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1 א

שלא לנהוג קלות ראש בבית הקברות. ובו ג' סעיפים:
בית הקברות אין נוהגין בהן קלות ראש (כגון לפנות שם (כל בו) או לאכול ולשתות שם ואין קורין ואין שונין שם (סמ"ג) ואין מחשבין שם חשבונות) (ב"י בשם רבינו ירוחם) ואין מרעין בהם בהמות ואין מוליכין בו אמת המים ולא יטייל בהם לקפנדריא (פי' למעבר מצד זה לצד זה) ולא ילקט מהם עשבים ואם ליקט (או) שצריך ללקטן לצורך בית הקברות שורפן במקומן: הגה וכן אין ליקח מקרקע עולם של קבר אף על גב דמותר בהנאה (כן משמע מהרא"ש והמרדכי) וכל זה אינו אלא משום כבוד המתים ולכן אם צריך אותו לרפואה שרי (ג"ז במרדכי) וכן מותר ליהנות מהעשבים שעל הקברות או פירות אילנות שעליהם לצורך הקברות כגון שהמושל עובד כוכבים מרעה בהמות על הקברים וא"א למחות בידו כי אם בהוצאה מרובה ואין יד הקהל משגת מוכרים דברים אלו כדי להציל הקברות מיד עובד כוכבים שזהו כבוד המתים (ת"ה סימן רפ"ד ומהרי"ו סימן נ') ואם אין דברים על הקברות למכור לצורך ההוצאה אם יד הקהל משגת ושבידם למחות בהוצאה מועטת צריכים למחות אם אין חשש בדבר שהמושל יתגרה בהם ע"י זה אבל בלאו הכי אין צריכין למחות (ג"ז שם):

Burial grounds must not be treated irreverently,1Meg. 29a. The reason is because of respect to the dead (Gemara ibid.). This applies not only to the individual graves, but to the entire cemetery, for once a piece of ground has been set aside to be used as a cemetery, it enjoys a status of holiness, on the same principle as a Synagogue (v. Shab. 45a; O.Ḥ. § 152, 1). The status of holiness with respect to a cemetery operates only after a burial has been made, and in the case of a Synagogue after they worship therein — P.Tesh.e.g., to ease oneself therein2Kol BoG. This must not be done even at a distance from the graves. or to eat or drink therein;3This would be considered disrespectful and is similar to Synagogues wherein it is not fitting to eat or drink (Meg. 28a). v. Rashi ibid. s.v. אין אוכלין. and one does not read [Bible] nor study [Mishna] therein;4SeMaGG. On account of, ‘Whoso mocketh the poor (i.e., the dead) blasphemeth his Maker’ (Prov. XVII, 5). and one does not calculate accounts therein.5B.Yos. on the authority of R. YeruḥamG. This refers to accountings made even on behalf of the public — ShaK. Cattle are not permitted to graze in them, nor is a water-channel conveyed through them,6Meg. ibid. Asheri and Mord. on the authority of RI state that even ‘natural soil’ is forbidden for grazing out of respect for the dead. nor should one walk through them for the purpose [of using them] as a short cut,7Compendiaria, sc. via. Sem(H). XIV, i.e., as a passage from one side to the other; nor should one pluck grass from them; and if one did pluck [grass]8Lit. ‘herbs.’ or one had to pluck it9Lit. ‘them,’ i.e., the herbs. on account of the need of the graveyard-space,10In order to inter someone therein — Perisha. he burns it9Lit. ‘them,’ i.e., the herbs. on the spot.11Meg. ibid. This is done not out of respect to the dead, but is a sort of fine, or in order to avoid suspicion that he takes it for his cattle — Mord. It should be noted that all the restrictions enumerated in the Mishna (Meg. 28a) regarding a Synagogue apply equally to burial grounds (excluding the restriction of funeral orations). The Baraitha (Meg. 29a) enumerates the restrictions that apply only to graveyards but not to Synagogues — A.H. Gloss: Similarly, must one not take [aught] from the natural soil of a grave,12e., directly from the grave — R. A. Eger. although it is permitted for use,13Implied by Asheri and Mord.G. The reason why it was permissible to take earth from Rab’s grave, is explained in San. 47b that since it was taken to be used as a remedy, it was not regarded as disrespect. supra § 364, 1 Gloss and notes. This would not apply to a built grave — D.M. and all this is only out of respect to the dead. Therefore, if one requires it for a remedy, it is permitted.14Derived from Mord.G. n. 13. Likewise, is it permitted to make use of the grass upon the graves or of the fruit of the trees that [stand] thereon, [provided this is done] for the benefit15Lit. ‘need.’ of the graves, e.g., where the heathen ruler permits his cattle to graze on the graves and it is impossible to prevent him save at a considerable cost,16As a bribe. and the means of the community suffice not, — [the law is that] they may sell these things in order to save the graves from the heathen's hand, for this is [considered] respect to the dead.17Terumath ha-Deshen s. 284; MaHaRIW s. 3 — G. This is derived from Ḥezkiah who took the gold off the Temple doors and sent it to the King of Assyria as a bribe (II Kings XVIII, 16). Ber. 10b; Pes. 56a and RaDaK to Kings ibid. This shows that Ḥezkiah did this in order to save the Temple proper. Similarly in the present case. If there is nothing on the graves to sell for the sake of [meeting] the required expense, — [the law is that] if the means of the community suffice, and it is in their power to prevent [this desecration] through a small cost, they are required to prevent [him] if there is no apprehension that the ruler be thereby incited against them; but otherwise they are not required to prevent [him].17Terumath ha-Deshen s. 284; MaHaRIW s. 3 — G. This is derived from Ḥezkiah who took the gold off the Temple doors and sent it to the King of Assyria as a bribe (II Kings XVIII, 16). Ber. 10b; Pes. 56a and RaDaK to Kings ibid. This shows that Ḥezkiah did this in order to save the Temple proper. Similarly in the present case.

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אילנות שנוטעין בבית הקברות מותר ללקט פירותיהם מאחר שאינם על הקברות עצמם:

[With respect to trees] that one plants on a cemetery, — [the law is that] it is permitted to harvest their fruit, since they are not [planted] on the graves proper.18Meg. 29a, Tosaf. s.v. ואין מרעין. This is not regarded as disrespectful. It is permitted to plant trees or a garden on those parts of the cemetery where one is positive that there is no grave — ShaK.

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קבר חדש נמדד ונמכר ונחלק והישן אינו נמדד ולא נמכר ולא נחלק:

A new grave is measured, sold and divided and an old one is not measured nor sold nor divided.19Sem(H). XIV, A new grave refers to one which was designated as a grave, but in which no corpse was buried as yet, and since ‘designation alone is not considered a material act’ (הזמנה לאו מילתא), consequently, measuring, selling and dividing the grave is permissible. In the case of an old grave in which a corpse was once buried, but for some valid reason was removed, it is forbidden for use. Actually measuring is not forbidden, but since an old grave is not sold or divided, for the reason just stated, it follows that measuring is not necessary — A.H. Cf. Tur for another explanation.