מנהג טוב לומר אחר כל תפלה מזמור לדוד ה׳ אורי וישעי. ובפרט מר״ח אלול עד הושענא רבא (מורה באצבע סי' לז). The following psalm (27) is recited at the conclusion of services, morning and evenings, from the first day of Elul, through Shemini Atzeres. Others say only until Hoasha'na Rabbah. The psalm voices our prayer that God will be our light on Rosh Hashana enabling us to repel the darkness of sin through true repentance, and that He will be our salvation on Yom Kippur, through His compassionate atonement of our sins.
לְדָוִד יְהֹוָה אוֹרִי וְיִשְׁעִי מִמִּי אִירָא יְהֹוָה מָעוֹז חַיַּי מִמִּי אֶפְחָד: בִּקְ֒רֹב עָלַי מְרֵעִים לֶאֱכֹל אֶת בְּשָׂרִי צָרַי וְאֹיְ֒בַי לִי הֵֽמָּה כָשְׁ֒לוּ וְנָפָֽלוּ: אִם תַּחֲנֶה עָלַי מַחֲנֶה לֺא יִירָא לִבִּי אִם תָּקוּם עָלַי מִלְחָמָה בְּזֹאת אֲנִי בוֹטֵֽחַ: אַחַת שָׁאַֽלְתִּי מֵאֵת יְהֹוָה אוֹתָהּ אֲבַקֵּשׁ שִׁבְתִּי בְּבֵית יְהֹוָה כָּל יְמֵי חַיַּי לַחֲזוֹת בְּנֹֽעַם יְהֹוָה וּלְ֒בַקֵּר בְּהֵיכָלוֹ: כִּי יִצְפְּ֒נֵֽנִי בְּסֻכֹּה בְּיוֹם רָעָה יַסְתִּרֵֽנִי בְּסֵֽתֶר אָהֳלוֹ בְּצוּר יְרוֹמְ֒מֵֽנִי: וְעַתָּה יָרוּם רֹאשִׁי עַל אֹיְ֒בַי סְבִיבוֹתָי וְאֶזְבְּחָה בְאָהֳלוֹ זִבְחֵי תְרוּעָה אָשִֽׁירָה וַאֲזַמְּ֒רָה לַיהוָֹה: שְׁמַע יְהֹוָה קוֹלִי אֶקְרָא וְחָנֵּֽנִי וַעֲנֵֽנִי: לְךָ אָמַר לִבִּי בַּקְּ֒שׁוּ פָנָי אֶת פָּנֶֽיךָ יְהֹוָה אֲבַקֵּשׁ: אַל תַּסְתֵּר פָּנֶֽיךָ מִמֶּֽנִּי אַל תַּט בְּאַף עַבְדֶּֽךָ עֶזְרָתִי הָיִֽיתָ אַל תִּטְּ֒שֵֽׁנִי וְאַל תַּעַזְ֒בֵֽנִי אֱלֺהֵי יִשְׁעִי: כִּי אָבִי וְאִמִּי עֲזָבֽוּנִי וַיהוָֹה יַאַסְ֒פֵֽנִי: הוֹרֵֽנִי יְהֹוָה דַּרְכֶּֽךָ וּנְ֒חֵֽנִי בְּאֹֽרַח מִישׁוֹר לְמַֽעַן שׁוֹרְ֒רָי: אַל תִּתְּ֒נֵֽנִי בְּנֶֽפֶשׁ צָרָי כִּי קָֽמוּ בִי עֵֽדֵי שֶֽׁקֶר וִיפֵֽחַ חָמָס: לוּלֵא הֶאֱמַֽנְתִּי לִרְאוֹת בְּטוּב יְהֹוָה בְּאֶֽרֶץ חַיִּים: קַוֵּה אֶל יְהֹוָה חֲזַק וְיַאֲמֵץ לִבֶּךָ וְקַוֵּה אֶל יְהֹוָה: By David: Adonoy is my light and my salvation, whom shall I fear? Adonoy is the strength1Rav S.R. Hirsch translates, “Adonoy is the source of my life's strength,” thus David declares that God is the fount from which his life derives its power to resist all foes. of my life, of whom shall I be afraid? When evildoers approach me to devour my flesh— my tormentors and my foes they stumble and fall. If an army should encamp against me, my heart would not fear; if war were to rise against me, in this2David says that he trusts in the declaration stated in the opening verse, “Adonoy is my light and my salvation; whom shall I fear?—Rashi, Radak I trust. One thing I request of Adonoy, [only] that shall I seek, that I may dwell3The literal translation of שבתי is “my sitting.” The Talmud states that “no man may ‘sit’ in the courtyard of the Temple except for the kings of the House of David.”—Maseches Sotah 40b in the House of Adonoy all the days of my life, to behold the pleasantness of Adonoy, and to meditate in His Sanctuary. For He will hide me in His Tabernacle4The Vilna Gaon comments that all the commandments pertaining to Succos are implied in this verse and the next. on the day of distress, He will conceal me in the shelter of His Tent, upon a rock He will lift me. And now my head is raised high above my enemies around me;5David declares, “Because I look up to God in every aspect of my existence, I am so exalted that no enemy can harm me.