וְעַד כַּמָּה עַד אַרְבְּעִין שְׁנִין אִינִי וְהָא רַבָּה אוֹרִי בְּשָׁוִין And until when is it considered too premature for a scholar to issue halakhic rulings? It is until forty years. The Gemara asks: Is that so? But didn’t Rabba issue rulings, even though he lived for only forty years? The Gemara answers: It is permitted for a scholar who has not studied for so long to issue rulings when his knowledge reaches the level of the foremost scholar in his city and they are equals.
וּמַכּוֹת פְּרוּשִׁין וְכוּ׳ תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן שִׁבְעָה פְּרוּשִׁין הֵן פָּרוּשׁ שִׁיכְמִי פָּרוּשׁ נִקְפִּי פָּרוּשׁ קִיזַּאי פָּרוּשׁ מְדוּכְיָא פָּרוּשׁ מָה חוֹבָתִי וְאֶעֱשֶׂנָּה פָּרוּשׁ מֵאַהֲבָה פָּרוּשׁ מִיִּרְאָה § It states in the mishna: And those who injure themselves out of false abstinence [perushin] are people who erode the world. The Sages taught: There are seven pseudo-righteous people who erode the world: The righteous of Shechem, the self-flagellating righteous, the bloodletting righteous, the pestle-like righteous, the righteous who say: Tell me what my obligation is and I will perform it, those who are righteous due to love, and those who are righteous due to fear.
פָּרוּשׁ שִׁיכְמִי זֶה הָעוֹשֶׂה מַעֲשֵׂה שְׁכֶם פָּרוּשׁ נִקְפִּי זֶה הַמְנַקֵּיף אֶת רַגְלָיו פָּרוּשׁ קִיזַּאי אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק זֶה הַמַּקִּיז דָּם לַכְּתָלִים פָּרוּשׁ מְדוּכְיָא אָמַר רַבָּה בַּר שֵׁילָא דִּמְשַׁפַּע כִּי מְדוּכְיָא The Gemara explains: The righteous of Shechem [shikhmi]; this is one who performs actions comparable to the action of the people of Shechem, who agreed to circumcise themselves for personal gain (see Genesis, chapter 34); so too, he behaves righteously only in order to be honored. The self-flagellating righteous; this is one who injures his feet, as he walks slowly, dragging his feet on the ground in an attempt to appear humble, and injures his feet in the process. The bloodletting righteous; Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says that this is one who lets blood by banging his head against the walls because he walks with his eyes shut, ostensibly out of modesty. The pestle-like righteous; Rabba bar Sheila says that this is one who walks bent over like the pestle of a mortar.
פָּרוּשׁ מָה חוֹבָתִי וְאֶעֱשֶׂנָּה הָא מְעַלְּיוּתָא הִיא אֶלָּא דְּאָמַר מָה חוֹבָתִי תּוּ וְאֶעֱשֶׂנָּה With regard to the righteous one who says: Tell me what my obligation is and I will perform it, the Gemara asks: Isn’t this virtuous behavior, as he desires to be aware of his obligations? Rather, this is referring to one who says: Tell me what further obligations are incumbent upon me and I will perform them, indicating that he fulfills all of his mitzvot perfectly and therefore seeks additional obligations.
פָּרוּשׁ מֵאַהֲבָה פָּרוּשׁ מִיִּרְאָה אֲמַרוּ לֵיהּ אַבָּיֵי וְרָבָא לְתַנָּא לָא תִּיתְּנֵי פָּרוּשׁ מֵאַהֲבָה פָּרוּשׁ מִיִּרְאָה דְּאָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה אָמַר רַב לְעוֹלָם יַעֲסוֹק אָדָם בַּתּוֹרָה וּבְמִצְוֹת אֲפִילּוּ שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁמָהּ שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁמָהּ בָּא לִשְׁמָהּ The baraita also includes in the list of pseudo-righteous people those who are righteous due to love and those who are righteous due to fear, i.e., one who performs mitzvot due to love of their reward or due to fear of punishment. Abaye and Rava said to the tanna who transmitted this baraita: Do not teach in the baraita: Those who are righteous due to love and those who are righteous due to fear, as Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: A person should always engage in Torah study and in performance of the mitzvot even if he does not do so for their own sake, as through performing them not for their own sake, one comes to perform them for their own sake.
אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק דְּמִטַּמְּרָא מִטַּמְּרָא וּדְמִגַּלְּיָא מִגַּלְּיָא בֵּי דִינָא רַבָּה לִיתְפְּרַע מֵהָנֵי דְּחָפוּ גּוּנְדֵי אֲמַר לַהּ יַנַּאי מַלְכָּא לִדְבֵיתֵיהּ אַל תִּתְיָרְאִי מִן הַפְּרוּשִׁין וְלֹא מִמִּי שֶׁאֵינָן פְּרוּשִׁין אֶלָּא מִן הַצְּבוּעִין שֶׁדּוֹמִין לִפְרוּשִׁין שֶׁמַּעֲשֵׂיהֶן כְּמַעֲשֵׂה זִמְרִי וּמְבַקְּשִׁין שָׂכָר כְּפִנְחָס Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: That which is hidden is hidden, and that which is revealed is revealed, but in Heaven everything is known, and the great court in Heaven will exact payment from those who wear the cloak of the righteous but are in fact unworthy. The Gemara relates: King Yannai said to his wife before he died: Do not be afraid of the Pharisees [perushin], and neither should you fear from those who are not Pharisees, i.e., the Sadducees; rather, beware of the hypocrites who appear like Pharisees, as their actions are like the act of the wicked Zimri and they request a reward like that of the righteous Pinehas (see Numbers, chapter 25).
מַתְנִי׳ רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר אֵין זְכוּת תּוֹלָה בְּמַיִם הַמָּרִים וְאִם אַתָּה אוֹמֵר הַזְּכוּת תּוֹלָה בַּמַּיִם הַמְאָרְרִין מַדְהֶה אַתָּה אֶת הַמַּיִם בִּפְנֵי כׇּל הַנָּשִׁים הַשּׁוֹתוֹת וּמוֹצִיא אַתָּה שֵׁם רַע עַל הַטְּהוֹרוֹת שֶׁשָּׁתוּ שֶׁאוֹמְרִים טְמֵאוֹת הֵן אֶלָּא שֶׁתָּלְתָה לָהֶן זְכוּת רַבִּי אוֹמֵר הַזְּכוּת תּוֹלָה בְּמַיִם הַמְאָרְרִים וְאֵינָהּ יוֹלֶדֶת וְאֵינָהּ מַשְׁבַּחַת אֶלָּא מִתְנַוְּונָה וְהוֹלֶכֶת לְסוֹף הִיא מֵתָה בְּאוֹתָהּ מִיתָה MISHNA: Rabbi Shimon says: Merit does not delay the punishment of the bitter water of a sota, and if you say that merit does delay the punishment of the water that causes the curse, as stated earlier by the Rabbis (20a), you weaken [madhe] the power of the bitter water before all the women who drink the water, who will no longer be afraid of it, as they will rely on their merit to save them. And you defame the untainted women who drank the water and survived, as people say: They are defiled but it is their merit that delayed the punishment for them. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: Merit delays the punishment of the water that causes the curse, but a woman whose punishment is delayed does not give birth and does not flourish; rather, she progressively deteriorates. Ultimately she dies by the same death as a sota who dies immediately.
נִטְמֵאת מִנְחָתָהּ עַד שֶׁלֹּא קָדְשָׁה בִּכְלִי הֲרֵי הִיא כְּכׇל הַמְּנָחוֹת וְתִפָּדֶה וְאִם מִשֶּׁקָּדְשָׁה בִּכְלִי הֲרֵי הִיא כְּכׇל הַמְּנָחוֹת וְתִשָּׂרֵף וְאֵלּוּ שֶׁמִּנְחוֹתֵיהֶן נִשְׂרָפוֹת § If the meal-offering of the sota is rendered impure before it has been sanctified in the service vessel, its status is like that of all the other meal-offerings that are rendered impure before being sanctified in a service vessel, and it is redeemed. But if it is rendered impure after it has been sanctified in the service vessel, its status is like that of all the other meal-offerings that are rendered impure after being sanctified in a service vessel, and it is burned. And these are the sota women whose meal-offerings are burned if they have already been sanctified in a service vessel: