איסור אכילה ביו"כ ושיעור כמותה ובו י"ס
האוכל ביום הכפורים ככותב' הגסה חייב והוא פחו' מכביצה מעט ושיעור זה שוה לכל אדם בין לננס בין לעוג מלך הבשן: “It is forbidden to eat on Yom Kippur, and the measure of its quantity” - Containing ten paragraphs.
One who eats on Yom Kippur as much as the size of a big date is guilty of the punishment of karet.88Karet, כרת; see footnote 78. (The amount of a big date) is a little less than (the quantity of) an egg, and this quantity applies equally to everybody, whether a dwarf (midget) or whether (one is the size of) Og, King of Bashan.89Og, King of Bashan was a very large, fat individual who lived in what is today the Golan Heights.
כל האוכלים מצטרפים לשיעור זה אפי' מלח שעל הבשר וציר שעל ירק אבל אכילה ושתיה אינן מצטרפות: All the food (that one eats) is combined to this measure (of less than a date), even salt that is on meat and juice that is on a vegetable, but eating and drinking are not being combined (they do not add together to get the quantity of a date, they are measured separately).
אכל וחזר ואכל אם יש מתחלת אכילה ראשונה עד סוף אכילה אחרונה כדי אכילת פרס מצטרפין ואם לאו אין מצטרפין: One who ate and ate again, if from the beginning of the first eating until the end of the last eating there was so much time as is needed to eat half a loaf of bread, then the food is being combined (to the above measure which was a date), but if not (if it took him longer than the time needed to eat half a loaf of bread) it is not combined (to the size of a date).
שיעור אכילת פרס י"א ד' ביצים וי"א ג' ביצים (שוחקות רשב"א): The (time) measure for eating a half a loaf of bread - some say it equals four eggs, and there are those who say it equals three eggs, (״שוחקות״ רשב״א).90Soḥakot (Rashba), (רשב״א) שוחקות, the word Soḥakot is a talmudic term of measure meaning large eggs. The reference is made that according to Rashba big eggs are to be considered when establishing the time that is required for eating in this case either three or four eggs. Rashba stipulated that these had to be large eggs and not another size.
Rashba as he is known, is the acronym for a Spanish rabbi named Solomon ben Abraham Adret who lived from around 1235 until approximately 1310. He was one of the foremost Jewish scholars of his day and he was a member of a well-to-do family in Barcelona where he lived all his life. He studied principlely under Jonah b. Abraham Gerondi and also under Naḥmanides. After a short career in business he became a rabbi in Barcelona for over forty years. He quickly became a well respected authority among Spanish Jewry and beyond. Adret gave responsa to questions addressed to him from all over the Jewish world. His responsa were gathered into collections and served as sources of guidance. He had the ability to simplify and clarify difficult material, and he wrote over one thousand responsa. His responsa serve as a picture of the type of life around his time both for Jews and non-Jews because of his knowledge of Roman law and local Spanish legal practice. Adret knew philosophy and science but was fearful to let the masses study it and not the Torah. He therefore placed a ban on secular studies for Jews. He criticized the influence of mysticism in Judaism and the allegorical method of interpreting the Bible which was popular in southern France and Spain. Adret also defended Judaism against non-Jewish challengers.
In addition to his numerous responsa Adret headed a yeshivah to which students flocked from as far away as Germany. Adret wrote novellae to seventeen tractates of the Talmud that made up his academy lectures. Adret commented on aggadot (non-legal material) in the Talmud and he wrote a special work on the subject called Ḥiddushei Aggadot ha-Shas, published in Tel Aviv in 1966. Adret also wrote two legal manuals. Torat ha-Bayit deals with most ritual observances such as ritual slaughter of animals for food, forbidden foods, gentile wines, and laws of niddah. It was published in Venice in 1607. The second and lesser work is called Sha'ar ha-Mayim, which contains the laws of the mikveh, (see footnote 30) first published in Budapest in 1930. These two sections which comprise one book are divided into seven parts which contain detailed halakhic discussions. Adret decided between opposing views and added his own opinion. As a practical guide Asher wrote a shorter version which he called Torat ha-Bayit ha-Kaẓer, published in 1556 in Cremona. Adret wrote a code on the laws of the Sabbath and festivals called Avodat ha-Kodesh and one on the laws relating to ḥallah called Piskei Ḥallah published in Constantinople in 1516.