—S.R. Hirsch and I will offer in His Tent, sacrifices accompanied by trumpets of joy; I will sing and chant to Adonoy. Adonoy, hear my voice6This verse alludes to Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur. “Hear my voice,” refers to Rosh Hashana when we sound the shofar. The word “my voice (sound)” refers to the “voice” of the shofar. “When I call” refers to Yom Kippur, about which Isaiah (55:6) said, “call to Him when He is near.”—Siddur HaGra when I call; be gracious to me and answer me. Of You, my heart has said, Seek My Presence; Your Presence, Adonoy I will seek. Conceal not Your Presence from me, do not turn away Your servant in anger. You have been my help; neither cast me off nor abandon me, God of my deliverance. When my father and mother abandon7Even if I were so depraved that my own mother and father would abandon me to my own devices, God would still gather me up and believe in my ability to mend my ways.—S.R. Hirsch me, Adonoy will gather me up. Adonoy, teach me Your way, and lead me in the path of uprightness, because of my watchers.8I.e., his enemies. David asks for Divine help that he be saved even from the mere semblance of wrongdoing so that his foes should not be able to rejoice over his faults.—S.R. Hirsch Do not deliver me to the will of my tormentors, for false witnesses have risen against me, who breathe violence. Had I not believed9“These false witnesses would have destroyed me had I not believed that I would see the goodness of God in the land of the living.”—Rashi, Radak that I would see the goodness of Adonoy in the land of living.10There are various interpretations of the “Land of the living.” Some hold that it refers to the present world in which we live—Metsudas Tzion; Ramban holds that it refers to the World-to-Come; and Malbim says that it refers to Eretz Yisroel. Hope to Adonoy, be strong and He will give you courage; and hope to Adonoy.
(קדיש יתום) (Mourner's Kaddish.)
בבית האבל בבוקר אחר שיר של יום ואחר מנחה בימים שיש בהם תחנון אומרים זה: It is customary to recite this psalm (49) in the house of a mourner during the week of mourning, following the morning and evening services. On weekdays when Tachanun is not said Psalm 16 (page 218) is substituted. This psalm, the final hymn of the psalms set down by the sons of Korach has significance for all mankind. Its message is that man must utilize all his material and physical resources to enhance his spiritual existence so that when his soul survives the body's brief stay on earth it can ascend to immortality. If man fails to recognize his purpose in life and instead regards the acquisition of material wealth the primary aim of life, he forfeits his hope of immortality, and his existence will not continue beyond the grave.—S.R. Hirsch
לַמְנַצֵּֽחַ לִבְנֵי קֹֽרַח מִזְמוֹר: שִׁמְ֒עוּ זֹאת כָּל־הָעַמִּים הַאֲזִֽינוּ כָּל יֽשְׁ֒בֵי חָֽלֶד: גַּם בְּנֵי אָדָם גַּם בְּנֵי אִישׁ יַֽחַד עָשִׁיר וְאֶבְיוֹן: פִּי יְדַבֵּר חָכְמוֹת וְהָגוּת לִבִּי תְבוּנוֹת: אַטֶּה לְמָשָׁל אָזְנִי אֶפְתַּח בְּכִנּוֹר חִידָתִי: לָֽמָּה אִירָא בִּֽימֵי רָע עֲוֹן עֲקֵבַי יְסוּבֵּֽנִי: הַבֹּטְ֒חִים עַל חֵילָם וּבְ֒רֹב עָשְׁרָם יִתְהַלָּֽלוּ: אָח לֺא פָדֹה יִפְדֶּה אִישׁ לֺא יִתֵּן לֵאלֺהִים כָּפְרוֹ: וְיֵקַר פִּדְיוֹן נַפְשָׁם וְחָדַל לְעוֹלָם: וִיחִי עוֹד לָנֶֽצַח לֺא יִרְאֶה הַשָּֽׁחַת: כִּי יִרְאֶה חֲכָמִים יָמֽוּתוּ יַֽחַד כְּסִיל וָבַֽעַר יֹאבֵֽדוּ וְעָזְ֒בוּ לַאֲחֵרִים חֵילָם: קִרְבָּם בָּתֵּֽימוֹ לְעוֹלָם מִשְׁכְּ֒נֹתָם לְדוֹר וָדֹר קָרְ֒אוּ בִשְׁמוֹתָם עֲלֵי אֲדָמוֹת: וְאָדָם בִּיקָר בַּל־יָלִין נִמְשַׁל כַּבְּ֒הֵמוֹת נִדְמוּ: זֶה דַרְכָּם כֶּֽסֶל לָֽמוֹ וְאַחֲרֵיהֶם בְּפִיהֶם יִרְצוּ סֶֽלָה: כַּצֹּאן לִשְׁ֒אוֹל שַׁתּוּ מָֽוֶת יִרְעֵם וַיִּרְדּוּ בָם יְשָׁרִים לַבֹּֽקֶר וְצוּרָם לְבַלּוֹת שְׁאוֹל מִזְּ֒בֻל לוֹ: אַךְ־אֱלֺהִים יִפְדֶּה נַפְשִׁי מִיַּד שְׁאוֹל כִּי יִקָּחֵֽנִי סֶֽלָה: אַל־תִּירָא כִּי־יַעֲשִׁר אִישׁ כִּי־יִרְבֶּה כְּבוֹד בֵּיתוֹ: כִּי לֺא בְמוֹתוֹ יִקַּח הַכֹּל לֺא־יֵרֵד אַחֲרָיו כְּבוֹדוֹ: כִּי־נַפְשׁוֹ בְּחַיָּיו יְבָרֵךְ וְיוֹדֻֽךָ כִּי־תֵיטִיב לָךְ: תָּבוֹא עַד־דּוֹר אֲבוֹתָיו עַד־נֵֽצַח לֺא יִרְאוּ אוֹר: אָדָם בִּיקָר וְלֺא־יָבִין נִמְשַׁל כַּבְּ֒הֵמוֹת נִדְמוּ: To Him Who grants victory, a psalm by the sons of Korach. Hear this all peoples, listen all inhabitants of the decaying world! Sons of Adam and sons of men,1Others translate b'nei adam, “Men of low degree” or “Men without pedigree,” and b'nei ish, “Men of high degree” who can trace their ancestry to men of distinction. rich and poor together. My mouth shall speak wisdom, and the meditation of my heart shall be of understanding. I will incline my ear to a parable, I will begin to solve, to the accompaniment of a harp, my riddle. Why should I fear in the days of evil? The iniquity I trod upon2These are the sins which a person considers trivial and commits out of carelessness, just as one who walks is not concerned if he steps on something small or insignificant.—S.R. Hirsch surrounds me. Those who trust in their wealth and take pride in their great riches.3Those who trust in their wealth and glory in their great riches should be in fear. A man will not redeem his brother neither can he give to God his ransom.4S.R. Hirsch translates, “And thus does not give to God his ransom.” They fail to use their riches to free their fellow men from want and care, and so neglect to pay God the ransom due Him for their own souls. Radak says even if he wanted to ransom his soul from God, he could not, for God does not accept bribes. The redemption of their soul is too costly and it shall cease5Because they neglected their duty, their soul shall cease to be. They have done nothing to insure the perpetuation of their souls.—S.R. Hirsch to be forever. Shall he then live forever, shall he never see the grave? For he sees that wise men die, the fools and senseless perish equally6When the wise die, only their bodies pass away; but their souls live on. The foolish and senseless sinners perish completely, leaving no trace of body or soul.