Siman 401ת״א
1 א

דברים הנוהגים בחול המועד. ובו ז' סעיפים:
אין מניחין את המטה ברחוב בחול המועד שלא להרגיל את ההספד שאסור להרגיל את ההספד בחול המועד אלא לכבוד ת"ח לפיכך אין מוליכין המת לבית הקברות בחול המועד עד שיהיה כל הקבר מתוקן ומזומן:

The bier is not to be set down in the open street during Hol ha-Moed1 Glos. so as not to give occasion for lamentation;2Mishna M.K. 27a. for it is forbidden to give occasion for lamentation during Hol ha-Moed,1 Glos. unless it is [done] out of deference to a scholar.3M.K. 27b; Meg. 3b; infra par. 5. however, O.Ḥ. § 547, M.Abr. end. Therefore, the corpse is not taken out to the cemetery during Hol ha-Moed,1 Glos. unless the entire grave is prepared and is at one's disposal.4N.Yos.

2 ב

אין קורעין בחול המועד אלא מי שהוא חייב לקרוע כדאיתא בסימן ש"מ אבל מי שאינו חייב ורוצה לקרוע מפני הכבוד אסור:

Only one who is required to rend [garments] during Hol ha-Moed,1 Glos. does so, as stated in § 340,5Mishna M.K. 24b. supra § 340, 31 and notes. but one who is not dutibound [to do so] and desires to rend [garments during Hol ha-Moed]1 Glos. out of respect [to the dead], is forbidden [to do so].

3 ג

שמע בחול המועד שמועה קרובה חייב לקרוע:

[If] one received during the Festival a report of near tidings,6 infra § 402. he is dutibound to rend [garments].7R. Yeruḥam; RaBaD; R. Meir of Rothenberg; Mord.; Hag. Maim. to Yad, Ebel Cf. supra § 340, 31-32 and notes.

4 ד

אין חולצין כתף במועד ואין מברין בו אלא קרוביו של מת אבל הקרובים מברין וה"ה לחנוכה ופורים וראש חדש וכשמברין אין מברין אלא על מטות זקופות אבל ביום טוב אפילו ביום טוב שני אין קורעין ולא חולצין ולא מברין ובחול המועד מברין הכל על החכם לתוך הרחוב כדרך שמברין את הקרובים שהכל כקרוביו:

One does not bare the shoulder [in mourning] during [Hol] ha-Moed,1 Glos. and only the near-of-kin of the dead are provided therein with the mourner's meal.8Mishna M.K. 24b. However, [this means that] the mourner's meal is provided [only for] the near-of-kin [who are dutibound to observe mourning rites].9Y.M.K. III, 7(83b); M.K. 20a, Tosaf. s.v. שכבר; ibid., Tosaf: s.v. אלא; Tur in accord with Asheri in his Decisions; N; Yad, Ebel XI, 2 a.o. The ruling here is contra SeMaG and SeMaK who hold that the mourner’s meal is not provided at all on Ḥol ha-Moed. Thus also Rashi in Sefer ha-Orah. Likewise, on Hanukkah,1 Glos. Purim1 Glos. and Rosh Hodesh1 Glos. [the same rule applies].10SeMaG on Laws of Ḥol ha-Moed. The mourner’s meal should consist on these days of meat and wine not of eggs or the like — Ḥok. Adam. On the eve of Passover, in the forenoon, when it is still permissible to eat leaven, the mourner’s meal may be provided. Otherwise not — M.Ber. And when the mourner's meal is provided [during Hol ha-Moed],1 Glos. it is done only on couches set up [in the usual manner].11Mishna M.K. 24b. However, on a Festival day, even on the second Festival day [of the Diaspora], one does not rend garments, nor bare [the shoulder in mourning], nor does one provide the mourner's meal.12Yad, Ebel XI, 1; N in T.H.; RaN to Beẓ. 6a. And during Hol ha-Moed1 Glos. all [who are in mourning] for a Sage, may be provided with the mourner's meal in the open space [of the town]13M.K. 25a, 27b in accord with R. Papa’s dictum, ‘With respect to a scholar (who died) no regard is paid to the Festival week (i.e., Ḥol ha-Moed).’ in the [same] manner as the near-of-kin14Yad ibid has ‘mourners’ instead of ‘near-of-kin.’ also O.Ḥ. § 547, 8-9. are provided with the mourner's meal, for all are like his near-of-kin.14Yad ibid has ‘mourners’ instead of ‘near-of-kin.’ also O.Ḥ. § 547, 8-9.

