ענין הקריעה שיעורה ומקומה ועל מי קורעין ובאיזה זמן קורעין. ובו ל"ט סעיפים:
מי שמת לו מת והוא מהמתים שראוי להתאבל עליהם חייב לקרוע עליו וצריך שיקרע מעומד ואם קרע מיושב לא יצא (וצריך לחזור ולקרוע) (טור בשם רי"ץ גיאות והרא"ש והגהות מיימוני וב"י לדעת ראב"ד ורי"ף ורמב"ן ומרדכי פא"מ) (ולכתחלה צריך לקרוע קודם שיסתום פני המת) (ב"י בשם סמ"ק): LAWS OF RENDING GARMENTS
One who suffered a bereavement, namely, [one] of [his] near-of-kin1 infra § 374. [died], for whom he is required to observe mourning rites, must rend [his garments] for him.2M.K. 24a: ‘A mourner who does not rend his garments, is guilty of a mortal offense.’ The requirement is Rabbinical and the Rabbis gave it support by reference to a Biblical verse — ShaK. It is customary that another person rends the garment, for then the mourner endures more grief, and on seeing a stranger rend his garment, and remaining silent he thereby acknowledges Divine Justice. The stranger must not rend more than is required. Otherwise, he is held responsible for damages. Even when the mourner himself rends the garment, he must not rend more than the law requires. If he rends more, he transgresses the law forbidding one to ruin anything wantonly (v. Deut. XX, 19) — P.Tesh. One must also rend garments when he collects the bones of a near-of-kin — G.Mah. (v. infra § 403, 2). The benediction recited when rending garments must contain the ‘Divine Name’ and the word ‘King’ — Bir. Yos. One must rend [his garments] while standing;3M.K. 20b, derived from the verse, ‘Then Job stood up and rent his mantle’ (Job I, 20). also II Sam. XII, 31. and if one rent [his garments] while sitting, he has not discharged his duty;4M.K. ibid. and he must rend again.5Tur citing Ghayyat; Asheri; Hag. Maim.; B.Yos. according to opinion of RaBaD; N; Mord. M.K. III — G. Some authorities state that if he had already rent in a sitting position, the reading is considered valid. A.H. In the first instance one must rend [his garments] before he conceals the face of the corpse.6B.Yos. citing SeMaK — G. Cf. supra § 339 according to which the mourner rends his garments when he reaches the words, ‘Judge of Truth.’ There is no contradiction between these rulings, since the former rule is in accordance with the custom to recite the Ẓidduk Haddin when the soul departs — Ba’er Heteb. If one has not rent garments after death, he may still do so throughout the seven days of mourning, for during this period it is still regarded as a ‘moment of excitement’ (v. M.K. 24a).
מקום הקריעה בכל מקום בבית הצואר לפניו אבל אם קרע לאחריו (או בשולי הבגד) (טור) או מן הצדדין לא יצא: הגה וי"א שיוצא אם קורע בשולי הבגד וכן נהגו להקל לקרוע בשולי הבגד (אלו מנהגים תמצא בסמ"ק ובמהרי"ו ובחידושי אגודה ובכל בו) כשקורעין על שאר מתים שאינן מתאבלין עליהם אבל על המתים שהם קרוביו ומתאבלים עליהם אינו יוצא בקריעה זו וצריך לקרוע בבית הצואר וכן נהגו: The region for rending is all along the neck of the garment in the forepart; but if he rent in the back part, or in the lower parts of the garment,7Tur — G. or on the sides, he has not discharged his duty.8M.K. 26b. Yad, Ebel VIII, 1. Likewise if the garment is rent widthwise, one does not discharge his duty — P.Tesh. Gloss: Some say that one discharges his duty if he rends in the lower parts of the garment; and thus is the common practice to adopt the more lenient view, [viz.,] to rend in the lower parts of the garment,9These customs you will find in SeMaK, MaHaRIW, Ḥid. Agud. and Kol Bo — G. when rending for all other dead, for whom one does not observe mourning rites;10When one is present during the departure of the soul — ShaK. but for near-of-kin, for whom one must observe mourning rites, he does not discharge his duty with this rending, but must rend in the neck of the garment. And thus is the common practice.11SeMaK on the basis of Sem(H). IX, 18: ‘One who rends in the lower parts or on the sides of the garment has not discharged his duty. R. Judah says, that he has discharged his duty.’ In the case of other dead, who are not his near-of-kin, we accept R. Judah’s view.
שיעור קריעה טפח ואם קרע על מת ובא להוסיף באותה קריעה על מת אחר אם אחר ז' סגי בכל שהוא ואם הוא בתוך ז' צריך טפח ועל אביו ואמו אפילו אחר ז' קורע עד שיגלה את לבו: The extent of rending is a handbreadth.12M.K. 22b: ‘Said R. Abbahu, what text teaches this? Then David took hold on his clothes and rent them (II Sam. I, 11), and there is no taking hold of anything by less than a hand-breadth. Cf. Suk. 32b; Nid. 26a. If he rent [his garment] upon suffering a bereavement, and extends the rent, on sustaining another bereavement; if [the second bereavement] is after the seven [days, the additional rent] may be as small [as he wishes]; if during the seven [days], a handbreadth is required.13M.K. 26b. infra par 21. However, for his father and mother, [after having suffered a previous bereavement], even after seven [days], he rends until he bares his chest.14M.K. ibid. infra par. 18 and 2
כשם שקורע על קרובו שמתאבל עליו כך קורע בפני קרובו על מת שמת לקרובו כיצד הרי שמת בן בנו או אחי בנו או אם בנו חייב לקרוע בפני בנו וכן קורע על חמיו וחמותו והאשה קורעת על חמיה וחמותה. (ואין נוהגין עכשיו כן וכמו שיתבאר לקמן סי' שע"ד לענין אבלות): Just as he rends for his near-of-kin, for whom he observes mourning rites, so does he rend in the presence of his near-of-kin, when the latter sustains a bereavement. In what respect? If his son's son dies, or his son's brother,15After divorcing his wife, she remarried and had a son from her second husband, who is now a maternal brother to his own son. or the mother16After having divorced her she died. of his son, he is required to rend in the presence of his son. So too, does he rend for his father-in-law and his mother-in-law, and a woman rends for her father-in-law and her mother-in-law.17M.K. 20b, 26b. Cf. Yad, Ebel II, 4; VIII, 5. Nowadays we do not follow this practice as will be explained infra § 374 in the subject of mourning.
