איסור רחיצה וסיכה לאבל. ובו ו' סעיפים:
רחיצה כיצד אסור לרחוץ כל גופו אפילו בצונן אבל פניו ידיו ורגליו בחמין אסור בצונן מותר ואם היה מלוכלך בטיט וצואה רוחץ כדרכו ואינו חושש: הגה וכל זה מדינא אינו אסור רק שבעה אבל אח"כ מותר ברחיצה אלא שנהגו האידנא לאסור כל רחיצה כל ל' יום (מהר"ם הלכות שמחות ובהגמי"י פ"ז מהל' י"ט ופ"י דהל' אבל) ואפי' לחוף הראש אסור (לקמן סימן ש"צ ובא"ז) ואין לשנות המנהג כי מנהג קדום הוא ונתייסד על פי ותיקין (א"ז בשם רשב"א):
In what manner is bathing [forbidden]?1M.K. 15b, derived from, ‘And Joab sent to Tekoa and fetched thence a wise woman and said unto her, I pray thee, feign thyself to be a mourner etc… and annoint not thyself with oil’ (II Sam. XIV, 2). Bathing is implied in the prohibition of annointing. Ruth III, 3; Ps. CIX, 18; Yad, Ebel V, 3 and cf. Yoma 76b. — He is forbidden to bathe his whole body even in cold water, but his face, hands and feet he is forbidden [to wash] in warm water,2This includes even lukewarm water — P.Tesh. [but] in cold water he is permitted.3Ta‘an 13b. However, if he was soiled with mud or excrement, he may bathe in his usual way without any apprehension.4Yoma 77b. Cf. Ber. 16b, Tosaf. s.v. אסטניס. Gloss: And all this is forbidden legally only for seven [days], but subsequently he is permitted to bathe,5M.K. 19b in accord with the dictum of R. Amram citing Rab. only that nowadays it is the adopted practice to prohibit bathing throughout the thirty days,6R. Meir of Rothenberg, Laws of Sem. (s. 105) ; Hag. Maim. Yom Tob VII; ibid. Ebel X — G. The translation here ‘bathing throughout the thirty days,’ follows ShaK’s reading. Hence, it follows that in cold water it would be permissible during the thirty days. The undefined term רחיצה (bathing) refers to warm water (v. Y.M.K. III, 5(82d) ; cf. infra § 399 and O.H. § 549). Moreover, bathing in cold water is not considered pleasure (תענוג) — ShaK. D.Merb. and R. A. Eger maintain contra ShaK that even in cold water it is permissible to bathe only one’s face, hands and feet, but the entire body should not be bathed in cold water for thirty days. A.H. agrees with ShaK. Or Zaru‘a explains that this prohibition regarding bathing within the thirty days is on account of combing the hair, which is forbidden within the thirty days. But since we permit combing of the hair today (v. infra § 390), it would be permissible to bathe after seven days. RaShaL’s reason for the prohibition of bathing is on account of hair-cutting. Hence, bathing should be forbidden just as hair-cutting is. On Ḥol ha-Moed, however, we find that hair-cutting is forbidden and bathing is permitted. This difficulty may be removed on the grounds that on Ḥol ha-Moed the prohibition of hair-cutting applies to everyone as a result of which people will remember and be careful. Consequently, bathing is permitted. But in the case of mourning, it applies only to the individual mourner. Hence, there is fear lest he forget (cf. Mishna Shab. 147a, Rashi s.v. אבל) — TaZ. and even to cleanse the head is forbidden.7Infra § 390 and Or Zaru‘a — G. This refers to warm water only. And this custom should not be altered, for it is an ancient custom and was established by pious men.8Or Zaru‘a on the authority of RaShBA — G. One, however, who is not in good health, although he is not considered a sick person, and requires a bath, is permitted to bathe within the thirty days, since the entire prohibition is only a custom and not a binding law (v. supra n. 5). During the seven days of mourning he is forbidden to bathe unless a physician instructs him otherwise, although he is not considered a dangerously ill person — A.H. Bathing in public, however, is forbidden throughout the thirty days. Kol Bo(G) I, p. 356.
