מי שמתו מוטל לפניו בשבת או בי"ט ודיני האונן. ובו ו' סעיפים:
מי שמת לו מת שהוא חייב להתאבל עליו קודם קבורה אוכל בבית אחר אין לו בית אחר אוכל בבית חבירו אין בית לחבירו עושה לו מחיצה ואוכל ואפילו מחיצה של סדין סגי אם תקע שולי הסדין בענין שאינו ניטל ברוח ואם אין לו דבר לעשות מחיצה מחזיר פניו ואוכל ובין כך ובין כך ואפילו הוא בעיר אחרת אינו מיסב ואוכל ואינו אוכל בשר ואינו שותה יין ואינו מברך ברכת המוציא ולא ברכת המזון ואין מברכים עליו ולא מזמנין עליו אפילו אם אוכל עם אחרים שמברכים לא יענה אחריהם אמן ופטור מכל מצות האמורות בתורה ואפי' אם אינו צריך לעסוק בצרכי המת כגון שיש לו אחרים שעוסקים בשבילו וי"א שאפילו אם ירצה להחמיר על עצמו לברך או לענות אמן אחר המברכין אינו רשאי (ועיין בא"ח סי' ע"א) ובשבת ויו"ט אוכל בשר ושותה יין (אם ירצה) (רבינו יונה פ' מי שמתו) ומברך וחייב בכל המצות חוץ מבתשמיש המטה שאסור בו (ומותר לילך לבית הכנסת בשבת ואף בחול אין בו איסור רק מאחר שאסור להתפלל מה יעשה שם) (כל בו) ואם צריך להחשיך על התחום כדי לעסוק בצרכי המת חל עליו אנינות ליאסר בכולן משעה שמתחיל ללכת כדי להחשיך על התחום ואם רוצה לקברו ביו"ט ראשון ע"י עממין אסור בכולן וכ"ש בי"ט שני שהוא בעצמו יכול לקברו שחלו עליו כל דיני אנינות: (י"א דתלמיד על רבו מובהק אסור לאכול בשר ויין כל זמן שמוטל לפניהם) (הגהות אשירי פ' א"מ) :
LAWS OF ANINUTH
One who suffered a bereavement for whom he is dutibound to observe mourning rites,2מוטל לפניו is explained as מוטל עליו i.e., the dead person rests upon him to be mourned for. This is in accord with the interpretation given by R. Ashi in Ber. 18a accepted by Asheri contra R. Tam. This excludes an infant who dies within thirty days after birth or whose months of pregnancy were not complete — G.Mah. — [the law is that] before burial,3He is considered then an Omen. But after the burial, even on the day of death, the laws of Aninuth no longer apply — SeMaG, BaḤ and others. he eats in another house [room].4Otherwise he is regarded as a mocker of the poor, i.e., the dead (v. Prov. XVII, 5). Thus Rashi in Ber. 17b. For eating in the presence of the dead is regarded as irreverence and people will be led to believe that the corpse was a worthless individual. This applies only to cases where one is dutibound to bury the dead. Consequently, it would be unfitting to eat in the latter’s presence — TaZ. According to ShaK one must not eat in the presence of other dead, even when one is not obliged to arrange the burial preparations, contra TaZ —P.Tesh. A.H. agrees with TaZ. [If] he has no other house, he eats in his friend's house; [if] his friend has no house [available],5E.g., where he lives among Gentiles — ShaK. he makes him a partition6The height of a partition is ten handbreadths. Shab. 6a; Suk. 5b, Tosaf. s.v. עשרה; O.H. c. 362. and eats;7Y.Ber. III, 1(6a); Y.M.K. III, 5(82b); Ber. 17b; M.K. 23b, Tosaf. s.v. ואין; Sem(H). X, 3. even a partition of a sheet is sufficient, [provided] he fastened the bottom of the sheet in a manner that it would not be moved by an [ordinary] wind;8RaShBaM, Resp. and if he has not the wherewithal to make a partition, he turns away his face and eats.7Y.Ber. III, 1(6a); Y.M.K. III, 5(82b); Ber. 17b; M.K. 23b, Tosaf. s.v. ואין; Sem(H). X, 3. Whichever the case may be; even if he is in another city,9Tur citing Asheri. This applies to a case even if in the city where the corpse is present there are people available to look after the burial arrangements (e.g., if his sister died and her husband takes care of all burial arrangements) — Asheri. R. Tam, however, holds that the near-of-kin who are not present in the city where the corpse is awaiting burial, do not come under the law of Aninuth, unless there are no available near-of-kin present in the locality of the dead person. This is accepted by BaḤ and ShaK. he does not eat reclining,10On a couch or around a table — TaZ, ShaK. and he eats not meat nor drinks wine,11An Onen is permitted to eat meat gravy — Nodah Bihudah. Cf. M.Abr. to O.