סדר ערב יום כפור ובו ב סעיפים:
מצוה לאכול בעיוה"כ ולהרבות בסעודה: הגה ואסור להתענות בו אפי' תענית חלום (מהרי"ל) ואם נדר להתענות בו עיין לעיל סי' תק"ע סעיף ב': “The order of the Eve4All Jewish days, holidays, and festivals begin and conclude at sundown. The “Eve” of a holiday is considered any day which precedes the sundown marking the beginning of that holiday. of Yom Kippur5Yom Kippur, or the Day of Atonement, falls on the tenth day of what, during our time, is the first month of the Hebrew calendar, the month of Tishrei. During the biblical period it was referred to as the seventh month. Yom Kippur follows by ten days the actual Jewish New Year, or Rosh HaShanah, which falls on the first day of the month of Tishrei. Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur are called the Days of Awe, Yamim ha-Noraim, because of their demand upon a religious Jew for special piety and self-reflection during this period of time devoted to repentance and self-improvement. These days which usually occur in the Fall of the year (September-October) and are referred to as the High Holydays. Yom Kippur is considered the most sacred day of the entire Jewish year and its commemoration involves a special, unique set of laws which are enumerated in the body of this thesis. For the biblical ordination of this holiday see: Leviticus 16 (all, but especially 16:29-34) and Numbers 29:7-11. (the Day of Atonement)” - Containing two paragraphs.
It is a commandment to eat on the Eve of Yom Kippur and to increase (one’s eating) at the meal.
Hagah:6Hagah, הגה, introduces the notes added to the text of Joseph Caro by Rabbi Moses b. Israel Isserles. Isserles is also known as “the Rema”, an acronym for Rabbi Moses Isserles. He was a Polish rabbi, codifier and halakhic authority, who lived from 1525 or 1530 until 1572. He was born in Cracow under the name of Isserel-Lazarus which was later shortened to Isserles. He studied in Lublin at the yeshivah of Sholom Shachna. Isserles obtained such a fine reputation that he became known as the “Maimonides of Polish Jewry”. Isserles was in the middle of writing a code himself following the pattern of the four Turim by Jacob b. Asher which he called Darkhei Moshe which was to assemble the halakhic material of his time in a short, synoptic form so that a dayyan, a decision maker, could more easily find the material he needed to formulate a ruling on a particular issue. In the middle of his writing of the Darkhei Moshe he received a copy of the Beit Yosef of Joseph Caro which in essence had already accomplished this goal. But Isserles decided to complete his work operating a bit differently than did Caro. Isserles did not always agree with Caro’s selection of the “three pillars of halakhic decisions”, Alfasi, Maimonides, and Asher b. Jehiel to decide issues. He followed the principle which stated that laws should be decided according to later scholars. He also often agreed with Asher b. Jehiel and his son Jacob b. Asher even when they were in the minority, unlike Caro. Also Isserles realized that Caro ignored in his work Ashkenazi practices that were very much a part of his Polish and European community but were not included in Caro’s work in the world of Sephardi Jewry.
Isserles wrote other halakhic works, such as Torat Ḥattat which focused on mainly Jewish dietary laws. Finally Isserles received the Shulḥan Arukh by Joseph Caro. Like the earlier and more extensive Beit Yosef, it lacked many halakhic contributions and customs, minhagim, of Ashkenazi Jewry and was therefore not an adequate code for this segment of the Jewish world. Isserles decided to add notes (hagah or hagahot) to the body of the Shulḥan Arukh which has also been referred to as the “mappah” or “tablecloth” over the “Shulḥan Arukh” or “prepared table”. In his glosses, Isserles added his conclusions which he drew in his work Darkhei Moshe to the Shulḥan Arukh. In many cases he disagreed with Caro and he stated his disagreement, or he would cite an Ashkenazi custom not found in Caro’s work. He maintained the brief style employed by Caro, and he provided the existence of differing points of view by later scholars and Ashkenazi Jews which he felt were needed for a dayyan to be able to arrive at a correct decision. He often modified the views of the meḥabber, the author, as he referred to Caro, he explained, contradicted, added to and refined the structure.