סיכה כיצד אסור לסוך אפי' כל שהוא אם מכוין לתענוג אבל אם הוא להעביר הזוהמא מותר וא"צ לומר משום רפואה כגון שיש לו חטטין בראשו:
In what manner is annointing [forbidden]? — Any annointing9With oil or washing with soap or the application of perfumes or the like — A.H. The prohibition extends both to the body and the hair, whether in the case of a man or a woman — A.H. whatsoever is forbidden, if his intention is merely for the sake of pleasure;10Ta‘an. 13b. but if it is to remove dirt, it is permissible, and needless to say [that it is permitted if used] as a medicine, e.g., if he had scabs on his head.11Or a skin disease or the like. Y.Ber. II, 7(5b); Y.M.K. III, 5(82d); T.H. For even on Yom Kippur when annointing which is not for the sake of mere pleasure is also prohibited (Y.Yoma VIII, 1(44d), yet, in the case where one was sick or had scabs on his head, he may annoint himself in his usual way without any apprehension (Yoma 77b).
יולדת אבלה שצריכה לרחוץ מותר וכן מאן דאית ליה ערבוביא ברישיה מותר לחוף ראשו בחמין דלא גרע מאסטניס (פי' קר הגוף ומצונן) שמותר לרחוץ כל גופו ולא כל מי שאומר אסטניס אני מתירין לו אלא דוקא שהוא ידוע שהוא אסטניס ומתנהג בנקיות ואם לא ירחץ יצטער הרבה ויבא לידי מיחוש:
A woman in mourning after childbirth who requires to bathe,12In warm water — A.H. Even on the first day. However, if the need is not so great, we should be stringent on the first day of mourning (Later Authorities) — ShaK. is permitted [to do so].13Asheri to Ber. II and M.K. III, derived from Mishna Ber. 16b (cf. also Tosaf. ibid. s.v. אסטניס) in the case of R. Gamaliel. Likewise, one who has scabs on his head,14Much more so in the case of scabs arising from wearing unclean garments which cause madness (Ned. 81a) is washing of raiment permissible for this is more serious. is permitted to cleanse his head in warm water, for [this case] is not less important than [the case of] a delicate person, i.e., one who is frigid in body and is overcome by cold,15 Y.Ber. II, 7(5b) ; Y.M.K. III, 5(82d), where it is stated that even if it is not a serious case, bathing is permitted, contra R. Hananel who explains that a delicate person (אסטניס) refers to a case where the individual may become dangerously ill should he not bathe himself. One who has a skin disease on any other part of his body is likewise permitted to bathe in warm water — A.H. who is permitted to bathe his whole body. However, we do not permit anyone who says, 'I am a delicate person' [to bathe], unless it is known that he is a delicate person and comports himself in cleanliness16Tur citing R. Hai Gaon. Thus also Asheri citing R. Ḥananel. and should he not bathe he would suffer much and take ill.17Lit. ‘will come to an indisposition.’ Thus N in T.H., who explains the statement of R. Ḥananel that ‘a case which may lead to a person becoming dangerously ill’ (סכנה) refers to one who is very uncomfortable if he does not bathe in warm water. supra n. 15.
מי שתכפוהו אביליו שאירעו שני אבילות זה אחר זה מותר לרחוץ כל גופו בצונן:
One who suffered a bereavement followed close on another [bereavement], [i.e.,] two mournings befell him, one immediately after the other, is permitted to bathe his whole body in cold water.18Ta‘an. 13a-b ; M.K. 17b. e., after the seven days of the first bereavement expired. Likewise, after the termination of the thirty days from the first bereavement, he may bathe his entire body in warm water — A.H.