העומד בשעת יציאת נשמה של איש או אשה מישראל חייב לקרוע. (טור בשם רמב"ן וב"י אף לדעת רש"י) ואפילו אם לפעמים עשה עבירה לתיאבון או שמניח לעשות מצוה בשביל טורח: הגה אבל רגיל לעשות עבירה אין מתאבלין עליו (מרדכי סוף מ"ק) וכל שכן על מומר לעבודת כוכבים (שם ופוסקים וכן מוכח מש"ס פי' נגמר הדין וכמה דוכתי) וי"א שמומר שנהרג בידי עובד כוכבים מתאבלים עליו (הגהת אשיר"י פרק א"מ וא"ז) וכן מומר קטן שהמיר עם אביו או אמו דהוי כאנוס (מרדכי ה"א בשם ר"י ומביאו ב"י סימן שמ"ה) וי"א דאין מתאבלין וכן עיקר (שם בשם ר"ח) . הפורשים מדרכי צבור אע"פ שאין מתאבלין עליהם מתאבלין על בניהם (א"ז) (וע"ל סי' שמ"ה): One who is present at the time of the departure of the soul of a Jewish man18M.K. 25a; Shab. 105b. or woman,19The Talmud (ibid.) compares this to a scroll of the law that is burnt in which case one is required to rend garments. Cf. Shab. ibid. Rashi s.v. לס״ת. The reason for rending garments when present at the death of a woman is because the loss is great and there is much anxiety — Tur. All agree that one should rend garments for a minor who was a student of the Bible — BaḤ. Cf. Ba’er Heteb and P.Tesh. for other opinions. is dutibound to rend garments;20Tur on the authority of N and B.Yos. even according to Rashi’s opinion — G. and even if at times [the person who died], committed a sin because of an irresistible desire, or [would] forsake the performance of a religious duty on account of trouble involved.21Tur citing R. Meir of Rothenberg. A precedent for this is King David who wept for his son Absalom — W.G. Even if he committed a grave sin which involves capital punishment by Court, nevertheless, since it was done out of an irresistible desire and not in a spirit of defiance, we must rend garments — P.Tesh. Gloss: But one who was in the habit of committing sins, is not mourned for;22Mord. M.K. end — G. Even if committed out of an irresistible desire — ShaK. and so much the more for one who is an apostate in respect of idolatry.23Ibid. and codifiers; San. 47a a.e. — G. Sem(H). II, 8; Hul. 41a. Some say that an apostate who was killed by a Gentile-[robber], is mourned for.24Hag. Asheri to M.K. III; O.Z. — G. Derived from San. ibid. His death is considered an expiation for his sins, for he no doubt repented at the point of death — ShaK. So too, [does one mourn for] a minor who commits apostasy along with his father or mother,25 supra § 159 end and infra § 345, 6. since he was under pressure;26Mord. and Hag. Asheri on the authority of RI and B.Yos. infra § 345 — G. Cf. Shab. 68b. and some say that we observe no mourning rites [for him], and this is the [accepted] fundamental principle.27Ibid. on the authority of R. Ḥananel — G. Tosef(Ẓ). San. XIV, 3 and cf. W.G. a.l. Those who dissociate themselves from the practices of the community, although they are not mourned for, [nevertheless], their children are mourned for.28O.Z.; cf. infra § 345 — G.
על אדם כשר שאינו חשוד על שום עבירה ולא על שום ביטול מצוה ולא סני שומעניה אע"פ שאינו גדול בתורה אע"פ שלא עמד בשעת יציאת נשמה חייב לקרוע עליו והוא שעומד שם בין מיתה לקבורה ותלמידי חכמים פטורים מקריעה זו: הגה וי"א דאין חייב לקרוע על אדם כשר אלא אם כן עומד עליו בשעת יציאת נשמה אבל חייב לבכות ולהתאבל עליו (ר"ן פ' האורג והגהות מיימוני פי"א בשם ראבי"ה) וכן נהגו להקל: For a worthy person,29Tur in accordance with RaBaD’s interpretation to M.K. 25a. against whom no suspicion is entertained with respect to any sin, or neglect of any religious duty, and who is not ill-reputed,30R. Jonah does not regard these as qualifications for a worthy person unless one shows a deep interest in the performance of kind deeds — N and BaḤ. although he is not great in learning,31Gem. ibid. — [the law is that] even if one was not present at the time of the departure of the soul, he is dutibound to rend [garments for him], provided he was present there between death and burial.32Derived ibid. from the story about the death of R. Safra. Cf. Sem(H). IX, 1 in accord with emendation of N in T.H. Scholars, however, are exempt from this rending.33Cf. B.M. 33a and v. P.Tesh. for other opinions. Gloss: Some say that one is not dutibound to rend [garments] for a worthy person unless one is present at the time of the departure of the soul; but one is required to weep and to mourn for him.34RaN to Shab. 105b; Hag. Maim. Yad, Ebel XII citing Ra’BIaH — G. And thus is the accepted practice, to adopt the lenient view.35Today, however, we are lenient in every respect with regard to these rendings — ShaK.
על חכם ועל תלמיד חכם ששואלין אותו דבר הלכה בכל מקום ואומרה קורעין עליו אפילו לאחר קבורה ביום שמועה אם הוא תוך ל' יום וקורע עליו בשעת הספדו (לא קרע ביום שמועה וכבר עבר זמן הספדו ולא קרע שוב אינו קורע) (כך משמע בטור וב"י) וקורעין עליו עד שמגלין את לבם וכבר נהגו תלמידי חכמים בכל מקום לקרוע זה על זה טפח אע"פ שהם שוים ואין אחד מהם מלמד את חבירו: הגה וי"א שאין קורעין על חכם אלא א"כ הוא רבו או שיודעין משמועותיו שחדש דהיינו רבו (הרא"ש והגמי"י בשם הר"מ) וכן נהגו להקל במדינות אלו: For a scholar or a disciple who is questioned on a matter of Halachah in any reference and is able to answer it, one rends garments,36Tur from Asheri who derives this from RaBaD, based upon the case of R. Safra M.K. 25a and the case of R. Bun (or Abbun) Y.M.K. III, 7(83b): ‘Just as garments are rent for scholars, so also for their disciples etc.’ even after burial, on the day the [death] report [is received],37Derived from the above case of R. Safra for whom the Rabbis did not rend their garments. Their reason was that they did not learn from him directly. When Abaye reported to them the teaching that when a scholar dies all are considered his near-of-kin, the Rabbis took the view that what was done was done. However, Abaye said to them, ‘we learnt that if a scholar dies, as long as they are still engaged in a lament for him one is dutibound to rend garments for him. Hence, the ruling here. This is also derived from the case of Samuel (ibid. 24a) who, when informed that Rab died, rent thirteen garments for him, and said that the man before whom he trembled is gone. The same was done by R. Joḥanan when the death of R. Ḥanina was reported to him. if it is within thirty days [from death];38Ibid. 20b. If he did not rend garments for him at the time the death report was brought to him, he must rend at the time the lament is made, provided it takes place within the thirty days from death; but after the thirty days one does not rend even at the time that the lament is held — ShaK. and one rends [garments] for him at the time of his lament.39Ibid. 25a, ‘A scholar is honoured at the time of the lament.’ If one did not rend [garments] on the day the [death]-report [is received], and the time of the lament had already passed and he [still] had not rent, he no longer rends.40Thus implied in Tur and B.Yos. — G. This follows also from the case of R. Safra (supra). Cf. W.G. a.l. And [garments] are rent for him until the chest is bared;41Yad, Ebel IX, 11 as in the case of one’s parent. and it is an accepted practice among scholars everywhere to rend [garments] for each other to the extent of a handbreadth, although they are equals and neither is considered a teacher of the other.42Ibid.; B.M. 33a. Gloss: Some say that [garments] are not rent for a scholar unless the latter is his teacher, or [if] we know of the novel interpretations which he expounded, for this is [what is meant] by his teacher';43Asheri; Hag. Maim. citing R. Meir of Rothenberg — G. and thus is the practice to adopt the more lenient view in our countries.
