joshua 4:9). And there is one set that Joshua erected in Gilgal, as it is stated: “And these twelve stones, which they took out of the Jordan, Joshua set up in Gilgal” (Joshua 4:20).
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן כֵּיצַד כָּתְבוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת הַתּוֹרָה רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר עַל גַּבֵּי אֲבָנִים כְּתָבוּהָ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְכָתַבְתָּ עַל הָאֲבָנִים אֶת כׇּל דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וְגוֹ׳ וְאַחַר כָּךְ סָדוּ אוֹתָן בְּסִיד The Sages taught: How did the Jewish people write the Torah? Rabbi Yehuda says: They wrote it on stones, as it is stated: “And you shall write on the stones all the words of this law” (Deuteronomy 27:8). And afterward they plastered them over with plaster.
אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן לִדְבָרֶיךָ הֵיאַךְ לָמְדוּ אוּמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם תּוֹרָה אָמַר לוֹ בִּינָה יְתֵירָה נָתַן בָּהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְשִׁיגְּרוּ נוֹטֵירִין שֶׁלָּהֶן וְקִילְּפוּ אֶת הַסִּיד וְהִשִּׂיאוּהָ וְעַל דָּבָר זֶה נִתְחַתֵּם גְּזַר דִּינָם לִבְאֵר שַׁחַת שֶׁהָיָה לָהֶן לִלְמֹד וְלֹא לָמְדוּ Rabbi Shimon said to him: According to your statement that they plastered over the writing, how did the nations of the world study Torah? He said to him: The Holy One, Blessed be He, granted them an extra degree of understanding, and they sent their scribes [noteirin], and they peeled off the plaster and copied it down. And on account of this matter their decree to be sent to the pit of destruction was sealed, as once the Torah was in their possession they should have studied it, and they did not study.
רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר עַל גַּבֵּי סִיד כְּתָבוּהָ וְכָתְבוּ לָהֶן לְמַטָּה יְלַמְּדוּ אֶתְכֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּכֹל וְגוֹ׳ הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁאִם הָיוּ חוֹזְרִין בִּתְשׁוּבָה הָיוּ מְקַבְּלִין אוֹתָן Rabbi Shimon says: That is not what happened. Rather, the Jewish people wrote the text of the Torah on top of the plaster, and they wrote below for the gentiles to read that the verse commands the Jewish people to destroy the gentile inhabitants of Eretz Yisrael: “Lest they teach you to do like all their abominations” (Deuteronomy 20:18). You derive from the fact that they wrote this verse that if the gentiles who lived in Eretz Israel would have repented, the Jews would have accepted them, i.e., allowed them to live in Eretz Yisrael.
אָמַר רָבָא בַּר שֵׁילָא מַאי טַעְמָא דְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן דִּכְתִיב וְהָיוּ עַמִּים מִשְׂרְפוֹת סִיד עַל עִסְקֵי סִיד Rava bar Sheila said: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Shimon? As it is written: “And the peoples shall be as the burnings of plaster” (Isaiah 33:12). This is homiletically interpreted to mean that the nations were punished on account of matters of plaster, i.e., they did not study the Torah that was written on plaster.
וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה כִּי סִיד מָה סִיד אֵין לוֹ תַּקָּנָה אֶלָּא שְׂרֵיפָה אַף אוּמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם אֵין לָהֶם תַּקָּנָה אֶלָּא שְׂרֵיפָה The Gemara asks: And how does Rabbi Yehuda, who holds that the Torah was not written on plaster, interpret this verse? The Gemara answers: He explains that the gentiles are like plaster; just as plaster has no remedy but burning, i.e., it is created by burning stone, so too, the nations of the world have no remedy other than burning in Gehenna.
כְּמַאן אָזְלָא הָא דְּתַנְיָא וְשָׁבִיתָ שִׁבְיוֹ לְרַבּוֹת כְּנַעֲנִים שֶׁבְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ שֶׁאִם חוֹזְרִין בִּתְשׁוּבָה מְקַבְּלִין אוֹתָן In accordance with whose opinion is that which is taught in a baraita: The verse states: “When you go forth to battle against your enemies, and the Lord your God delivers them into your hands, and you take them captive” (Deuteronomy 21:10), implying that there is no obligation to destroy them, to include not only gentiles who are not Canaanites, but even Canaanites that are living outside of Eretz Yisrael, as, if they repent, they are accepted and allowed to live in Eretz Yisrael.