Ḥ. § 551, n. 29 — P. Tesh. nor does he recite the benediction before meals,12Although the Onen is not required to recite any benediction before his meal, nevertheless, he is obliged to wash his hands before and after meals, which is a Rabbinical enactment. However, he is not required to recite the benediction thereof — P.Tesh. nor does he say grace after meals, nor do others recite the benediction [before meals] on his behalf, nor does he join in grace after meals.13Ber. and M.K. ibid. Y. and Sem(H). ibid. add: ‘He does not eat all that he requires.’ Even if he eats with others he should not repeat Amen after them [when they recite the benediction before meals].14Y.Ber. ibid., quoted in Ber. ibid., Tosaf. s.v. ואינו מברך and M.K. ibid., Tosaf. s.v. ואין. And he is exempt from [the performance] of all religious duties enjoined in the Torah,15For the Rabbis have the authority to cancel a positive Biblical precept on the principle, ‘sit and do nothing’ שב ואל תעשה i.e., not to act. One who commenced to recite the Tefillah and the Shema and becomes an Onen, may complete these since the reason why an Onen is exempt from Tefillah and Shema is only Rabbinical — P.Tesh. An Onen does not perform the Ḥalizah ceremony (v. Glos). but a mourner does — G.Mah. An Onen is exempt from positive but not from negative precepts — P.Tesh. One who is an Onen at the time he has to recite the Shema and its benedictions, may still recite these after the burial up to midday as in the case of Tefillah — B.Hal. If the burial takes place after he eats, at which time he was exempt from saying grace after meals, the law is that if sufficient time has not yet elapsed for his food to be digested, he must recite the grace after the corpse is interred — Codifiers. even if he is not required to attend to the preparations needed for the dead, e.g., [when] he has others who attend to [this] for him.16According to one opinion in Y.Ber. ibid. — Asheri. One who sustains a bereavement prior to reciting the Tefillah, should not be informed thereof until after he completes his prayers, provided there are others available who will meanwhile attend to the burial needs. Otherwise he must be informed — P.Tesh. And some say that even if he desires to adopt for himself a stricter view, [viz.,] to recite the benediction [before meals], or to repeat Amen after those who recite the benediction [before meals], he is not permitted [to do so].17 O.Ḥ. § 71 — G. Cf. Tosaf. ibid. s.v. ואינו מברך and Sem(H). ibid. And on the Sabbath or Festival, he eats meat and drinks wine,18Ber. and M.K. ibid. Asheri compares the Festival to the Sabbath. On Purim and on the eve of Yom Kippur an Onen is forbidden to eat meat or drink wine — Codifiers. if he so desires,19R. Jonah in Ber. ibid. — G. For it is not obligatory for one to eat meat and to drink wine on the Sabbath. Cf. Shab. 118a: ‘Make thy Sabbath a weekday (as regards festive meals) than be dependent on men.’ and recites the benediction [before meals] and is dutibound to perforrm all religious duties save the use of the conjugal couch wherein he is forbidden,20Ber. and M.K. ibid. On the question whether an Onen should recite the Kaddish on the Sabbath, v. infra § 376, notes. An Onen may be counted in the Minyan — Kerem Shelomo. and he is permitted to go to the Synagogue on the Sabbath, and even on weekdays there is no prohibition, but since he is forbidden to recite the prayers [on weekdays], what will he do there?21Kol Bo — G. In order to clarify many rulings pertaining to the period of Aninuth, it should be observed that a difference of opinion exists among the Codifiers as to whether matters forbidden during the mourning period are likewise prohibited during Aninuth. a) Maim. in Yad, Ebel I, 2; RITBA (M.K. 15) ; Tur (a.l. and infra § 398) state that Aninuth and mourning rites are not on an equal footing. Hence, the laws of mourning do not apply to an Onen. b) N in T.H.; R. Pereẓ (quoted in Tur) hold that they are on an equal footing. Consequently, an Onen must observe all the laws of mourning. If one must go to await nightfall at the Sabbath limit to [be ready] to attend to the preparations needed for the dead [at the exit of the Sabbath], the observance of Aninuth rests upon him, insofar as the prohibition extends to everything from the moment he begins to go to await nightfall at the Sabbath limit.22Y. ibid. in accord with Asheri. Cf. O.