Isserles put much emphasis on the custom, the minhag. He often gave it the same force as the halakhah. If there was no halakhah in existence, or in some cases where a minhag and a halakhah conflicted with each other, he decided according to the minhag, the custom which the people actually followed in their daily lives. If Isserles disagreed with a particular custom he would state so and he would urge against following such a custom.
Isserles was very lenient in cases of stress or in cases which would involve considerable financial loss. His leniency, which was seldom found in the works of others, was the subject of criticism by many of his contemporaries particularly Ḥayyim b. Bezalel who studied with him under Sholom Shachnan in Lublin. Even in view of the extensive criticism Isserles received, his notes to the Shulḥan Arukh became accepted and his rulings and customs were binding on Ashkenazi Jewry. The mappah of Isserles made the Shulḥan Arukh of Caro acceptable to Ashkenazi Jews and the authoritative code that it remains to this day.
The Shulḥan Arukh which was first published in Venice in 1565, was first published with the mappah of Isserles in Cracow in 1569-71 and it has been a part of the accepted text ever since.
Louis Ginzberg in Menachem Elon, E. J., “Codification of Law” v. 5. pp. 628-56;
Simḥa Katz, “Isserles, Moses ben Israel”, v. 9, pp.1081-85. It is forbidden to fast on it (the Eve of Yom Kippur), even a dream fast7A fast was recommended to be observed as the result of an ominous dream (or a nightmare), ta’anit ḥalom, תענית חלום, to avert the evil consequences dreamt. In talmudic times and later it was believed that bad dreams could have pernicious effects. The fast was regarded of such urgency that the rabbis permitted it even on the Sabbath, but one was to fast on a weekday as well, as a repentance for having dishonored the Sabbath Joy through fasting. A fast as the result of a bad dream, though, is not to be observed on Yom Kippur Eve.
Editorial Staff, E. J., v. 6, p. 1196
(What amends shall he make (for having fasted on the Sabbath)? - He should observe an additional fast.)
B. Ta’an. 12b. (Soncino p.55)
Raba b. Meḥasia also said in the name of R. Ḥama b. Goria in Rab’s name: Fasting is as potent against a dream as fire against a tow. (Dreams were believed portents forshadowing the future, though, as seen here, the evil they foretold might be averted; cf. Ber. 55-58. B. B. 10a; Yoma 87b et passim). Said R. Ḥisda: Providing it is on that very day. R. Joseph added: and even on the Sabbath.
Shabbat 11a (Soncino p. 40, Shabbat I)
R. Eleazer also said in the name of R. Jose b. Zimra: If one keeps a fast on Sabbath (to overt the omen of a dream), a decree of seventy years standing is annulled; yet all the same he is punished for neglecting to make the Sabbath a delight. What is his remedy? R. Naḥman b. Isaac said: Let him keep another fast to atone for this one.
Ber. 31b. (Soncino pp. 194-95) (due to a nightmare), (מהרי״ל).8Maharil, מהרי״ל, is an acronym for Morenu ha-Rav Jacob ha-Levi. His real name was Jacob ben Moses Moellin. He lived from around 1360 until 1427. He was born in Mainz and became the foremost talmudist of his generation and the head of the Jewish communities of Germany, Austria, and Bohemia. He studied under his father and later went to Austria where he was ordained after studying under Meir ha-Levi and Sholom b. Isaac. After the death of his father, Maharil established a yeshivah from which came the greatest rabbis of Germany and Austria.