The responsa of Adret had great influence and were a major source used by Caro in his compilation of the Shulḥan Arukh.
Simha Assaf and Editorial Staff, E. J., v. 2, pp. 305-08.
הא דבעינן שיעור היינו לחיוב כרת או חטאת אבל איסורא איכא בכל שהוא: The rule that we require (for the prohibition) of the (above mentioned) quantity refers to the guilt of the karet91Karet, כרת; see footnote 78. punishment or the requirement of a sin offering92A sin offering was the means by which a worshipper sought atonement when sacrifice was in existence. The person offering the animal (usually a bull or a lamb) would place his hands on the head of the animal being sacrificed, thus transferring the sins of the man symbolically on to the animal.
If a person committed one of the thirty-six transgressions stated in the Torah intentionally then he would suffer karet, a divinely enacted early death (see footnote 78). But if a person committed one of the thirty-six transgressions of the Torah inadvertently, he was required to make a sin offering to atone for that sin. Some of the sins which are included in the thirty-six toraitic transgressions are eating forbidden foods, eating leaven on Passover, violating the Sabbath, and other serious transgressions without being warned prior to their commitments. The more severe the sin the more possible that even a sin offering would not achieve atonement, for example idol worship or desecration of the Sabbath. Sin offerings only atoned for man's transgression against God, not man's transgressions against his fellow man which required atonement from the person wronged., but the prohibition exists even with the least (bit of food).
אכל אוכלים שאינם ראוים לאכילה או שאכל אכילה גסה כגון מיד על אכילה שאכל ערב יום הכפורים עד שקץ במזונו פטור: הגה ואם אכל מאכלים מבושמים או מטובלים על אכילתו חייב דרווחא לבסומי שכיחא (כל בו) ואסור בי"כ לטעום דבר להפליט אפי' עצי בשמים וע"ל סי' תקס"ז סעיף ג' בהג"ה: If one eats (on Yom Kippur) food that is not suitable for eating or they eat excessive food immediately after the food which they ate on the Eve of Yom Kippur until one gets sick of his food, he is exempt.
Hagah: If one eats artificially scented food or spiced food in addition to his meal, he is guilty (for eating on Yom Kippur) because there is always some room for some special delicacy, (כל בו).93Kol Bo, כל בו, see footnote 34. And it is forbidden on Yom Kippur to taste anything in order to spit it out, even spicy woods. See above in section 567, paragraph three in the Hagah.94The note that Isserles added to paragraph three of chapter 567 in the Shulḥan Arukh, Oraḥ Ḥayyim is found in the laws of fasting, Hilkhot Ta'anit. The halakhah discussed concerns whether one is permitted to rinse out one's mouth on a fast day if one usually does this in the morning. A comment by Isserles is as follows: "It is permissible to chew on cinnamon sticks and other spices as well as chewing gum to freshen (moisten) one's throat and to (then) spit it out, but on Yom Kippur this is forbidden". ( ‘מרדכי דתענית והגהות מיימוני פרק א). This comment was based on Mordekhai's commentary to the Talmud tractate Ta'anit which concerns fasting, and the Notes to the Mishneh Torah by Maimonides, chapter one.
For Mordekhai, מרדכי; see footnote 24.
For Hagahot Maimuniyyot, הגהות מיימוני; see footnote 27.
אכל עלי קנים פטור ולולבי גפנים שלבלבו קודם ר"ה פטור דעץ בעלמא הם ואם לבלבו (בארץ ישראל) מראש השנה עד יום הכפורים חייב: One who eats the leaves of reeds is free (from punishment) and the sprouts of grape-vine that blossomed before Rosh HaShanah are free (from punishment when eaten) for they are merely wood, but if they budded (in the Land of Israel) between Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur, one is guilty (of punishment for eating them).
כס (פי' שכסס ופצע אותם בשיניו) פלפלי או זנגבילא אם הם יבשים פטור דלא חזו לאכילה ואם הם רטובים חייב: “Kas” (literally, chewed) if chewed (namely, if one chewed and mashed them with his teeth) pepper or ginger, if they are dry one is free (from punishment) since they are not suitable for eating, but if they are moist (fresh) (and one chews them) one is guilty (of punishment).