על רבו שרוב חכמתו ממנו אם מקרא מקרא ואם משנה משנה אם גמרא גמרא קורע כל בגדיו עד שמגלה לבו וי"א שאינו קורע אלא טפח ואינו מאחה לעולם ואפי' משמועה רחוקה קורע עליו לעולם ואם לא למד רוב חכמתו ממנו אינו קורע עליו אלא כדין שאר מתים שהוא מתאבל עליהם ואפי' לא למד ממנו אלא דבר אחד בין קטן בין גדול קורע עליו: הגה וי"א דקרע שעל רבו שאינו מובהק נמי אינו מתאחה (טור בשם הרא"ש ובית יוסף בשם רש"י ותוספות והר"ן) תלמידי חכמים שיושבים ביחד ומקשים ומפרקין זה לזה ולומדים ביחד י"א שדינן כרב שאינו מובהק וי"א שדינן כרב מובהק (אלו שני הסברות בטור) וי"א דאין צריכין לקרוע אלא על רבו שלמדו רוב חכמתו אבל חבירים הלומדים זה עם זה או שהאיר עיניו בדבר אחד אינו אלא חומרא בעלמא והיכא דנהוג נהוג והיכא דלא נהוג לא נהוג ואין מורין כן (מרדכי ה"א בשם השאלתות והגמ"יי בשם הר"מ) ולכן נהגו להקל במדינות אלו: For his teacher from whom he derived the greater part of his wisdom, whether in Bible, Mishna or Gemara,44B.M. 33a, ‘R. Judah said, He from whom one derived the greater part of his knowledge.’ This refers to either Bible, Mishna or Gemara. Ibid., ‘It was stated, R. Isaac said on the authority of R. Joḥanan, the halachah is as R. Judah.’ one rends all his garments until he bares his chest.45Yad, Ebel IX, 2 and Tur. And some say that he rends only to the extent of a handbreadth,46Tur, derived from N and Asheri. and he never resews the rent;47M.K. 26a, ‘Our Rabbis taught, And these are rents that art not to be resewn: One who rends his garments for his father and mother or his teacher who taught him wisdom.’ Cf. Tosaf. a.l. s.v. קרע and Rashi and Tosaf. B.M. ibid. s.v. ומקרעין. even if he receives distant tidings,48 infra § 402. he must always rend [garments] for him. However, if he did not derive the greater part of his wisdom from him, he rends [garments] for him only according to the law of other dead, for whom he [must] mourn; and even if he learnt from him only a single matter, whether small or great, he must rend [garments] for him.49B.M. ibid., ‘R. Jose said: Even if he enlightened his eyes in a single Mishna only, he is considered his teacher. Said Raba: e.g., R. Seḥora who told me the meaning of Zohamalistron (ζωμóλιστρον). Cf. commentaries ibid. Gloss: Some say that a rent made for one's teacher who is not distinguished,50רבו מובהק A distinguished teacher refers to one from whom he has derived the greater part of his knowledge. Cf. supra § 242, 30. must also not be resewn.51Tur citing Asheri; B.Yos. on the authority of Rashi; Tosaf. and RaN — G. [With respect to] scholars who sit together, debate with, and resolve problems for one another, and study together, some say that they are considered to be in the category of a teacher who is not distinguished; others say that they are in the category of a teacher who is distinguished52The two opinions are found in Tur — G. B.M. ibid., ‘The scholars in Babylon arise before and rend their garments for each other in mourning.’ Cf. Rashi ibid. s.v. עומדין from which this is derived.; [still] others say that [garments] are to be rent only for one's teacher who taught him the greater part of his knowledge, but for fellow-collegiates who study together or for one who enlightened his eyes in a single matter, [rending garments] is merely an [additional] stingency,53According to this opinion Samuel and the Babylonian scholars (B.M. ibid.) rent their garments as an added stringency. and wherever such is the practice, it is followed, and wherever such is not the practice, it is not followed; but we do not rule thus.54Mord.; Hag. Asheri citing She’iltoth and Hag. Maim. on the authority of R. Meir of Rothenberg — G. One observes mourning for a teacher who had taught him wisdom for one day or one hour only — TaZ. Cf. supra § 242, 25. Hence it is the common practice to adopt the more lenient view in these countries.
על כל המתים קורע עליו טפח בבגד העליון ודיו ועל אביו ואמו קורע כל בגדיו אפילו הוא לבוש י' עד שמגלה לבו ואם לא קרע כל בגדיו לא יצא וגוערים בו וכל זמן שאותו הבגד עליו אומרים לו קרע אפילו לאחר שלשים: For all other dead, one rends [to the extent of] a hand-breadth in the uppermost garment, and this is sufficient; but for one's father and mother, one rends all his garments, even though he be wearing ten, until he bares his chest.55M.K. 22b. It is customary that for parents one rends his garments on the left side (close to the heart), and for other dead (e.g., a son, a brother etc.) one rends on the right side — ShaK on the authority of RaShaL. If one rent the undermost garment, he has discharged his duty — P.Tesh. One is permitted to take off a garment which he wishes to spare and to wear another garment for rending purposes, even in the case of losing a parent. Rending in a ribbon or cloth attached to a garment is not considered valid — G.Mah. and Bir. Yos. If he did not rend all his garments, he has not discharged his duty,56Derived from M.K. ibid. ‘The rending of one’s undershirt is not indispensable.’ Hence, it follows that in the case of all other garments it is indispensable. Cf. Asheri; T.H. on the authority of RaBaD. and he is rebuked [for this];57He is rebuked as in the case of one who disregards the performance of a religious duty enjoined by the Sages. Cf Tur a.l. and as long as the garment is upon him, he is instructed, 'Rend!,' even after thirty days.
אפרקסותו אינו צריך לקרוע יש מפרשין שהוא בגד הזיעה הדבוק לבשרו ויש מפרשים דהיינו בגד העליון שקורין קאפ"ה ופשט המנהג שלא לקרוע הקאפ"ה על שום מת אפי' על אביו ואמו ולקרוע על אביו ואמו גם החלוק שקורין קאמיז"ה. (כל בו בשם רבותיו הפוסקים וסמ"ק לפי' הערוך) : הגה ובמדינות אלו אין נוהגין כן אלא אין קורעין החלוק של פשתן שהוא בגד הזיעה ולא הסרבל העליון אבל שאר בגדיו קורע באביו ואמו ובשאר מתים המלבוש העליון תחת הסרבל (סמ"ג בשם רבותינו הצרפתים): One is not required to rend his epikarsion.58M.K. ibid.: ‘And the rending of one’s ἐτπκάρσιλον is not indispensable.’ Cf. N; Asheri contra RaBaD; W.G. a.l. Some explain that it refers to the sweat-shirt, next to his skin;59Tur citing ‘Aruk. ‘Ar. Comp. s.v. אפיקרסין Cf. Yad; Ebel VIII, 3; T.A. I, 164 nn. 503-5. others explain that it refers to he uppermost garment which is called Caffa.60The Caffa is essentially a rich silk cloth worn on the head over the shoulders reaching down towards the middle of the body about 40 sq. in. Arabic (qufiyah, i.e., made in al-Qufah). And the custom has spread not to rend the Caffa for any dead whatsoever, even [not] for one's father or mother; and to rend for one's father or mother also the garment called chemise.61Kol Bo citing his teachers and SeMaK on the basis of ‘Aruk — G. Gloss: In these countries we do not follow this custom, [but the law is that] we do not rend the linen garment, namely, the sweat-shirt, nor [do we rend] the top mantle,62Thus also Mas’ath Biny. in Resp. But one is required to rend his jacket both for parents of for other dead — ibid. TaZ rejects this ruling, viz., to rend the jacket. For it is not definitely established that this garment should be rent according to the law, even if one should desire to adopt a stringent view, — for it may lead to a leniency in the case of other dead where only the top garment, (i.e., beneath the jacket) is required to be rent according to he law. ShaK in Nek. Hak. agrees with Mas’ath Biny. Kol Bo(G) I, p. 28, 7 who concludes that today we rend the vest. but all other garments one must rend for his father or mother,63Until he bares his chest. Cf. supra par. 9 — ShaK. and in [the case of] other dead, the top garment under the mantle.64SeMaG on the authority of the French Rabbis — G.