Moellin was famous and halakhic questions were asked of him throughout Europe. Many of his rulings became the foundation of the Jewish way of life for German Jewry. His decisions were characterized by the fact that he took into account the conditions of the time including the economic situation of a particular community. He would often decide to be strict in a case where a community had no rabbinic leadership. Moellin was concerned about leaders who did not possess the proper authority and the neglect of proper Torah and talmudic study that resulted from decisions arrived at using codified halakhic works instead of thorough original investigation. He placed a great deal of importance on charity and the honor of the poor.
Moellin was an accomplished ḥazzan and fought for the preservation of traditional melodies for the liturgy. His known works were two, Minhagei Maharil, (Sefer Maharil), which was first published in Sabionetta in 1556 and compiled by his student Zalman of Saint Goar, was a collection of halakhic statements, customs, and explanations which Zalman had heard from Moellin. It was these customs of Germany that Moses Isserles used so often in his glosses to the Shulḥan Arukh. The second work was a collection of responsa arranged by Eleazar b. Jacob and published in Venice in 1549.
Ephraim Kupfer, E. J., v. 12, pp. 210-11. And if one vows to fast on it, see above (in the Shulḥan Arukh, Oraḥ Ḥayyim), chapter 570, paragraph 2.9Oraḥ Ḥayyim chapter 570, Paragraph 2: “One who vows to fast on the Sabbath, on a festival, or on the Eve of Yom Kippur or on Ḥanukkah or Purim, the laws are the same as for one who vows to fast on so and so many days and these (holy) days happen to occur on them. If he expressed it using the word “vow”, the law is as if one has taken them upon himself, with the expression, a vow (it has the legal character of a vow). But if he expressed it merely with the (ordinary) expression of accepting a fast then the law is as if one has taken upon himself (the fast) with the expression of accepting a fast”. That is if one “vows” to fast on the Eve of Yom Kippur then he must if he uses the words “vow” and “fast”. If he only says I am going to fast, without using the word “vow”, it is not serious and he can postpone it. (Acceptance of a fast by a) vow is more serious than accepting a fast without it.”
אין נופלים על פניהם בערב יוה"כ: הגה גם אין אומרים למנצח ומזמור לתודה (מנהגים) גם אין אומרים קודם עלות השחר הרבה סליחות ויש מקומות נוהגים להרבות בסליחות והכל לפי המנהג ולענין אמירת אבינו מלכנו בעיו"כ יש בו מחלוקת בין אחרונים ומנהג עירי שלא לאומרו כי אם כשחל יו"כ בשבת שאין אומרים בו אבינו מלכנו אז אומרים אותו ערב יו"כ שחרית: They do not “prostrate themselves” (i.e., they do not say the taḥanun10The taḥanun, תחנון, prayer is the name of a prayer which is a confession of sins and a petition for grace. It is normally part of the daily Morning, Shaḥarit (see footnote 17), and Afternoon, Minḥah (see footnote 40), Services. It is recited after the reader’s repetition of the Amidah (see footnote 43). The taḥanun begins silently with a selection from II Samuel 24:14 which was uttered by King David after he was rebuked by the prophet Gad for sinning by numbering the people: “let us fall, I pray thee, into the hand of the Lord, for his mercies are many, but let me not fall into the hands of man.” The prayer is referred to literally as the “prostration prayer” because the Bible mentions the fact that one prostrates oneself during petitions (Deuteronomy 9:18; Joshua 7:6), and the prayer taḥanun was therefore customarily recited in the prostrate position. Today the prayer is recited while one is seated with one’s head bowed into the bend of one’s arm when a Torah Scroll is present to indicate the sanctity of the location. The Sephardi ritual begins the taḥanun with a silent confession of sins, viddui (see footnote 39) followed by the verse from II Samuel 24:14. The central part of the prayer for the Ashkenazim is Psalm 6 and for the Sephardim the penitential psalm, Psalm 25. In addition to this there are penitential prayers of piyyutim, or liturgical poems (see footnote 149). The taḥanun prayer is omitted on the Sabbath, festivals, semiholidays, New Moons, and from the Minḥah Service preceding these special days, during the month of Nisan and on the Ninth of Av. The taḥanun is also omitted at a circumcision in a synagogue, when a bridegroom attends the service during the first seven days following his wedding, and at the prayers held at the homes of mourners since the theme “I have sinned before thee” is deemed inappropriate.
