When one washes his hands, he should recite the blessing "... regarding washing the hands. Gloss: And some also say "He Who Formed" (Asher Yatzar), even if he did not relieve himself, and this is our practice (Abudirham). Water that is invalid to use for a meal (below, Chapter 160) is permitted to use for washing one's hands for prayers. However, some say that one should not recite the blessing on this kind of water.
One should be careful to wash one's hands three times, in order to remove the foul spirit (i.e. the spiritual effects from sleeping) from them.
One should not put his hands in his mouth, ears, eyes, or nose before washing one's hands.
Even if one has washed his hands, he should never touch the orifice of his anus, because that could cause haemorrhoids. One should [also] refrain from touching a place where he has been bled, because that could damage the wound.
One should not touch a container of beer, because the touch of a hand spoils the beer.
It is not necessary to use A reviit (a measure of volume) for hand-washing [prior to] prayer.
It is best to be particular regarding hand-washing prior to prayer on all things which are essential for hand-washing prior to eating. Gloss: However, neither [using a pouring] vessel nor human force or any other things that invalidate hand-washing before eating are prerequisites [for washing before prayer]. (Mordechai, beginning of Chapter Elu Devarim; Rashba's Responsa, Chapter 195)
Hand-washing before morning prayers should not be performed over the ground, but rather into a vessel.
Water which has been used for hand-washing before morning prayers should not be used afterwards for any other purpose. One should not pour it out in a house, nor any place where people pass by.
One should take up the vessel of water with his right hand, then transfer it to his left hand in order to pour water onto his right hand first.
One should not take water from a person who has not yet washed his hands.
If one dabbles his hands into a vessel of water, then that counts as hand-washing for the purposes of reciting the Shema and the Amidah prayer, but he has not yet removed the foul spirit from his hands. If one dabbles each of his hands alternately into three different lots of water, then it is not clear whether he has removed the foul spirit from his hands.
If one has stayed awake all night, then it is not clear whether he needs to wash his hands for the morning prayer or whether he needs to remove the foul spirit. Rema: He should wash his hands without reciting a blessing. (Rosh, Principle 2; Rashba, Chapter 123).
If one arose from bed before daybreak and washed his hands, it is unclear whether he should wash his hands again when daylight appears, in order to remove the Bad Spirit which has passed through them.Gloss: He should wash his hands without reciting a blessing.
If one sleeps during the day, it is unclear whether he should pour water three times onto his hands. Gloss: He should wash his hands without reciting a blessing.
[King] David was diligent not to sleep shitin nishmin (meaning, sixty breaths) in order not to taste the taste of death.(Gloss: But in the Talmud, Chapter HaYashen, it appears that he was diligent in this only during daytime.) (his own opinion, and see the Beit Yosef)
Some have the custom to wash their mouth in the morning because of the mucus which is in the mouth.
The following things require washing the hands in water [after them]: One who rises from bed, goes out of the bathroom, or of the bath house, one who cuts his nails, takes off his shoes, touches his feet, or washes his head, some say: also one who goes among the dead, or touched the dead, one who cleanses his clothes of lice, has sexual intercourse, touches a louse, or touches his body with his hand. Anyone doing any of these and not washing his hands, if he is a scholar, his studies are forgotten, and if he is not a scholar, he goes out of his mind.
One who lets blood from his shoulders and didn't wash his hands, will be afraid for seven days. One who takes a haircut or shaves and does not wash his hands, will be afraid for three days. One who cuts his nails and does not wash his hands, will be afraid for one day. And [in any of these three situations, he] will not know what he is afraid of.
One who washes his face but does not wipe it well, his face cracks or is stricken with boils. The medicine for this is to wash it a lot in beet juice....
One should be careful during prayer or while eating (see below, Orach Chaim 92 paragraph 6, and Orach Chaim 164) not to touch one's thigh or leg or other covered places in a person's body, because there are particles of sweat. (meaning, grime like tiny barley grains). And also not to scratch one's head. But uncovered places in one's head or face and the uncovered part of one's arms do not require care.
If one has no water, one may wipe one's hands in a lump of earth or dust or any cleansing agent and recite a blessing on the cleanliness of hands, and this permits him to pray but does not remove the evil spirit from them....
Washing hands was only prescribed for reciting the Shema and for [the Amidah] prayer, but the blessings of the morning are permitted to be recited before washing, unless one sleeps naked in one's bed, in which case one may not mention the holy Name until he cleans them.