אחד האיש ואחד האשה שוים לענין קריעה אלא שהאשה קורעת התחתון ומחזירתו לאחריה וחוזרת וקורעת העליון: Both the man as well as the woman are alike with respect to the law of rending [garments], only that the woman rends her undermost garment [first] and turns it front to back, and then rends her uppermost garment.65M.K. ibid. according to RaShBA’s interpretation. Cf. also Sem(H). IX, 7. This procedure is adopted in order to avoid exposure of her chest. This refers to rending garments for parents, in which case one is dutibound to rend all garments. Hence, she adopts the above procedure in order to avoid exposure of her chest, so that if men are present they should not be led to obscene thoughts. Although Isserles (supra par. 10) rules that the undermost garment is not rent, nevertheless, even exposure of the undermost garment may lead to obscenity — ShaK.
על כל המתים אם רצה מניח שפת הבגד שלימה וקורע מהשפה ולמטה ועל אביו ואמו צריך לקרוע כל השפה (וי"א אף על שאר מתים צריך לקרוע השפה (מרדכי) וכן נוהגין) (מהרי"ו סי' ו'): For all other dead, if one desires, he leaves the upper selvage-border [around the neck] intact, and rends from under the border downwards; for his father or mother he must rend the entire border.66For only in rending the selvage-border proper does the garment appear as torn into two separate pieces (M.K. ibid.). Some say that even for other dead he must rend the border.67Mord. — G. This is in accord with R. Judah (ibid.): ‘Any rending that does not separate the selvage-border is considered a wanton rent.’ He derives this from II Kings II, And thus is the accepted practice.68MaHaRIW c. 6 — G.
על כל המתים יש לו לקרוע בפנים שלא בפני אדם לפיכך יש לו להכניס ידו בפנים וקורע בצינעא אבל על אביו [ואמו] אינו קורע אלא מבחוץ בפני כל אדם: For all [other] dead one should rend inside, [i.e.,] not in the presence of people. Hence, he brings his hand inside and rends in privacy.69With the least publicity possible. However, for one's father and mother one rends only outside, [i.e.,] in the presence of all people.70Demonstrating his grief openly. M.K. ibid. Inside מבפנים and outside מבחוץ are explained by Rashi, quoted by some of the commentators (Cf. Be’er ha-Golah a.l.), but not found in cur. edd. of Rashi’s commentary on the Talmud, as meaning, privately and publicly, respectively. Ghayyat explains that ‘inside’ means the inner garment. Thus also N. This follows from the fact that the expressions מבפנים and מבחוץ are used and not בפנים and בחוץ. Caro combines both interpretations in stating the law here. Cf. also Yad, Ebel VIII, 2 with whom Caro agrees. Rashi in cur. edd. agrees with Ghayyat.
על כל המתים רצה קורע ביד רצה קורע בכלי על אביו ואמו ביד על כל המתים אם בא להחליף תוך ז' ימים מחליף ואינו קורע על אביו ואמו אם מחליף תוך ז' קורע כל הבגדים שהוא מחליף ואינו מאחה לעולם כמו בפעם הראשון. (על כל המתים יכול להחזיר קרעו לאחריו תוך שבעה אבל לא באביו ואמו) (רבינו ירוחם בשם הראב"ד): For all other dead, if one desires, he rends with the hand or if he desires he rends with an instrument; for one's father and mother, [one rends] with the hand.71M.K. ibid. It is customary for another person to make an initial rent in the garment (either with his hand or with an instrument) and then the mourner completes the required rending himself — Hok. Adam. For all other dead, if one has occasion to change his garment during the seven days, he changes, but does not rend [afresh]; for one's father and mother, if one changes during the seven days, he rends all the garments [into] which he changes,72M.K. 24a. This refers to changing garments during a weekday. On the Sabbath, however, if one has occasion to change garments, he does not rend them even for his father or mother. If he has not garments to change into, he turns the rent side front to back (ibid. 24a). Thus also Yad, Ebel X, 1 and also implied infra § 400. This applies only if he changes to weekday garments but he must not change to Sabbath apparel (cf. infra § 389, 3) — ShaK. and never resews the rents, as in the first instance [of rending].73Y. M.K. III, 8(83d) end. For all other dead, one may turn the rent front to back during seven [days]; but not for one's father or mother.74R. Yeruḥam citing RaBaD — G. This is contrary to Sem(H). X, 10.
על כל המתים שולל (פי' תופר תפירה בלתי שוה) לאחר ז' ומאחה לאחר שלשים יום (ואין חילוק אם פגע בהם הרגל או לא) (הגמ"יי בשם ראבי"ה) על אביו ואמו שולל לאחר ל' יום ואינו מאחה לעולם והאשה שוללת לאלתר מפני כבודה: הגה וכל זמן שאסור לשלול אפילו לחבר ראש הקריעה ע"י מחט אסור ויש מקומות שנהגו להחמיר אפי' על שאר מתים שלא לשלול תוך ל' ואז אפילו ראש הקריעה אסור לחבר ע"י מחט. (מהרי"ו סי' ו'): For all other dead, one bastes the rent together, — this means to sew with irregular stitches — after seven days, and resews the edges after thirty days,75M.K. 22b. שלל refers to rough basting stitches; אחה to fine regular stitches — TaZ. It is permitted to baste together the edges of the rent on the eve of a Festival, provided it is close to evening after the Minḥa Service has been recited — ShaK. and it matters not whether the Festival occurred therein or not;76Hag. Maim. citing Ra’BIaH — G. Although a Festival annuls the seven or thirty days of mourning (v. infra § 399), that is true only with respect to the law of mourning where the lenient view is adopted, but not regarding the law of rending garments, where the strict view is followed. Hence, in the latter case complete seven or thirty days are required. Today, however, it is customary to resew the edges of the rent as soon as the period of mourning is over, for observance of mourning and rending of garments are on the same footing (cf. infra par. 30) — ShaK. for one's father or mother, one bastes the rent together after thirty days and never resews the edges;77It is forbidden to remove the rent part and to replace it by patching another piece of cloth underneath — P.Tesh. and G.Mah. After twelve months of mourning for parents, this may be done — BaḤ and TaZ. and a woman may baste [the rent] together forthwith out of respect due to her. Gloss: As long as it is forbidden to baste together, it is likewise forbidden to fasten the edges of the rent with a needle. There are localities where it is customary to be stringent even for other dead, viz., not to baste together within thirty days, and then it is even forbidden to fasten the edges of he rent with a needle.78MaHaRIW § 6 — G.
על כל המתים אם רצה חולץ כתף על אביו ואמו חייב לחלוץ כתף והולך כך לפני המטה עד שיקבר ואם הבן אדם גדול ואין כבודו שילך חלוץ כתף אין צריך לחלוץ: For all other dead, if he desires, he bares his shoulder [in mourning];79On the meaning of this term, v. ‘Ar. Comp. s.v. חלץ n. 6. for his father or mother, he is obliged to bare his shoulder;80M.K. ibid. Sem(H). IX, 3. and thus he walks before the bier until [the corpse] is interred.81B.K. 17a. If the son is a great man and it is not dignified for him to walk with his shoulder bared, he is not dutibound to do so.82Derived by N from M.K. ibid. Cf. also Sem(H). ibid.
נשיא דומה לאב לחליצת כתף ולקרוע מבחוץ ולאחוי כל הקורעים על חכם שמת כיון שהחזירו פניהם מאחורי המטה שוללין ומאחין למחר וחכם שבאה שמועתו שולל בו ביום ומאחה למחר ועל נשיא ועל רבו מובהק שולל למחר ואינו מאחה לעולם על חכם חולץ מימין ועל אב ב"ד משמאל ועל נשיא מכאן ומכאן ועל אביו ואמו ועל רבו מובהק רצה מכאן רצה מכאן ואם רצה חולץ שתיהן. (וי"א דעכשיו בזמן הזה לא נהגו לחלוץ כתף כלל (כל בו בשם ר"י) וכן נוהגין האידנא): A Nasi is equal to one's father with respect to baring the shoulder [in mourning], rending publicly and resewing the edges.83M.K. ibid. All those who rend garments for a Sage who died, — [the law is] that as soon as they have turned away their faces from the rear of the bier, they may baste together the rent84M.K. 25a. and resew the edges on the following day. On receiving the news of the death of a Sage, [after rending the garment], one bastes together the rent on the very same day, and resews the edges the next day;85Yad, Ebel IX, 12, 13 contra N who sees no reason why this should not be done the same day. Kes. Mish. a.l.; Sem(H). IX, 6; comments of W.G. and for a Nasi and one's distinguished teacher, one bastes together the next day but never resews the edges.86Yad, Ebel ibid.; W.G. a.l. For a Sage one bares the shoulder on the right; for the Ab Beth Din, on the left, and for a Nasi on both sides.87M.K. 22b; Sem(H). IX, 2. For one's father, mother and distinguished teacher, if he desires he bares either side or if he desires he bares both sides.88Asheri ibid. Thus also Tur. Some say that nowadays it is not customary to bare the shoulder at all.89Kol Bo on the authority of RI — G. And thus is the accepted practice today.
על כל המתים אם לא שמע אלא לאחר ל' יום אינו קורע ומי שאין לו חלוק ונזדמן לו תוך שבעה קורע אחר ז' אינו קורע על אביו ועל אמו קורע והולך לעולם (כל בגדיו) (מהרי"ו סי' י"ג): For all other dead, if one did not receive the [death-] report until after thirty days, he does not rend.90M.K. 20b in accord with R. Mani. One who had no garment [at that time that is required to be rent according to law],91E.g., if his garments were torn or he was wearing borrowed garments or he possesses only a linen undershirt which is not rent (v. supra par. 10 Gloss) — ShaK. and [later, a garment that is required to be rent], chanced to come to his hand, — [the law is that if the garment was obtained] during the seven [days], he rends [it]; [if] after the seven [days], he does not rend [it]. However, for his father and mother he always92Y. M.K. III, 5(82c); Tur on the authority of Hal. Ged.; N. rends93M.K. ibid. in accord with R. Zera. all his garments.94MaHaRIW § 13 — G. This refers to all his garments which he wears at the time he received the report, but not to those which he has occasion to change to (v. supra par. 14) — ShaK. If the death report was received on the Sabbath, he rends on the night following the Sabbath as in the case of one who receives near tidings of other dead on the Sabbath (v. infra § 402, 7). One who either advertently or inadvertently did not rend garments; if it is still within the seven days of mourning, which is regarded as ‘the moment of excitement,’ he must rend; if it is after seven days, he does not rend; for one’s parents, one rends garments even after twelve months — N. If a person was ill and his mind was disturbed, the law is that when he returns to normal health, that moment is considered for him ‘the moment of excitement’ שעת חימום and he rends garments even for other dead, provided it is still within the thirty days. However, if his mind was not disturbed, but he did not rend because he was dangerously ill, TaZ states that after the seven days he is exempt from rending for his near-of-kin (excluding his parents). BaḤ and ShaK hold that the latter case is on the same footing as one whose mind was disturbed. infra § 396, n. 5
כשם שאסו' לאחות קרע שאינו מתאחה כך אסור להפוך צד עליון של בגד למטה ולאחותו ואפי' הלוקח אותו אסור לאחותו לפיכך אם בא למכרו צריך להודיעו ואם מכרו לו סתם ולא הודיעו אסור לאחותו עד שידע שאינו מהקרעים שאינם מתאחים ואסור למכרו לעובד כוכבים: Just as he is forbidden to mend a rent which must not be resewn, so also is it forbidden to turn a garment upside down and resew the rent.95M.K. 26b in accord with R. Simeon b. Eleazar. Thus also Alfasi, Asheri, Maim., and N on the authority of Hal. Ged. Cf. Y.Shab. I, 3(4a); ibid. A.Z. I, 1(39b) where it is stated that with respect to Sabbath, mourning rites and idoltary the law follows R. Simeon b. Eleazar. Even the one who buys it is forbidden to resew [the rent]. Therefore, the vendor must inform the buyer thereof.96M.K. ibid. If he does not inform the buyer it is regarded as a purchase made in error — ShaK. And if he sold it to him without specifying and did not inform him [about the rent in the garment], the latter is forbidden to resew the rent until he knows that it is not one of the rents that may not be resewn.97Sem(H). IX, 20. Cf. however, supra § 16, 6 and § 316, 6, where it is stated that in a case where the buyer was not informed, he should have no apprehension contrary to the law stated here. Be’er ha-Golah removes the contradiction by saying that in our case the underlying reason is different, for were the rent one of those that may be resewn, the vendor would have done so himself, since a garment with a rent is worth less money. Cf. ShaK a.l. for further distinctions. It is forbidden to sell it to a Gentile.98Sem(H). ibid. Since the Gentile will undoubtedly resew the rent.
הקורע מתוך המלל ומתוך השלל ומתוך הליקוט ומתוך הסולמות לא יצא אבל מתוך איחוי אלכסנדרי דהיינו תפירה שהיא שוה למעלה ובולטת מלמטה יצא: One who rends his garment in a part that has been mended by hemming or chain-stitches, or where the edges were gathered up by cross or ladder-stitch, has not discharged his duty;99He must rend only where there was no previous rent. but if [he rent] in a part that has been reunited by the Alexandrian mending,100M.K. ibid. i.e., by stitching which is even on the surface and projects on the bottom,101N on the authority of RaBaD. Thus according to Be’er ha-Golah. W.G. points out that N does not accept this interpretation, but holds that the Alexandrian mending is even on both sides. Cf. Y. M.K. III, 8(83d); Sem(H). IX, 18; M.K. ibid. Tosaf. s.v. ובאיחוי. he has discharged his duty.
