1. Laws of the wick and the oil, 10 Seifim: We do not make a wick for the Sabbath lamp, neither for the table lamp nor any lamp lit in the house, from a material whose light does not cling to it but rather moves around and whose flame jumps -- like wool or hair etc. Rather, from a material whose light attaches to it, like ripe flax or linen fiber or cotton or hemp etc. RAMA: And if you light with forbidden materials it is forbidden to use the light. (Responsa of Rashba no. 178) And some say that if there is one lamp of permitted materials it is permitted to use the light of the others, and also it is permitted to do something possible without a lamp, even by the other lamps. And for a Sabbath need it is possible to be lenient post facto. (Hagahos Mordechai ch. 1 and 2 of Shabbat)
2. A layer of a material with which we ignite on a material on which we do not ignite - if the purpose is to thicken the wick so as to add light, it is forbidden. If the purpose is to strengthen the wick so that it stands and doesn't slide down, it is permitted. And for this reason it is permitted to layer a material with which we ignite on top of reeds or straw in order to give the wick a partition. RAMA: We give a grain of salt or a bit of bean on the mouth of the lamp on Sabbath Eve so that it will burn beautifully on the Shabbat. (Maimoni ch. 5 and Tur)
3. We do not ignite the Sabbath lamp except from oil which follows after the wick, and therefore we do not ignite with pitch nor with wax nor with oil made from cotton nor from sheep-tail fat nor from forbidden fat. And also we do not ignite with tar because of its foul odor, and he'll place it and pass. And not with balsam sap because because of its wafting odor, lest he drain from it and find himself liable for extinguishment.
4. Even if he adds a bit of olive oil to these oils which do not follow, and then it follows -- we do not ignite with them.
5. Molten fat and fish entrails -- we do not ignite with them. And if one adds to them a bit of one of the oils we ignite with -- it is permitted to ignite with them.
6. We ignite with all oils except these, and always olive oil is an optional improvement.
7. A layer of pitch or wax or fat around the wick -- we ignite with them.
8. The igniter must ignite most of the lamp's wick.
9. It is not necessary to singe the wick. (Explanation: A singed piece which falls on something which is not totally burnt and is also is not fully whole. "Do not eat of it now" -- Targum Yonasan "singed." RAMA: And in all cases our custom is to light the wick and to then extinguish it so that it may be charred (before [re]kindling them for the sake of the mitzvah) [so that] the flame should catch on well. (Tur)
10. We do not light with rags even if they are singed. [note: See Shabbos 29a]