Ḥ. § 71 and § 548, 4. If he wishes to bury him on the first Festival day by Gentiles, the prohibition extends to everything;23Tur on the authority of Asheri. so much the more on the second Festival day, when he himself may bury him, that all the laws of Aninuth rest upon him.24Cf. O.Ḥ. § 496, 2. If one dies in the evening following Shemini Aẓereth, i.e., the night of Simḥath Torah, the Onen may recite the Kiddush. Thus MaHaRIL. ShaK rejects this ruling. TaZ accepts it. D.Merb. agrees with TaZ. Some say that a student who observes Aninuth rites for his distinguished teacher is forbidden to eat meat or [drink] wine as long as the dead lies in one's presence.25Hag. Asheri to M.K. III ibid. — G. Y.Ber. ibid. This refers to weekdays — TaZ Cf. supra § 242, 27; infra § 374, 10.
מי שמת לו מת בשבת יאכל במוצאי שבת בלא הבדלה ולא יתפלל ולא בבוקר קודם קבורה ולאחר קבורה יתפלל תפלת שחרית אם לא עבר זמנה אבל תפלת הערב לא יתפלל שכבר עבר זמנה ולא דמי לשכח ולא התפלל ערבית שמתפלל שחרית שתים כיון שבלילה לא היה חייב להתפלל ולענין ההבדלה יבדיל אחר שיקבר המת: (מהר"מ ומרדכי והג"מ):
One who suffered a bereavement on the Sabbath,26Tur reports this ruling on the authority of his fater Asheri who suffered a bereavement on the Sabbath. This applies to near-of-kin for whom one is dutibound to observe mourning rites. may eat on the night following the Sabbath without reciting the Habdalah,27 Glos. nor the evening or the morning Tefillah prior to burial; and after burial, one should recite the morning Tefillah if its prescribed time limit has not lapsed;28M.Abr. to O.Ḥ. § 71 n. 1 states that if the burial takes place in the forenoon, as soon as they commence to inter the corpse, one should read the Shema and recite the morning Tefillah. but the [preceding] evening Tefillah one should not recite, since its prescribed time limit has already lapsed;29And on the preceding night he was entirely exempt therefrom. This is applicable only to a case where one suffered a loss on the Sabbath before the night set in, so that the obligation of reciting the evening Tefillah never took effect. If, however, the loss was sustained after the night had already set in, in which case the obligation of reciting the evening Tefillah had already taken effect prior to the occurrence of death, one must recite the morning Tefillah twice — D.Merb. P.Tesh. for further comments. and this is not similar to the case of one who forgot to recite the evening Tefillah, who may recite the morning Tefillah twice,30 O.Ḥ §. 108, since he was not dutibound to recite the Tefillah during the [previous] night.31Derisha holds that similarly one who occupies himself with communal needs which interfere with the prescribed time to pray is exempt from a complementary Tefillah at the following service (v. previous note). For in both cases, viz., in the case of the sustained loss mentioned above, and in the case of preoccupation with communal needs, there is unavoidable interference. TaZ opposes this and makes the following distinction between the two cases : In the case of a sustained loss the interference is a result, not of the individual’s incapacity to recite prayers, but rather of external circumstances, namely, the Aninuth which exempts him. Under such conditions one is not required to recite a complementary prayer at the following service. But in the case of preoccupation with communal needs, the individual proper is busily engaged. Hence, he is dutibound to make up the prayer when he becomes free. Nek. Hak. refutes TaZ and agrees with Derisha, by showing that both cases are on an equal footing insofar as in both instances the individual is legally exempt on the principle that, ‘One who is engaged in a religious act is exempt from other religious duties’ (Suk. 25a). When, however, the person is legally not exempt, but there it an unavoidable interference, the Tefillah is temporarily suspended until the following service at which time a complementary prayer is said. With respect to the Habdalah, one should recite [it] after the corpse is buried.32R. Meir of Rothenberg; Mord. and Hag. Maim. — G. Pes. 107a: ‘Raba said, the law is that he who has tasted food recites the Habdalah.’ ‘He who did not recite the Habdalah at the termination of the Sabbath proceeds to recite it anytime during the week.’ (ibid.). The words, ‘anytime during the week,’ are explained to mean until after the third day is ended. Cf. ibid., Tosaf. s.v. אמימר and O.Ḥ. § 299, 6. Asheri in his Resp. accepted the ruling which he followed in a similar case (v. supra n. 26). Later in his Decisions, he abandoned this view and accepted the view of R. Judah (ibid. Cf. Tur a.l.) who held that one should not recite the Habdalah after (burial. TaZ infra § 396 who disagrees with both views and advances another explanation. After burial when the Habdalah prayer is recited it is said only over a cup of wine without the fragrant spices and the candle. If the bereavement was sustained on a Festival day, the Habdalah prayer may be said only on the following day after burial, but not as in the case of the Sabbath where the law is that it may be said even until the third day. An Onen who was ignorant of this ruling and recited the Habdalah on the night following the Sabbath is not required to recite it again after burial — P.Tesh. On the question whether an Onen who has a child to be circumcised should perform the circumcision before or after burial, a difference of opinion exists among the Codifiers. RaShaL maintains that the circumcision should be performed first. Isserles (in Resp.) holds that first the burial should be held, for being an Onen he cannot recite the benediction, ‘Blessed art Thou … and commanded us to introduce my son into the covenant of Abraham our father.’ TaZ rules that if possible, the burial should be held in the morning. However, if this is not feasible, the circumcision is performed first and the Sandek recites the benediction, and it matters not whether the circumcision is held during the prescribed time, i.e., on the eight day or later. Ḥatam Sofer accepts RaShaL’s ruling. Bir. Yos. and others agree with TaZ. A Kohen who is an Onen, and there is no other Kohen available, may officiate at the redemption of a firstborn. The benediction over the wine is recited by another person.
מקום שנוהגים שכתפים מיוחדים להוציא המת ולאחר שנתעסקו הקרובים בצרכי הקבורה ימסרוהו להם והם יקברוהו משמסרוהו להם מותרים הקרובים בבשר ויין אפי' קודם שהוציאוהו מהבית ששוב אינו מוטל עליהם: הגה מקום שנושאין המת מעיר לעיר אם מקום קרוב הוא הוי כאלו מוטל לפניו אבל אם הוא מקום רחוק כגון מהלך שני ימים מותר עד שיבאו לעיר קבורתו (רבינו יונה פ' מי שמתו):
[In] a locality where it is the accepted practice that pall-bearers are apointed to take out the corpse [for burial], and after the near-of-kin attend to the burial needs, they give him33The corpse. over to them34The appointed pall-bearers. and they bury him, — [the law is] that as soon as they35The near-of-kin. gave him over to them,34The appointed pall-bearers. the near-of-kin are permitted to [eat] meat and [drink] wine,36Y.Ber. III, 1(6a); Y.M.K. III, 5(82b); Ber. 18a, Tosaf. s.v. ואינו; Yad, Ebel III, 6; N in T.H. Nodah Bihudah writes that the near-of-kin are likewise required to read the Shema and to recite the Tefillah as well as the observance of other precepts. Cf. also D.Merb. a.l. However, since it is customary in our localities for the near-of-kin to be present at the burial in any case, the law is that although the burial arrangements were completed by others, the Shema and the Tefillah should be said after burial — P.Tesh. even before they take him out of the house,37Although the laws of mourning have not yet taken effect — ShaK. since the [burial] no longer rests upon them.35The near-of-kin. [In] a locality where the corpse is borne from one city to another [for burial], if it is a near place, it is as though he33The corpse. lies before him;35The near-of-kin. but if it is a distant place, e.g., a journeying distance of two days, it is permissible [for the near-of-kin to eat meat and drink wine] until they arrive at the city where the burial [will take place].38R. Jonah, Ber. III — G.