—Rashi, Radak and leave their wealth to others. Their inner7Some translate the word kirbom as “their graves,” by transposing the letters to kivrom. Because they have no merits, the wicked will not arise at the time of resurrection and therefore, “Their graves are their houses forever” (Ibn Ezra). thoughts are that their houses [will last] forever, their homes for generation after generation; (for) they have proclaimed8They spread their names far and wide by erecting monuments and edifices and naming them after themselves. In this manner, they seek to fulfill their yearning for immortality.—S.R. Hirsch their names throughout the lands. But man does not endure in his splendor, he is likened to the silenced animals. This is their way— their folly remains with them, and [yet] their descendants take pleasure in their speech, Selah. Like sheep—they are destined for the grave; death shall be their shepherd, and the upright shall dominate them at morning, their form will be consumed in the grave; [it will not remain] their dwelling-place. But God will redeem my soul from the [grasp of] the grave, for He will take me [to Himself] Selah. Fear not when a man grows rich, when the glory of his house is increased. For when he dies, he shall carry nothing away, his glory will not descend after him. Because while he lived, he blessed his soul. (saying): they will praise you because you have done well for yourself. He will join the generation of his fathers, they shall not see light, for all eternity. Man with [all] his splendor, [but] without understanding9Man created in the image of God possesses glorious potential, and his soul is filled with Divine splendor, but when he fails to appreciate and utilize his potential, he is likened to the dead animals.—Radak is likened to the silenced animals.
(קדיש יתום) (Mourner's Kaddish.)
ובימים שאין בהם תחנון אומרים זה: On weekdays when Tachanun is not said, the following is said in the house of a mourner.
מִכְתָּם לְדָוִד שָׁמְרֵֽנִי אֵל כִּי־חָסִֽיתִי בָךְ: אָמַֽרְתְּ לַיהֺוָה אֲדֹנָי אָֽתָּה טוֹבָתִי בַּל־עָלֶֽיךָ: לִקְדוֹשִׁים אֲשֶׁר־בָּאָֽרֶץ הֵֽמָּה וְאַדִּירֵי כָּל־חֶפְצִי־בָם: יִרְבּוּ עַצְּבוֹתָם אַחֵר מָהָֽרוּ בַּל־אַסִּיךְ נִסְכֵּיהֶם מִדָּם וּבַל־אֶשָּׂא אֶת־שְׁמוֹתָם עַל־שְׂפָתָי: יְהֺוָה מְנָת־חֶלְקִי וְכוֹסִי אַתָּה תּוֹמִיךְ גּוֹרָלִי: חֲבָלִים נָֽפְלוּ־לִי בַּנְּעִמִים אַף־נַחֲלָת שָׁפְרָה עָלָי: אֲבָרֵךְ אֶת־יְהֺוָה אֲשֶׁר יְעָצָֽנִי אַף־לֵילוֹת יִסְּרֽוּנִי כִלְיוֹתָי: שִׁוִּיתִי יְהֺוָה לְנֶגְדִּי תָמִיד כִּי מִימִינִי בַּל־אֶמּוֹט: לָכֵן שָׂמַח לִבִּי וַיָּֽגֶל כְּבוֹדִי אַף־בְּשָׂרִי יִשְׁכֹּן לָבֶֽטַח: כִּי לֹא־תַעֲזֹב נַפְשִׁי לִשְׁאוֹל לֹא־תִתֵּן חֲסִידְךָ לִרְאוֹת שָֽׁחַת: תּוֹדִיעֵֽנִי אֹֽרַח חַיִּים שֽׂבַע שְׂמָחוֹת אֶת־פָּנֶֽיךָ נְעִימוֹת בִּימִינְךָ נֶֽצַח: A Michtam10According to Rashi, a michtam was a very special musical arrangement composed for this psalm. of David. Preserve me, Almighty, for I have taken refuge in You. You said to Adonoy, You are my Master, I have no well-being without You.11You are not obliged to reward me for obeying Your command since You are my Master. And as Your servant, I must heed Your every wish.—Rashi Due to the holy that are in the earth,12Any good You do on my behalf is only through the merit of those holy and pious men of the past who are now buried in the earth.