קרע על המת ומת לו מת אחר תוך ז' קורע קרע אחר לאחר ז' מוסיף על קרע הראשון כל שהוא מת לו מת שלישי אחר ז' של שני מוסיף עליו כל שהוא וכן מוסיף והולך עד טבורו הגיע לטבור מרחיק ג' אצבעות וקורע נתמלא לפניו מחזירו לאחוריו נתמלא מלמעלה הופכו למטה נתמלא מכאן ומכאן נעשה כמי שאין לו חלוק שאינו קורע: [If] one rent [his garment] on sustaining a bereavement, and then suffered another bereavement; [if] during the seven days [of the first bereavement], he rends anew;102He may add a handbreadth to the first rent or he moves away a distance of three fingers and rends a handbreadth. infra par. 23 — TaZ and ShaK. [if] after the seven days, he extends the first rent a little. [If] he suffered a third bereavement after the seven days of the second one, he extends the rent a little;103Yad, Ebel VIII, 10 according to one opinion in M.K. ibid. Thus also Alfasi and Asheri. If this occurs during the seven days of the second bereavement, he must rend a handbreadth — ShaK. and thus he continues to extend until [the region of] his navel. Having reached the [region of the] navel, — [on sustaining another bereavement], he moves away a distance of three fingers [from the previous rent] and rends anew. [If] the forepart [of his garment] has become full [of rents], he turns [the garment] front to back;104And then rends in the front. [if] it becomes full [of rents] in the upper parts, he turns the garment upside down;105M.K. ibid. according to the first opinion. He adapts the bottom part for the neck and then rends — ShaK. [if] both these regions have become full [of rents], he is considered as one who has no garment and does not have to rend.106Y. M.K. III, 7(83c).
אמרו לו מת אביו וקרע ואחר ז' מת בנו והוסיף מתאחה התחתון ולא העליון אמרו לו מת בנו וקרע ואחר ז' מת אביו אינו מוסיף אלא קורע קריעה אחרת שאין אביו ואמו בתוספת: [If] one was informed that his father died and he rent [his garment], and after seven [days] his son died and he added thereto; the lower part may be resewn but not the upper part. [If] one was informed that his son died and he rent [his garment], and after seven [days] his father died, he does not add thereto, but makes another rent,107If when rending the first time for his son, he rent the entire selvage-border, it is sufficient to merely add thereto — BaḤ. This is rejected by ShaK who maintains that even if the border was rent, he must make a new rent now. because [a rent made] for one's father or mother is not added to [a previous rent].108M.K. ibid.
מי שמתו לו שני מתים כא' או שבאה לו שמועה משנים כאחד קורע קריעה אחת על שניהם קרע ואח"כ מת לו מת אחר (תוך שבעה) (טור) קורע קרע בפני עצמו בין באותו קרע עצמו שמוסיף בו וקורע עוד טפח או מרחיק ג' אצבעות וקורע טפח לאחר ז' מוסיף על קרע ראשון כל שהוא מת אביו או אמו ואחד משאר קרוביו קורע תחלה על אביו או על אמו עד לבו ומרחיק שלשה אצבעות וקורע טפח על המת האחר מת אביו וקרע ואחר ז' מת א' מהקרובים מוסיף על קרע הראשון ותחתון מתאחה ועליון אינו מתאחה מת א' מהקרובים וקרע ואח"כ מת אביו או אמו בין בתוך ז' בין לאחר ז' מרחיק ג' אצבעות וקורע מן הצד בשפת הבגד שהרי צריך להבדיל קמי שפה וקורע עד שמגיע ללבו מתו אביו ואמו כא' קורע קרע אחד על שניהם: One who suffered two bereavements simultaneously, or two such reports reached him at the same time, makes one rent for both.109Tur on the authority of N, derived from M.K. ibid. [If] after he rent [his garment] he suffered another bereavement within the seven [days],110Tur — G. he makes a separate rent, either in the very same rent to which he adds and rends another handbreadth, or he moves away a distance of three fingers and rends a handbreadth; [if] after seven [days], he extends the first rent a little.111Cf. supra par. 21 and notes. [If] his father of his mother and one of his [other] near-of-kin died, he rends first for his father or his mother down to [the region of] the heart and moves away [a distance of] three fingers and rends a handbreadth for the other dead. [If] his father died and he rent [his garment] and after seven [days] one of his near-of-kin died, he adds to the first rent; and the lower part may be resewn but not the upper part. [If] one of his near-of-kin died and he rent [his garment], and then his father or his mother died, — [the law is that] whether it was during or after the seven [days], he moves away a distance of three fingers and rends on the side in the border of the garment, for he has to separate the selvage-border,112This means that although he separated the selvgae-border on making the first rent, nevertheless, since he is required to separate the border now too, therefore, a new rent is necessary and not a mere extension of the first — ShaK. and he rends until he reaches the [region of the] heart.113M.K. ibid. in accord with R. Judah b. Bathyra. [If] his father and his mother died simultaneously, he makes one rent for both.114For R. Judah b. Bathyra requires two separate rents only when one suffered one bereavement of his father or mother and another bereavement of one of the other near-of-kin; but in the case where both bereavements sustained were his parents, one rent suffices for both — N.
אמרו לו מת אביו וקרע ואח"כ נמצא שהוא בנו יצא ידי קריעה והוא שנודע לו תוך כדי דיבור ואם לא נודע לו עד אחר כדי דיבור לא יצא אבל אם אמרו לו מת לך מת וכסבור אביו הוא וקרע ואח"כ נמצא שהוא בנו יצא אפי' לא נודע לו עד אחר כדי דיבור: [If] one was informed that his father died and he rent [his garment], and then it was discovered that it was his son [who died], he has discharged his duty of rending,115 TaZ supra § 234, 33. provided it became known to him within the period of an utterance.116The period of an utterance means the time it takes to extend a greeting. Cf. Naz. 20b. However, if it became known to him after the period of an utterance, he has not discharged his duty. But if he was informed that he suffered a bereavement, and thinking that it was his father, he rent [his garment], and then it was discovered to have been his son [who died], — [the law is that] he has discharged his duty, even if it became known to him only after the period of an utterance.117Ned. 87a. Thus Alfasi, Asheri and RaN. BaḤ rejects this ruling and states that the individual has not discharged his duty, because his act is not considered unspecified, since he thought it was his father. It would be regarded as unspecified only if he were to rend the garment ‘for whomever it is’ and not to think that it was his father, in which case he would have fulfilled his duty and not have to rend again, even if it becomes known to him after the period of an utterance. This reasoning finds support in D.M. on the authority of N.Yos., who writes that if one sustains a bereavement and knows not who it is, and rends garments without specifying for whom he does this, and later discovers who it was, discharges his duty on the principle of Bererah (v. Glos.). also Yad, Ebel VIII, 8; Sem(H) IX, 16; Y. M.K. 7(83c).
היה לו חולה ונתעלף וקרע עליו ואח"כ מת אם מת תוך כדי דיבור של קריעה אין צריך קריעה אחרת ואם לאו צריך קריעה אחרת: One who has an invalid who fell into a swoon [and appears to be dead], and he rent [his garment] for him, and subsequently [the invalid] died; if he died within the period of an utterance from the time of rending, he is not dutibound to make another rending, but if not, he requires another rending.118Cf. Ned. ibid.; infra § 375, 1 Gloss.