מי שמת בתפיסה ולא ניתן לקבורה לא חל על הקרובים אנינות וגם אבילות לא חל עליהם כיון שלא נתייאשו מלקברו וכן אם קרובי המת בתפיסה אין אנינות חל עליהם וכן מי שנהרג בדרך או גררתו חיה או שטפו נהר ולא נתייאשו מלקברו אין על הקרובים לא דין אנינות ולא דין אבילות ומונים לו שבעה ושלשים מיום שנתייאשו מלקברו:
If one died in prison and was not given over for burial,39Where there is a government law not to bury the dead before a certain time limit elapses from the time of death, Aninuth does take effect, since all burial arrangements are permissible, unlike the present case — P.Tesh. the observance of Aninuth40For all Hebrew terms found in text and in commentary v. Glos. as well as mourning does not take effect upon the near-of-kin,41On the principle that the corpse is not מוטל לפניו i.e., the burial does not rest upon him (v. supra n. 2), since he is not handed over for burial — ShaK. since they have not given up hope of burying him.42Even if the ruler or despot demands an exhorbitant sum of money in order to release the body, the laws of mourning do not take effect, for it is possible that he may be persuaded later to accept a smaller amount. But if the reason for refusing to release the body is not a monetary one, but rather stems from animosity, as a result of which the ruler will not change his mind, then the laws of mourning do take effect — ShaK. Likewise, if the near-of-kin of the dead person are in prison, the observance of Aninuth40For all Hebrew terms found in text and in commentary v. Glos. does not take effect upon them.43Tur citing RI; Tosaf. Ber. ibid; Yad, Ebel I, 3; Asheri Ber. and M.K. ibid. So too, if one was murdered on the road or a beast dragged him away or if a stream carried him off and they have not given up hope of burying him, the law of Aninuth or of mourning does not take effect upon the near-of-kin. And one counts for him the seven and the thirty [days] from the day that they give up hope of burying him.44Sem(H). II, 2.
כל זמן שלא נקבר המת אינו חולץ מנעל וסנדל ואינו חייב בעטיפת הראש וכפיית המטה אבל אסור לישב או לישן על גבי מטה אפי' כפויה: הגה וכל שכן שאסור בתשמיש המטה (טור בשם הרמב"ן ובשם התוספות ובמרדכי פ"ק דכתובות בשם י"א) וי"א דאסור ברחיצה וסיכה ושמחה ושאלת שלום ותספורת ובמלאכה (טור) אבל מותר לצאת מפתח ביתו (הגהות מיימוני פ"ד בשם סמ"ק):
As long as the corpse is not buried one does not remove his shoes or sandals and is not required to [perform] the muffling of the head,45Wrapping oneself up in mourning. M.K. 24a: ‘a covering which is not like the covering of the Ishmaelites (up to the lips) is not a mourner’s covering.’ infra § 386. nor the overturning of the couch,46Tur citing N in T.H. where it is stated that should one be required to observe these, the preparations for the burial will suffer. King David is cited as an example (v. Yad, Ebel I, 2) who washed and annointed himself during his period of Aninuth (v. II Sam. XII, 20). Cf. also M.K. 15b; Ket. 4a, Tosaf. s.v. בועל but one is forbidden to sit or sleep on a couch even if it is overturned.47Sem(H). IX, 16 according to the explanation given by N in T.H. Gloss: So much the more that one is forbidden to use the conjugal couch;48Tur citing N in T.H.; Tosaf.; Mord. Ket. I on the authority of ‘some say’ — G. Use of conjugal couch is forbidden even on the Sabbath. supra par. 1. Ḥatam Sofer writes that Caro does not differ with the opinion recorded here on the authority of ‘some say.’ For since Caro states that ‘one does not remove his shoes,’ if follows that the prohibitions mentioned by Isserles are also applicable to the Onen. However, since Caro did not state this explicitly, Isserles deemed it important to be mentioned as ‘some say’ — P.Tesh. As regards work, v. infra § 343 and § 361, 11. and some say that he is prohibited against bathing, annointing, rejoicing, greeting, haircutting and work,49Tur — G. Cf. supra n. 21. King David’s conduct would not be considered contrary to this prohibition (v. supra n. 46), since a King is permitted to wash according to Yoma 73b. Sem(H). VIII, 13; M.K. 23b, Tosaf. s.v. ואינו אוכל — W.G. An Onen is forbidden to study Torah or to be called up to the Torah reading (O.