Meir Ydit, E. J., v. 15, p. 702. prayers) on the Eve of Yom Kippur.
Hagah: They also do not say “למנצח11למנצח, “For the Chief Musician, a Psalm of David” is Psalm 19, and it is recited normally during the Shaḥarit, Morning prayers on the Sabbath and festivals (see footnote 17). The theme of the prayer is the double revelation of God in nature, in religion and in Torah.
Dr. Joseph H. Hertz, The Authorized Daily Prayer Book, New York, Bloch Publishing Company, 1957, p. 60” and “מזמור לתודה12מזמור לתודה, “A Psalm of Thanksgiving” is Psalm 100. The theme of the psalm is to let all the world join in the worship of God. The psalm is normally recited during the Shaḥarit Morning prayers on the weekday (see footnote 17). In addition to the day before Yom Kippur, it is also omitted on Sabbaths, festivals, the day before Passover, and on the intermediate days of Passover.”, (מנהגים).13Minhagim, מנהגים, “customs” when used by Isserles denotes an anonymous collection of Ashkenazi customs in his glosses that were not part of the customs practiced by the Sephardi Jewish community. Additions such as these gave Ashkenazi Jewry the possibility of accepting the Shulḥan Arukh as a binding and authoritative code of Jewish law in that the additions of Isserles enabled the total Shulḥan Arukh to be a work common to all of world Jewry. There was no one book from which Isserles drew his minhagim, his customs, but rather he drew them from various minhagim books available to him and from customs he was familiar with in daily life. Many of the minhagim from which Isserles drew were contained in a book entitled Minahage Maharil or Sefer Maharil published in 1556 in Sabionetta which was compiled by Zalman of Saint Goar. It contained halakhic statements, explanations, and customs that Zalman heard from his great teacher the Maharil, Jacob ben Moses Moellin (see footnote 8). Also they do not say before dawn many “seliḥot14Seliḥot, סליחות, means “prayers of forgiveness”. When this word is used in its singular form seliḥah, סליחה, it means “forgiveness” and it usually refers to a liturgical poem, piyyut (see footnote 149), who’s subject is a plea for forgiveness. When the term is used in the plural, seliḥot, it refers to a special order of service which consists of non-statuatory additional prayers which are recited on all fast days, on occasions of special intercession, and during the Penitential season which begins with a special Seliḥot Service usually held at midnight on the Saturday night immediately preceding Rosh HaShanah and concludes with Yom Kippur. The Mishna (Ta’an 2:1-4) gives the order of the service for public fasts which were often proclaimed during periods of drought and it provided for six additional blessings inserted into the daily Amidah after the sixth blessing which is a prayer for forgiveness of sins (see footnote 43).
The first mention of any kind of definite order of Seliḥot is found in Tanna de-Vei, Eliyahu Zuta (23 end). The order of Sheliḥot was not found until the ninth century in the Seder of R. Amram which included “May He Who answered” and the biblical verse “Thee Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious longsuffering and abundent in goodness and truth” (Exodus 34:6) along with others.
Over the centuries many more piyyutim with the theme of forgiveness have been added to the Seliḥot prayers. Because of the many liturgical poems added at various times, many Jewish communities have had their own distinct rites evolve. It became a Palestinian custom not to say the Seliḥot prayers during the Amidah but after it, and this became the custom generally accepted (Shulḥan Arukh, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 566:4).