אמרו לו מת אביו וקרע ונהג קצת ימי אבלות ואח"כ אמרו לו לא מת והפסיק וחזרו ואמרו לו בפעם הראשון מת כמו שאמרו הראשונים יצא ידי קריעה: [If] one was informed that his father died and he rent [his garment] and observed some days of mourning, and subsequently was informed that he did not die, and he discontinued the observance [of mourning rites], after which he was again told that he did die the first time according to the report of the first people, he has discharged his duty of rending.119This is based upon the same principle stated supra in par. 25, viz., that another rending is required only if the death did not take place within the period of an utterance from the time of rending. Similarly here, according to the final report he received which verified the first tidings, the rending took place at the proper time. This, however, would not apply were he still alive at the time the first report was brought to him, for then it would be after the period of an utterance — TaZ and ShaK. In the latter case he would have to recite again the benediction, ‘Judge of Truth’ — Sede Ḥemed. Regarding the seven day period of mourning which he observed partially, it may be stated that since the mourning took effect through his initial observance, he does not have to complete the days he missed unwillfully. They are, therefore, counted in as part of his period of mourning. This matter, however, requires further study (cf. infra § 396) — ShaK.
קטן שמת לו מת מקרעין לו: [With respect to] a minor who suffered a bereavement, — [the law is that] we rend [his garment] for him.120M.K. ibid. The reason given (ibid.) is in order to stir up grief. According to Ghayyat the law of rending the minor’s garments falls into the same category as all other religious duties into which minor children must be introduced. B.Yos. states that this is done even when the reason to stir up grief does not apply. Derisha holds that a minor who has reached the age when children are introduced into religious practices, must also observe all rites of mourning. This viewpoint is accepted by TaZ. ShaK in Nek. HaK. rejects this comparison. His reason is that only when the minor becomes of age during the seven days of mourning does the problem arise whether he should observe seven complete days of mourning. But if he is still a minor (less than thirteen years plus one day) this problem does not apply. D.Merb. agrees with ShaK. His reason is that by requiring him to observe the mourning rites, we thereby cause him to neglect the study of the Torah, which is not so in the case of rending garments. Cf. infra § 396, 3, notes 10-11.
הקורע בשבת על מתו אע"פ שחלל שבת יצא ידי קריעה: One who rends [his garments] on the Sabbath for his dead, although he desecrated the Sabbath, has discharged his duty of rending.121Shab. 105b.
הקורע בחלוק גזול לא יצא ידי קריעה: One who rends in a garment that was acquired illegitimately, has not discharged his duty.122Tur on the authority of N, who derives it from Y. Shab. XIII, 3(14a). This case differs from the one mentioned in the previous par., since here the object proper was obtained illegitimately and the rending is regarded as a religious act achieved through a wrong deed (cf. Suk. 30a) ; whereas in the former case only the act of rending was a sin.
קטן דלא קים לן ביה שכלו לו חדשיו שמת בתוך ל' או אפילו ביום שלשים אין קורעין עליו: For a child regarding whom we do not know for certain that its months [of pregnancy] were complete, who died within thirty [days from birth] or even on the thirtieth day, we do not rend [garments].123Shab. 136b, because the rending of garments is a Rabbinical enactment and in a doubtful case we follow the more lenient view— TaZ. But when we know for certain that its months were complete we must rend garments and observe mourning rites — ShaK.
אין קורעין ביום טוב אפי' בי"ט שני של גליות אפי' קרובים של מת אבל בחול המועד קורעין על כל אחד כפי מה שהוא אם עומד בשעת יציאת נשמה או אם הוא אדם כשר או חכם על כל אחד כדינו שנתבאר: הגה וי"א דנוהגין שאין לקרוע בחול המועד רק על אביו ואמו ועל שאר מתים קורעין לאחר המועד (ת"ה סי' רפ"ח) ובמקום שאין מנהג יש לקרוע על כולם: One does not rend [garments] on a Festival day,124Mishna, M.K. 24b. even on the second Festival day of the Diaspora;125Yad, Ebel XI, 1 and N. In the Diaspora every Festival which is observed for one day is kept for two days because of doubt. For example, Passover occurs on the fifteenth of Nisan. It was necessary, therefore, to know when the New Moon appears in order to determine when the Festival was to be fixed. This was done through the testimony of witnesses. However, this applied only to the thirtieth day of the month, but the thirty-first day could be consecrated even without the confirmation of witnesses, since the moon renewed itself about every twenty-nine and a half days. Those who lived in the Land of Israel proper were easily contacted through messengers who were sent out to inform the people whether the Sanhedrin in the city of Jerusalem had consecrated the thirtieth or the thirty-first day of the month, thus making the month just passed full or defective. Hence, those who lived in the Diaspora could not be informed in time and because of doubt observed two Festival days. E.g., Passover was kept on the fifteenth and the sixteenth of Nisan. even the near-of-kin of the dead. However, during Hol ha-Moed125* Glos. one rends according to whatever the case may be, [viz.,] if one is present at the time of the departure of the soul, or if it is for a worthy person or for a scholar; for everyone according to the law as has been explained.126M.K. ibid., Mishna and Gem. Mishna le-Melek, Yad, Ebel ibid., who writes that for one who died and was interred (by Gentiles) on the first Festival day, he is not permitted to rend garments during the Festival week (Ḥol ha-Moed), but must postpone the rending until after the entire Festival is over, at which time mourning rites take effect. But if one suffered a bereavement during the Festival week, he is permitted to rend garments immediately after death at the moment of excitement (cf. O.Ḥ. § 547, 3) — P.Tesh. Gloss: Some say that it is customary to rend [garments] during Hol ha-Moed125* Glos. only for one's father and mother, and for all other dead one rends after the Festival.127Ter. Had. § 288 — G. And in a locality where there is no accepted practice, one must rend for all.128According to the custom not to rend garments during Ḥol ha-Moed, a distinction is made between one’s parents and other near-of-kin ; and according to the custom to rend garments during Ḥol ha-Moed (which finds support in Mishna ibid.), one must rend for all near-of-kin — TaZ. And even with respect to the former opinion, not to rend garments during Ḥol ha-Moed, it applies only if it is still possible to rend after the Festival, but where during the Festival the tidings are ‘near,’ and after the Festival they become ‘distant’, the law is that we rend during Ḥol ha-Moed — BaḤ. For ‘distant tidings one does not rend during Ḥol ha-Moed, even for parents, since the mourning rites are over, consequently the rending is also not made — RaShaL. Cf. O.Ḥ. § 546, 6.
שמע ברגל שמועה קרובה קורע ואפילו אם אחר הרגל תהיה רחוקה: One who received near tidings during a Festival [i.e., on Hol ha-Moed]125* Glos. must rend [garments] even if after the Festival it becomes distant tidings.129Tur citing N. According to the Talmud, rending of garments and observance of mourning for seven days are interrelated, ‘There is no rending without seven days (of mourning).’ It might have been thought that in the present case one should not rend garments, since the mourning rites will not be observed after the Festival but for one day, for then the tidings become distant. We are therefore, informed in this par. otherwise. For the interrelationship between rending and mourning applies only if one receives the death report on the Festival day proper, when it is forbidden to rend garments, and after the entire Festival it becomes distant tidings, at which time the mourning rites are completely suspended but for one day. In such a case only do we apply the aforementioned principle, ‘There is no rending without mourning.’ However, when near tidings are received during Ḥol ha-Moed, when rending garments is permissible (v. supra par. 31), he rends even if it becomes distant tidings after the Festival. For the Festival merely interrupts the mourning rites but not the rending — TaZ and ShaK.