Ḥ. § 548, M.Abr. n. 8) — G.Mah. This applies also to the Sabbath (M.Abr. ibid.) D.Merb. writes that on the Sabbath and Festivals the Onen may study Torah. If he is regularly called to the reading of the Torah, he may called up even when he is an Onen (i.e., on the Sabbath). Otherwise, it is regarded as public mourning which is forbidden on the Sabbath and Festivals — Imre Baruk. To read the Scriptual portion twice and the Aramaic version once is permissible for the Onen — A.H. Cf. supra n. 21. If there is apprehension that the Onen may have contracted a contagious disease through his contact with the corpse, he may bathe and change his garments — Sede Ḥemed. On cutting the hair, v. TaZ infra § 398 from which it seems that he may cut his hair prior to burial. Thus also Kol Bo(G) citing Teshubah Me-Ahabah where such was the custom in Prague. A Shoḥet who is an Onen may slaughter during the period of Aninuth — Yad Sha’ul, but Yosef Da’ath forbids, since the Shohet is grieved concerning his loss and his mind is not at ease in order that he examine his slaughtering knife properly. All the laws of Aninuth apply to the weekday of the Festival (Ḥol ha-Moed) — O.Ḥ. § 548. An Onen on Yom Kippur is dutibound to observe all precepts — Yosef Da’ath. A Cantor who is an Onen on Yom Kippur may lead the services — Kol Bo(G). An Onen on the Festival of Sukkoth may build the Sukkah as long as it does not interfere with the burial arrangements — Ibid. A Cantor who is an Onen on the Sabbath may lead the services if there is no other Cantor available. The same is applicable to a Reader of the Torah — Beth Leḥem Yehudah. An Onen is forbidden to recite the Priestly Benediction. On the question whether an Onen may search for leaven on the night of the fourteenth of Nisan preceding the Passover Festival, the law is that he should appoint another person to do this for him. The Onen may, however, recite the declaration כל חמירא — Bir. Yos. He may not recite the Haggadah himself but may hear it from another person. If another person is not available, he may recite it himself — Pri Megadim. He must eat Maẓẓah and drink the four cups at the Seder service — MaHaRaM Lublin. On Ḥanukkah the lights should be kindled, and the benediction pronounced, by another person. If another person is not available, he may kindle the Ḥanukkah lights himself without pronouncing the benediction —Eliya Rabba. An Onen does not count the Omer during the night of his Aninuth period. But on the next day after burial he counts the Omer without reciting the benediction, and on the following nights he continues to count the Omer with the benediction. Should the Aninuth period extend into the following night, too, he may count the Omer even during Aninuth — Laws of Onen by R. E. Z. Margolis. On the night of the Fast of the Ninth day of Ab, the Onen does not go to the Synagogue and does not recite the traditional elegies and lamentations. After burial the following day he may go to the Synagogue an remain there until after the elegies are recited — Eliya Rabba. If he suffers a bereavement during the morning Service on Rosh Hashana, he may continue with his prayers in the usual manner. If he suffered a bereavement on Rosh Ḥodesh, after burial he may recite the Musaf Tefillah any time during the day — Bir. Yos. Of the morning benedictions he may recite the following after burial: a) The Torah benedictions; b) ‘who hast not made me a heathen;’ c) ‘who hast not made me a slave;’ d) ‘who hast not made me a woman.’ but he is permitted to leave his house.50Hag. Maim. Yad, Ebel IV on the authority of SeMaK — G. This is permitted since he has to make all the burial arrangements.
המשמר את המת אפילו שאינו מתו פטור מקריאת שמע ומכל מצות האמורות בתורה היו שנים זה משמר וזה קורא:
The one who guards the corpse, even if it is not his own dead, is exempt from the reading of the Shema and from all religious duties enjoined in the Torah. If there were two [watchmen], one guards and the other reads51Ber. 18a. Based on the principle that, ‘One who is engaged in a religious act is exempt from other religious duties — ShaK. Similarly in the case of bones that are collected for burial. infra § 403, 9. For a complete analysis of the laws of Aninuth Kol Bo(G). I, pp. 109-61; II, pp. 45, 46, 91; Gesher ha-Ḥayyim I, c. 18..