—Rashi and the mighty, are all my desires [fulfilled]. Let their sufferings multiply, those who follow another [sovereignty]; I will not pour their libations of blood, nor carry their names upon my lips. Adonoy is the portion of my inheritance and of my cup; You guide my fate. The portions that have fallen to me are in pleasant places; a beautiful inheritance is mine. I will bless Adonoy Who has given me counsel; even for the nights in which my mind admonished me. I have set Adonoy before me always;13Rabbi Hana Ben Bizra said in the name of Rabbi Shimon the Pious, “He who prays should regard himself as though the Shechina, the Divine Presence, were before him, as it is written, ‘I have set Adonoy before me always’.”—Maseches Sanhedrin 22a for surely He is at my right hand, I will not be moved. Therefore my heart rejoiced and my soul exulted; also my flesh will dwell in safety. For You will not abandon my soul to the grave, nor will You allow Your devoted one to see the pit. You will make known to me the path of life; fullness of joy is in Your presence; pleasantness is at Your right hand, evermore.
יִתְגַּדַּל וְיִתְקַדַּשׁ שְׁמֵהּ רַבָּא בְּעָלְ֒מָא דִּי בְרָא כִרְעוּתֵהּ וְיַמְלִיךְ מַלְכוּתֵהּ וְיַצְמַח פּוּרְ֒קָנֵהּ וִיקָרֵב (קֵץ) מְשִׁיחֵהּ בְּחַיֵּיכוֹן וּבְיוֹמֵיכוֹן וּבְחַיֵּי דְכָל בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל, בַּעֲגָלָא וּבִזְמַן קָרִיב וְאִמְרוּ אָמֵן: Mourner's Kaddish Exalted and sanctified be His great Name in the world which He created according to His will and may He rule His kingdom bring forth His redemption and hasten the coming if His Messiah in your lifetime and in your days, and in the lifetime of the entire House of Israel, speedily and in the near future— and say Amein.
יְהֵא שְׁמֵהּ רַבָּא מְבָרַךְ לְעָלַם וּלְעָלְ֒מֵי עָלְ֒מַיָּא: May His great Name be blessed forever and for all eternity.
יִתְבָּרַךְ וְיִשְׁתַּבַּח וְיִתְפָּאַר וְיִתְרוֹמַם וְיִתְנַשֵּׂא וְיִתְהַדָּר וְיִתְעַלֶּה וְיִתְהַלָּל שְׁמֵהּ דְקוּדְשָׁא, בְּרִיךְ הוּא לְעֵֽלָּא (בעשי"ת וּלְ֒עֵֽלָּא מִכָּל) מִן כָּל בִּרְכָתָא וְשִׁירָתָא, תֻּשְׁבְּחָתָא וְנֶחֱמָתָא, דַּאֲמִירָן בְּעָלְ֒מָא, וְאִמְרוּ אָמֵן, Blessed and praised, glorified, and exalted and uplifted, honored and elevated and extolled be the Name of the Holy One, blessed is He; above (Ten Days of Penitence: far above) all the blessings and hymns, praises and consolations which we utter in the world—and say Amein.
יְהֵא שְׁלָמָא רַבָּא מִן שְׁמַיָּא וְחַיִּים עָלֵֽינוּ וְעַל כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאִמְרוּ אָמֵן: May there be abundant peace from heaven and life for us and for all Israel, —and say Amein.
עוֹשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם (בעשי"ת הַשָּׁלוֹם) בִּמְרוֹמָיו הוּא יַעֲשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם עָלֵינוּ וְעַל כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאִמְרוּ אָמֵן: He Who makes peace (Ten Days of Penitence: the peace) in His high heavens may He, make peace for us and for all Israel, and say, Amen.