ההולך בבגד קרוע לפני המת שמראה עצמו שקרע ולא קרע ה"ז גוזל את החיים ואת המתים: One who goes forth before the dead with a garment already rent, [and] who makes show that he has rent but actually has not rent [his garment], robs the living and the dead.130M.K. 26b. For he thereby deceives everyone.
האומר לחבירו השאילני חלוקך שאבקר את אבא שהוא חולה והלך ומצאו שמת קורעו ומאחהו ומחזיר לו חלוקו ומשלם לו דמי קרעו ואם לא הודיעו ה"ז לא יגע בו: One who says to his friend, 'Lend me your garment that I may visit my father who is ill,' and he went and found him already dead, rends it and resews the rent131Although the law is that for a father we must never resew the edges of the rent (cf. supra par. 15), in this case it is different, since he was only given implicit permission to rend the garment, in order to avoid embarrassment to the borrower, but he was never given acquisition rights. Consequently, he mends the rent — TaZ and ShaK. and returns the garment to him and compensates him for the damage done by the rent. But if he did not inform him [that he is going to visit his father],132He did not express the wish to visit his sick father. he must not touch it.133M.K. ibid. Cf. Sem(H). IX, 20. And even if he rends the garment, he has not discharged his duty, for he is regarded as a borrower without the knowledge of the owner, who is considered under such circumstances a robber (Cf. supra par. 29) — ShaK.
המשאיל לחבירו חלוק לילך בו לבית האבל אינו רשאי ליטול ממנו עד שיעברו ימי האבל: (ובחושן המשפט סי' שמ"א סעיף ב' לא פסק כן) : One who lends his friend a garment to go to the house of mourning, is not permitted to take it back from him until the days of mourning are over.134Cf. Sem(H). ibid. In H.M. § 341 he [Caro] does not rule thus.135There is no contradiction between these rulings. In Ḥ.M. we deal with a case of one who borrows שואל a garment from his friend in order to visit a house of mourning and return, i.e., the borrower himself made this request of the lender. Therefore, since the lender agreed to accomodate the borrower, he may say, ‘I loaned you the garment for one day only,’ i.e., to go and return. In our present case, it was the lender משאיל who approached the borrower to go and perform the condolence rites. Hence, this precept rests upon the borrower every day of the seven days of mourning, and therefore, the lender must not demand the return of the garment before the entire period of mourning is over — ShaK.
קורעין על שמועות רעות כגון שנקבצו רוב הצבור למלחמה ושמעו שנגפו לפני אויביהם אפי' לא נהרגו אלא המיעוט מהם (וה"ה אם הלכו בשבי) (נ"י פא"מ): One must rend [garments] on hearing evil tidings, e.g., when the majority [of the people] of the community gathered for war and a report was received that they were smitten before their enemies,136M.K. ibid. Derived from, ‘Then David took hold of his clothes and rent them; and likewise all the men that were with him. And they wailed and wept and fasted until even, for Saul and for Jonathan his son and for the people of the Lord and for the house of Israel, because they were fallen by the sword’ (II Sam. I, 11-12). From this verse it appears that one must observe mourning rites all day. Therefore, the rent should be stitched together the following day. Likewise, may the rent be resewn on the next day — ShaK. This latter statement of ShaK, viz., that ‘the rent may be resewn the next day’ is attacked by the commentators (v. P.Tesh.), for according to the Talmud (v. also infra par. 39), a rent made on hearing evil tidings must never be resewn. It is, however, possible, that ShaK refers not to this case, but to other cases, viz., where a rent may be resewn, and on the basis of the above-mentioned verse, he holds that this should be done, not on the day the mourning rites are over, but rather on the following day. even if [only] a minority of them was put to death.137Thus N. Thus also if they went into captivity.138N.Yos. to M.K. III — G.
השומע ברכת השם ואפי' ברכת הכינוי (רמב"ם פ"ב מהלכות עבודת כוכבים ד"י) ואפי' אמרו בלשון לעז הוי ככינוי (נ"י פ' ד' מיתות) חייב לקרוע והוא שישמענה מישראל (וי"א דבזמן הזה מומר דינו כעובד כוכבים) (ג"ז שם) ואפי' השומע מהעדים היאך בירך פלוני חייב לקרוע והעדים אינם צריכים לקרוע פעם אחרת הרואה ס"ת שנשרף או תפילין או אפי' מגילה אחת מהנביאים או מהכתובים קורע שתי קריעות ודוקא ששורפין אותו בזרוע וכמעשה שהיה: One who hears the Divine Name,139M.K. 26a. He said, ‘May Jose smite Jose.’ Jose was a substitute for the Divine Name and was chosen because it contains four letters like the Tetragrammaton. Mishna, San. 56a. or even an attribute of the Divine Name, blasphemed,140Yad, Abodah Zarah II, 10 — G. This refers even to those attributes which may be blotted out or erased — P.Tesh. — and even if it was uttered in a foreign tongue it is considered an attribute,141N.Yos. San. ibid. — G. — is dutibound to rend [garments], provided he hears it from an Israelite,142San. 60a. For if we should rend garments on hearing blasphemy from Gentiles, our garments would be reduced to tatters — TaZ. — and some say that nowadays an apostate Israelite has the status of a Gentile,143N.Yos. ibid. — G. and even if one hears it from witnesses [who testify to the effect] that a certain person blasphemed [the Name], is dutibound to rend [garments].144San. ibid.; M.K. ibid. The witnesses, however, are not required to rend [their garments] again [on reporting].145Ibid. One who sees a Scroll of Law,146Ibid.; Sem(H). IX, 19 or phylacteries,147M.K. ibid. or even one Scroll of the Prophets or Hagioprapha148Thus Asheri, derived from the case of the Scroll which Jehoiakim burnt (v. Jer. XXXVI). that was burnt,149Similarly if torn, cut, blotted out by an Israelite or a Gentile by force — BaḤ. makes two rents,150One rent for damage done to the parchment and one for damage to the writing. provided only that it is burnt by force,151e., blamphemously, but not when it happens casually. San. and M.K. ibid. and only in the same manner as it once happened.148Thus Asheri, derived from the case of the Scroll which Jehoiakim burnt (v. Jer. XXXVI).
הרואה ערי יהודה בחורבנן או ירושלים או בהמ"ק חייב לקרוע (וע' בא"ח סי' תקס"א): One who sees the cities of Judea in ruin, or [at the sight of] Jerusalem or the Holy Temple, is dutibound to rend [garments].152 n. 148.
כל אלו הקרעים רשאי למוללן לשללן ללקטן לעשותן כמין סולמות למחרתו אבל אין מתאחין לעולם: All these [aforementioned] rents one is permitted to mend by hemming or chain-stitches, [or] to gather up by cross or ladder-stitch,153M.K. ibid. on the following day,154N.Yos.; R. Yeruḥam. Cf. Yad, Ebel. IX end and N in T.H. but they may never be resewn.153M.K. ibid.