השותה ביום הכפורים מלא לוגמיו (פי' מלא פיו) חייב ומשערים בכל אדם לפי מה שהוא הגדול לפי גדלו והקטן לפי קטנו ולא מלא לוגמיו ממש אלא כדי שיסלקנו לצד אחד בפיו ויראה כמלא לוגמיו והוא פחו' מרביעי' באדם בינוני וכל המשקים מצטרפים לכשיעור: הגה שתה משקין שאינן ראוין לשתיה כגון ציר או מורייס וחומץ חי פטור אבל חומץ מזוג חייב. (טור): One who drinks on Yom Kippur melo lugmav (meaning (in simple Hebrew), a mouthful) is guilty (of punishment), and they measure it for everybody according to his size (what he is), the large person according to his largeness and the small person according to his smallness and not literally a mouthful, rather so that he pushes (the drink) to one side of his mouth and it will look as if he has a mouthful; and this is less than a fourth (of a log) for an average person. And all drinks are combined for the prescribed measure, (i.e., a mouthful).
Hagah: One who drinks a drink that is not suitable for drinking, like sauce or brine and undiluted vinegar is free (from punishment), but (if he drinks) diluted vinegar he is guilty (of punishment), (טור).95Tur, טור; see footnote 23.
שתה מעט וחזר ושתה אם יש מתחלת שתיה ראשונ' עד סוף שתיה אחרונה כדי שתיית רביעי' מצטרפין לכשיעור ואם לאו אין מצטרפין ויש אומרים ששיעור צירוף השתיו' כדי אכיל' פרס כמו צירוף אכילו': הגה מותר ליגע ביוה"כ באוכלים ומשקים ליתן לקטנים ולא חיישינן שיאכל או ישתה אם יגע (תה"ד סי' קמ"ז): One who drinks a little and drinks (again) if there is from the beginning of the first drinking until the end of the last drinking the amount of time needed to drink a quarter of a log, they are combined to the stated measure (i.e., he is guilty of punishment), but (if it takes longer) they are not combined. There are those who say that the measure of time that combines the drinkings is the time needed to eat a half a loaf of bread, just as is the case with the combination of different foods, (see above 612:3).
Hagah: It is permissible on Yom Kippur to touch foods and drinks to give them to the children, and one should not fear that he might eat or drink them if he touches them, (תה״ד, chapter 147).96Terumat ha-Deshen, תה״ד, is a collection of responsa by Israel ben Pethahiah Isserlein who lived from 1390 until 1460. He was the foremost fifteenth century rabbi of Germany. He is mostly known for his chief work, Terumat ha-Deshen. Isserlein was born in Regensburg. He finally settled in Wiener-Neustadt after the death of most of his relatives. In 1445 he was appointed chief rabbi and av bet din, head of the rabbinical court, of that city and the surrounding area. He taught in Wiener-Neustadt and attracted many students. His halakhic decisions were well sought and well respected.
Isserlein lived a life of piety and ascetism. He refused to accept a salary from the community. He admired and used Sefer ḥasidim as a basis for many of his rulings. His work, Terumat ha-Deshen contains 354 responsa (the numerical value of the word דשן equals 354). They are examples of practical halakhic rulings. They reflect a true picture of Jewish life during his time. His decisions were based on the Talmud and the works of French and German scholars. He also relied on Spanish scholars such as Alfasi, Maimonides, and Naḥmanides. Isserlein strove to restore the study of Talmud which had given way to a reliance on the study of Talmud which had given way to a reliance on decisions of posekim, scholars who made halakhic decisions. Isserlein usually decided according to the opinions of earlier as opposed to later scholars. Isserlein, for the most part, was strict in matters of Biblical prohibition while he was lenient in other matters so as to establish a good relationship with the Christians.
In addition to Terumat ha-Deshen, Isserlein wrote other responsa which were collected by his pupils called Pesakim u-Khetavim, Be'urin, which were expositions to Rashi's Biblical commentary, and She'arin which is on the laws of issur ve-hetter. Isserlein also wrote some liturgical poems, piyyutim and prayers.
Simḥa Katz, E. J., v. 9, pp. 1080-81.