Seliḥot prayers were originally confined to fast days. God was just, and it was felt that if one confessed one’s sins and prayed for forgiveness, calamities which were the result of Israel’s sins, would be averted. In modern times the Seliḥot prayers were first recited in conjunction with the six fast days prior to Rosh HaShanah and then they were extended to include the ten days of Penitence including Yom Kippur but not Rosh HaShanah in the Ashkenazi ritual. Among Sephardi Jews it was a custom to recite Seliḥot for forty days from Rosh Ḥodesh Elul (the New Moon of the month of Elul, the last month of the Hebrew year preceding the New Year beginning with Rosh HaShanah on the New Moon of Tishrei) until Yom Kippur. The Ashkenazi custom was evolved in our day to recite Seliḥot from midnight on the Saturday night prior to Rosh HaShanah or the week before that should Rosh HaShanah fall on a Monday or a Tuesday. (Shulḥan Arukh, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 581 with the Isserles). Only on the first night is Seliḥot recited at midnight. On all other days it is recited in the Morning Service.
Present day customs also allow individuals to recite Seliḥot on semi-official voluntary fasts.
Louis Isaac Rabinowitz, E. J., v. 14, pp. 1133-34.” (prayers of forgiveness), but there are places where it is customary to increase seliḥot. All (this should be done) according to the (local) custom. But concerning the matter of the saying of “אבינו מלכנו15Avinu Malkhenu, אבינו מלכנו “Our Father our King” is a prayer recited during the ten days of Penitence between Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur immediately after the Amidah (see footnote 43). The prayer is not said during Friday Minḥah Afternoon, on the Sabbath, or on the day before Yom Kippur. If the day before Yom Kippur is a Friday then the prayer is recited during the Morning, Shaḥarit Service (see footnote 17). Each of the forty-four invocations of the prayer begins “Avinu Malkhenu”, “Our Father our King”. This litancy has the elements of a confessional and petitionary prayer. The prayer is quite old and the Talmud attributes some of the lines to Rabbi Akiba when they were spoken on a fast day due to a drought. The prayer was expanded over the centuries to include prayers for life, pardon, and the needs and trials of human existence. Toward the end are references to the terrible massacres during the Black Death in the fourteenth century where much of German Jewry was annihilated.
Hertz, op. cit., pp. 161-67.”, (Our Father, our King”), on the Eve of Yom Kippur, there is a disagreement among the aḥronim16Aḥronim, אחרונים, the later scholars or authorities. This term is used to designate the later rabbinic authorities as opposed to the rishonim or the earlier authorities. There is no clear line of demarkation separating the aḥronim from the rishonim. Some scholars date the aḥronim as early as the tosafists in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries while others start the period in the beginning of the fourteenth century where the appearance of the Sha’arei Dura of Isaac ben Meir Dueren. Most scholars agree that the period of the rishonim ends with the death of Israel Isserlein in 1460 (see footnote 96) and that the aḥronim begin with the Shulḥan Arukh including the glosses of Isserles (1525-30-1572). The later authorities are therefore thought of as the collection of all the predecessors of the Jewish world of sages in both the Sephardi and Ashkenazi communities included by both Caro and Isserles. When Isserles then referred to the aḥronim, he referred to his contemporaries and those authorities immediately preceding him.
Some of the greatest aḥronim were produced in Poland during the end of the sixteenth century where the study of the Torah and Talmud became quite intensive.
Aḥronim is a term now used to refer to all rabbinic authorities after 1500 who decide halakhah even to this day.
Yehoshua Horowitz, E. J., v. 1973 Year Book, pp.153-57., (later scholars). The custom in my city is not to say it unless Yom Kippur falls on Shabbat; since we do not say on the Shabbat “אבינו מלכנו”, therefore we say it in the Shaḥarit17Shaḥarit, שחרית Morning Service, or actually the dawn prayer. The Shaḥarit prayers are the most elaborate of the three daily prayer services (the Shaḥarit, Morning; Minḥah, Afternoon; and Aravit, Evening). It has been traditionally attributed to Abraham. “And Abraham got up early in the morning to the place where he stood before the Lord,” (Genesis 19:27). After the destruction of the Temple the rabbis made the recitation of the Shaḥarit prayer obligatory to replace the daily morning sacrafice called the Tamid which had been performed in the Temple (Ber. 26b).