5 ה

נשים בחול המועד מענות דהיינו שכולן עונות כאחת אבל לא מטפחות דהיינו להכות כף על כף בראש חדש חנוכה ופורים מענות ומטפחות אבל לא מקוננות דהיינו שאחת מדברת וכולן עונות אחריה נקבר המת לא מענות ולא מטפחות והני מילי לאינש דעלמא אבל לתלמיד חכם בין בחול המועד בין בראש חדש חנוכה ופורים מענות ומקוננות כדרכן בחול והני מילי בפניו אבל שלא בפניו לא ויום שמועה אפילו רחוקה כבפניו דמי:

During Hol ha-Moed1 Glos. women may sing dirges, i.e., they all sing dirges in chorus, but may not clap, i.e., to clap their hands [in grief].15Mishna M.K. 28b. On Rosh Hodesh1 Glos., Hanukkah1 Glos. and Purim,1 Glos. they may sing dirges and may clap their hands [in grief], but may not wail, i.e., when one speaks and all respond after her. After the corpse has been interred, they neither sing dirges, nor clap their hands [in grief].15Mishna M.K. 28b. This ruling obtains only with respect to an ordinary person, but as regards a scholar [who died, the law is that] both during Hol ha-Moed1 Glos. as well as Rosh Hodesh,1 Glos. Hanukkah1 Glos. and Purim,1 Glos. they may sing dirges and may wail as is their usual custom during a weekday.16Derived from the dictum of R. Papa, M.K. 27b. However, this ruling obtains only in his [the corpse's] presence, but away from his presence no [lament is permitted]. And the day of [receiving] the tidings [of his death], — even distant [tidings], is regarded the same as in his presence.17Derived from M.K. ibid. in the case of R. Kahana who made a lamentation for R. Zebid. Nowadays these laws do not apply save that we may learn from this that during Ḥol ha-Moed, Ḥanukkah and Purim, one should reduce weeping and lamenting in the case of a scholar provided it is done in his presence — A.H.

6 ו

אומרים על המת צדוק הדין וקדיש כדרכן וכן ביום טוב שני אבל ביום טוב ראשון כיון שאין מתעסקים במת אין אומרים אותו: הגה ויש חולקין שלא לומר צדוק הדין במועד (הטור הביא כמה רבוותא) וכן המנהג פשוט במדינות אלו שלא לומר צדוק הדין בכל הימים שאין אומרים בהם תחנון (במנהגים) ולכן אין אומרים ג"כ כשקוברין אחר חצות בערב שבת י"א שאם קוברים המת בלילה שאין אומרים קדיש ולא צדוק הדין (כל בו):

[On Hol ha-Moed]1 Glos. one recites for the dead Ẓidduk Ha-din and Kaddish1 Glos. as usual; likewise, on the second Festival day [of the Diaspora], but on the first day of a Festival, since we do not attend to [the burial needs of] the dead, it [Ẓidduk Haddin]1 Glos. is not recited.18Tur on the authority of Ghayyat, Rashi. Thus also N. O.Ḥ. § 420, 2. Gloss: Some differ [with this ruling and maintain] that Ẓidduk Haddin1 Glos. should not be recited on [Hol] ha-Moed;19Tur citing a number of authorities — G. and thus is the common practice in these countries, [viz.,] not to recite Ẓidduk Haddin1 Glos. on all days during which Taḥanun1 Glos. is not recited.20MinhagimG. Hence, [it] is also not said after midday on the eve of the Sabbath.21But on the eve of Rosh Ḥodesh and Ḥanukkah (likewise Purim) it may be recited after midday — ShaK. On the Fast of Esther and on the eve of Lag Ba-Omer, after midday, Ẓidduk Haddin may be recited. On the eve of Tish‘a be-Ab (ninth of Ab) after midday, Ẓidduk Haddin may be recited although the ninth of Ab is designated a Holiday (Lam. I, 15) — P.Tesh. For a scholar, Ẓidduk Haddin may be recited on Lag Ba-Omer and on Tish’a be-Ab and on the eve of Rosh ha-Shana before midday—TaZ (to O.Ḥ. § 420). On days when Ẓidduk Haddin is not recited, the customary halts on the cemetery (v. supra § 358, 3 Gloss) are not made. R. Yoel ha-Lewi did not recite Ẓidduk Haddin during the seven days after the Feast of Weeks (Shabuoth), for the law is that if one did not offer the prescribed offerings on the Feast of Weeks, he has a supplementary period of seven days after the Festival — Be’er ha-Golah. Some say that if the corpse is interred at night, Kaddish1 Glos. and Ẓidduk Haddin1 Glos. are not recited.22Kol BoG. It is customary not to recite the El Male Raḥamim (אל מלא רחמים) prayer on days when Ẓidduk Haddin is not recited. It is unknown when this prayer was composed. In Geonic times it was called אשכבתא or השכבה, (Hashkabah), a name by which it is still known among Sephardic Jews today. supra § 344, 20.