נדה שנזדמנה זמן טבילתה בימי אבלה אינה טובלת (טור בשם ר"ת וע"פ ומהרי"ק שורש ל"ה) : הגה וכל שכן שאינה רוחצת ללבוש לבנים אבל מיד אחר ז' אע"פ שנהגו איסור ברחיצה כל ל' מ"מ היא מותרת רק שתשנה הרחיצה קצת (א"ז בסוף הלכות אבל) וחלוק לבן תלבוש וסדין לבן תציע שלא תבא לידי ספק (תשובת מהרי"ל סימן ט"ו):
A menstruous woman whose time for immersion became due during her [seven days of] mourning, does not immerse.19Tur on the authority of R. Tam (Tosaf. Yoma 8a, s.v. דכולי) and other Codifiers; also MaHaRIK Rt. 35 — G. This ruling follows the opinion of R. Jose, son of R. Judah in Nid. 30a, whose view is that it is not a religious duty to perform immersion at the due time. also Yoma 88a; Beẓ. 18b, Tosaf. s.v. כל and cf. Ta‘an. 13a. Furthermore, marital intercourse is not permitted in any case. Gloss: So much the more that she does not bathe in order to put on [her] white garments20The days after menstruation are called ימי ליבונים i.e., the days during which white garments are worn, while marital contact is still prohibited. [worn during the counting of the seven days of cleanliness]. However, immediately after the seven days [of mourning], — although it is the common practice to adopt a prohibition against bathing for the entire thirty days, — yet, she is permitted [to bathe then], — only that she should alter the [mode of] bathing a little,21Or Zaru’a, Laws of Mourning end — G. Some, however, rule that she may bathe during her seven days of mourning and put on white garments then, only that she should change the mode of bathing, viz., to bathe even with warm water only the pudenda and between her thighs — TaZ, ShaK. and she may put on a plain white frock22A clean one, not completely white, if possible. and spread out a [clean] white sheet [on her couch] so that she does not come to any doubt.23MaHaRIL, Resp. 15 — G. This will avoid entertaining any doubts with respect to blood stains that she may notice henceforth. A menstruant woman whose time for immersion falls on the night following the Sabbath, and on Friday she was still within her seven days of mourning which end on the Sabbath, is permitted to comb and cleanse her hair on Friday (v. B.K. 82b) — B.L.Y. A Sandek who is within the thirty days of mourning for his father, may bathe on the night preceding the circumcision, since the prohibition against bathing for thirty days is not a binding law (v. supra par. 1) — TaZ.
אשה לא תכחול ולא תפרקס בימי אבלה שכל אלו אסורים כרחיצה ואשת איש אינה אסורה אלא תוך שבעה אבל אחר ז' מותרת בכל כדי שלא תתגנה על בעלה כלה שאירעה אבל תוך שלשים יום לחופתה מותרת להתקשט אפי' תוך ז' בוגרת שאירעה אבל כיון שעומדת לינשא מותרת בכיחול ופירקוס אבל אסורה ברחיצת חמין כל גופה נערה אבלה אסורה אפילו בכיחול ופירקוס:
A woman should not paint [her eyelids]24 Rashi, Ket. 17a for other meanings of these terms. Cf. Jastrow. nor rouge [her face]24 Rashi, Ket. 17a for other meanings of these terms. Cf. Jastrow. during the days of her mourning, for all these [things] are forbidden as bathing.25Ket. 4b; M.K. 20b. In a certain respect this is even more stringent than bathing, for it is forbidden after seven days, unless it is a case of a married woman (v. anon); whereas bathing is legally permitted after seven days (v. supra par. 1) — ShaK. A married woman is forbidden [to do this] only during the seven [days], but after the seven [days] she is permitted everything, so that she does not become repulsive to her husband.26Tur derived from Asheri, implied in Sem. (not found in cur. edd.). however, Sem(H). VII, 11 and list of Baraitoth (p. 230 ibid.) not found in cur. edd., but cited by earlier authorities, and Int. II, 6; V, 2. Cf. Asheri to M.K. III, ibid. Ket. I; Yad, Ebel VI, 3 and Kes. Mish., RIDBaZ a.l.; T.H.; M.K. 27b Tosaf. s.v. לגיהוץ; infra § 390, 5. A bride whom mourning befell within the thirty days [subsequent] to her marriage, is permitted to adorn herself,27Ket. 4a in accord with Asheri’s interpretation. even within the seven [days of mourning]. A girl who has reached adolescence,28Heb. בוגרת i.e., a girl from twelve and a half years and onwards. whom mourning befell, — [the law is that] since she is ready for marriage, she is permitted painting [of the eyelids] and rouging [of the face],29Within the seven days. but is forbidden to bathe the entire body in warm water.30Ta‘an. 13b. Cf. Tosaf. ibid. s.v. אין. The text here is faulty, and should read, ‘but is forbidden to bathe in warm water, and her entire body in cold water’ — P.Tesh. A girl who has not reached adolenscence,31Heb. נערה i.e., a girl between twelve years and a day and twelve years and a half plus one day. who is a mourner, is forbidden even painting [of the eyelids] and rouging [of the face].32Ta‘an. ibid. But a minor boy (קטן) or girl (קטנה) to whom mourning rites do not apply, are permitted the above-mentioned things, for with respect to mourning they do not fall within the category of חנוך i.e., the gradual introduction of children into religious practices (v. Yad Abraham and Beth Hillel).