There are basically eight parts to the Shaḥarit Service and they are the following: (1) The Morning Benedictions or Birkhot ha-Shaḥar, ברכות השחר, these are preliminaries to the Morning Service and they consist of hymns, blessings, and meditations, the themes of which are generally concerned with the change of night to day and of sleep to wakefulness. There are also readings from the Torah and rabbinical writings to get the soul ready for worship. Originally this part of the service was to be read at home before coming to the synagogue for communal prayer.
Hertz, op. cit., p. 4.
(2) The Psalms and Passages of Song or Pesukai de-Zimra, פסוקי דזמרא. This section of psalms and anthems is intended to serve as the transference from private worship in the first section to public prayer. The tradition says that pious men during the days of the Second Temple would completely read the entire Book of Psalms everyday. This was an ideal that men with necessary work could never emulate, thus it became the custom to read at least six psalms in the morning, Psalms 145-150. There have been additions to this nucleus. Prior to the above mentioned psalms, are recited other psalm-like selections, I Chronicles 16:8-36, a collection of Biblical verses, Psalm 100, and more Biblical verses. Psalms 145-150 are followed by responses of adoration (“doxologies”), the benediction of David, I Chronicles 29:10-13; the prayer of Nehemiah 9:6-11; and the Song of Moses, Exodus 14:30 - 15:18. Therefore this section contains no formal prayers but only psalm-like material. It was brought into the Morning Service by Rabbi Meir of Rothenburg (1230-1293).
ibid., pp. 50-1.
(3) Reading of the Shema, קריאת שמע, and its benedictions. This is truely the central part of the Morning (and the Evening) Service. It is Israel’s confession of faith in the One God. The worshipper, by reciting it, proclaims his allegiance to the Kingdom of Heaven and his submission to God’s commandments. The Shema is preceded by two blessings; (1) The Yotzer, יוצר, Prayer which is a prayer of thanksgiving for the creation of physical life, for the actual light of day and for God’s renewal of creation which is demonstrated by the fact that the sun, the light, returns; and (2) The Ahavah Rabbah, אהבה רבה, a gracious prayer of thanksgiving, gives thanks to God for the light of Torah which he gave to Israel and its moral teachings.
The Shema in the Shaḥarit Service is followed by two prayers; (1) the Emet Veyaẓiv, אמת ויציב, which means (True and Firm). The prayer confirms the faith in the declarations that were made in the Shema. (2) and the prayer Go’el Israel, גואל ישראל, the Redeemer of Israel which praises God.
ibid., p. 108.
The Shema itself consists of three Torah sections, Deuteronomy 6:4-8; 11:13-22; and Numbers 15:37-42. It is a proclamation of God’s Unity and Oneness, Israel’s total loyalty to God and his commandments, the belief in Divine Justice, the rememberance of the liberation from Egypt, and the choosing of Israel. Together these form the foundation of Jewish faith.
ibid., p. 116.
(4) The Amidah, עמידה, is the most central and important part of the service next to the Shema. It is also referred to as the Tefillah, התפילה, “The Prayer” and the Shemoneh Esreh. שמונה עשרה, or eighteen benedictions because it originally contained eighteen separate benedictions but which has come down to us as a prayer consisting of nineteen benedictions during the regular daily worship service. The Prayer is recited three times a day silently while standing, therefore the name Amidah which means “standing” became associated with it. The benedictions contain expressions of praise, thanksgiving, confession, and petition to God.