7 ז

מת לו מת קודם פורים ופגע בו פורים אינו מפסיק האבילות ומ"מ אין אבלות נוהג בו לא בי"ד ולא בט"ו אלא דברים שבצינעא נוהג וחייב לשלוח מנות ואף על פי שאינו מתאבל בהם עולים לו ממנין השבעה כמו שבת:

One who suffered a bereavement before Purim1 Glos. and then Purim1 Glos. occurred,23Lit. ‘met him.’ it does not interrupt [the period of] mourning. Yet, no mourning is observed therein, neither on the fourteenth nor on the fifteenth [day of Adar];1 Glos. only matters pertaining to private mourning one observes,24Tur on the authority of R. Meir of Rothenberg. For since these days were accepted as days of Feasting and Rejoicing (Es. IX, 22-23), they enjoy the same status as the Sabbath with respect to mourning. Hence, only private mourning is observed (v. supra § 400, 1). RaShaL writes that all laws of mourning must be observed on Purim. Thus Caro in O.Ḥ. § 696, 4. The apparent contradiction between Caro’s ruling here and in O.Ḥ. ibid. is removed by Derisha as follows: In O.Ḥ. Caro deals with a case where the death occurred on Purim; in the present ruling he deals with a case where the death occurred prior to Purim. ShaK, however, claims that this is a strained interpretation. Isserles (in O.Ḥ. ibid.) rules like Caro here and writes that this is the accepted custom (i.e., even if the first day of mourning falls on Purim. Thus D.Merb.). Some remove the contradiction between Caro’s rulings by suggesting that in O.Ḥ. ibid. an error crept into the text (בחנוכה which is found in all our cur. edd. should be emended to בחנוכה .בצינעא is out of place among the laws dealing with Purim) and the ruling (in O.Ḥ.) should read as follows: ‘All matters of mourning apply (only) in privacy on Purim’Ba’er Heteb. A mourner during the seven days of mourning is forbidden to read the Megillah (Scroll of Esther) in the Synagogue — Imre Baruk on the authority of MaHaRIL. But if no other competent reader is available who could read as well as the mourner according to the laws of the accents (טעמים) and the principles of Grammar, the mourner may read under the circumstances — Binyan Olam; Resp. Maḥane Ḥayyim. On Purim the mourner is permitted to wear shoes and to sit on a ordinary chair. Otherwise, it would be regarded as public mourning which is prohibited — O.Ḥ. (§ 696). If a mourner has a store, he may keep it open on Purim on the same principle — Hag. Maharsham. A mourner who is a musician, — if he is after the seven days, but during the thirty days of mourning for other near-of-kin; or after the thirty days of mourning for a parent, — is permitted to play music on Purim which occurs during that period, especially if he goes to play at a religious affair — P.Tesh (O.Ḥ. § 696). and one is dutibound to send gifts [to others as is customary on Purim];1 Glos. and although one observes no mourning rites therein, they [i.e., the fourteenth and the fifteenth of Adar]1 Glos. enter for him into the counting of the seven [days of mourning] as [in the case of the] Sabbath.