The Amidah contains three basic parts. The first part consists of three opening benedictions which are praises. They glorify God, His everlasting love and His infinite holiness. The second part of the weekday Amidah contains thirteen blessings (which were originally only twelve) which are petitions for the individual as well as for the nation. This middle section of the Amidah is different on the Sabbath and festivals. On the Sabbath there is only one benediction in the middle of the Amidah (therefore only a total of seven benedictions) and it concerns the special nature of the day. A Kedusha or a sanctification of the name of God, is included in this section of the Sabbath morning Amidah. On the festivals this is also the case with a special middle benediction which concerns the unique nature of the holiday. This is true of all festivals except Rosh HaShanah which contains three central blessings in its Musaf Amidah (see footnote 166), thus making a total of nine benedictions.
The third part of the Amidah consists of three closing benedictions whose theme is one of thanksgiving. The first three and last three benedictions never change regardless of which service the Amidah is found in or on what day it is recited. The prayer is first recited privately in silence and it is then repeated out loud by the reader (except for the Evening Service, see footnote 144) for the benefit of those who are unable to say it themselves (see also footnote 42).
ibid., pp. 130-31.
(5) The Taḥanun, תחנון, prayers of confession; see footnote 10.
(6) The Torah reading on the mornings that it is required, namely on the Sabbath, festivals, Mondays, Thursdays, New Moons, the intermediate days of Passover and Succot, Purim and public fast days. Normally, that is on most Sabbaths, Mondays and Thursdays the Torah is read according to its regular weekly division of fifty-four (on a leap year and fifty on a non-leap year) portions. On special Sabbaths, festivals, and other occasions specially designated portions are read which have a relationship with that particular occasion.
(7) Ashrei. אשרי, “Happy are they” is basically Psalm 20 and a collection of Biblical quotations. It is in essence a prophetic lesson and a second sanctification.
(8) Aleinu le-Shabbe’aḥ, עלינו לשבח, “It is our duty to praise the Lord” is recited at the conclusion of the Morning Service. It is usually preceded by a full Kaddish (see footnote 177) read by the reader and it is followed by a Mourner’s Kaddish. The Aleinu or adoration prayer since the fourteenth century has been a proclaimation of God as the Supreme King of the Universe and the God of a United Humanity. In the first part Israel aknowledges that it has been selected for service to God and the second half proclaims Israel’s faith and hope that all idolatry will disappear and that all activity will be turned to God. All will be united under the Kingship of God.
Hertz, op. cit., p. 208.
The Shaḥarit Service remains fairly constant in the prayers recited every morning except for the Amidah which changes according to the occasion as described above. There are also additions to the pesukei de-zimra (2) on Sabbaths and festivals, and on festivals and New Moons the Hallel (special psalms of praise and thanksgiving which consist of Psalms 113-118 with various Psalms omitted on certain festivals) is added. Special piyyutim (see footnote 149) are also inserted on certain Sabbaths and festivals during the Shaḥarit Service.
The Mishna and Talmud discuss when the Shaḥarit Service should be recited. The Shema must be recited from the period of time which begins with daybreak and ends after a quarter of the day has passed (Ber. 1:2; Shulḥan Arukh, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 58:1). One must recite the Amidah during the hours encompassed by sunrise and a third of the day (Ber. 4:1; Shulḥan Arukh, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 89:1). If by chance the recitation of the daily prayers was delayed they could be recited until midday (Ber. 4:1; Shulḥan Arukh, Oraḥ Ḥayyim 89:1). If the Shaḥarit Amidah is not recited, an extra Amidah is added during the Minḥaḥ, Afternoon Service.
During the daily weekday Shaḥarit Service the tallit, prayer shawl, and the tefillin, phylacteries, are worn. On the Sabbath and festivals only the tallit is worn. One wears neither tallit nor tefillin on the Ninth day of Av for the Shaḥarit Serivce but wears them instead for the Minḥah Service. One must not interupt one’s prayer by speaking from the prayer “Barukh she-Amar” which precedes the pesukei de-zimra until after the Amidah.
Editorial Staff, E. J., v. 14, pp. 1257-58. (Morning Prayers) on the Eve of Yom Kippur.