1. One who cooks food on Shabbos [or performs any one of the other forbidden acts on Shabbos][Tur]; if done intentionally, the food is forbidden to eat forever, but other people are permitted to eat the food immediately after Shabbos. If done accidentally the food is forbidden to him during the day but may be eaten by everyone, including him, immediately after Shabbos. [If one ordered a non-Jew to perform a Melacha for oneself on Shabbos, see above Siman 307 se’if 20].
2. A healthy person may eat raw meat (on Shabbos) from an animal slaughtered on Shabbos for the sake of a (critically) ill person, regardless of whether the person was ill before Shabbos or became ill on Shabbos. However, if one cooked food (or performed any other Melacha) for a (critically) ill person, it is forbidden (on Shabbos) for a healthy person or for an ill person (who is not critically ill) to eat that food, because we are afraid that additional food will be cooked for people other than the sick. RAMA: Even if a gentile cooked the food; it is forbidden to be eaten on Shabbos (by people other than the ill). (Tosefos, Ran). It is forbidden for a healthy person to eat fruit that was picked on Shabbos for the sake of the ill even if he was ill before Shabbos, because the fruit continues to grow on Shabbos and is Muktze. (Beis Yosef in the name of Orchot Chaim).
3. Just as it is forbidden to cook with fire, it is forbidden to cook with Toldas ha’ur (translation: Items that were on the fire), for example: to roast an egg by placing it beside a pot (hot from the fire), or to crack an egg over a garment heated on the fire. It is even forbidden to cook with Toldas hachama (translation: Items that were heated from the sun), for example: a garment hot from the sun, for fear that one will cook with Toldas ha’ur. It is also forbidden to place (the egg) inside sand or dust heated by the sun, but it is permitted in the sun itself, for example: to heat an egg by placing it in the sun, or to heat water by placing it in the sun.
4. Food fully cooked which has cooled down may not be reheated because of the Melacha of Bishul (cooking). RAMA some hold that this is only if the food is Mitztamek ve’yafe lo. [R' Yerucham] Food not fully cooked, even if cooked to the degree of Ma’achal ben Derusa’i and even if the food is hot, is nevertheless forbidden to cook any further. The reheating that is forbidden, only applies to food with liquid, but a cooked food item that is a solid (has no liquid), may be immersed in hot water on Shabbos. A solid food item that has not been cooked before Shabbos, may not be immersed into hot water on Shabbos, but one may pour hot water over it on Shabbos, with the exception of aged salted food and a fish called “Kulias ha’ispanin”, which do not require much cooking, and by pouring water over them one completes the Melacha. RAMA: This rule applies to all hard foods that cannot be eaten without first marinating them. Therefore one may not soak them (in hot water) on Shabbos, as it is a completion of a Melacha. [Ha'gahot Mordechai]
5. There is an opinion that an issur of Bishul (cooking) will be violated if a baked or roasted item is subsequently cooked in a liquid. It is therefore forbidden to put bread even in a Keli Sheini [liquid] that is Yad soledes bo. (However), there are opinions that permit it. RAMA: (to be placed) into a Keli Sheini. There are those who are lenient and allow it to be placed even in a Keli Rishon. The accepted custom is to be careful not to put bread even in a Keli Sheini while it is Yad soledes bo.
6. A vessel that has something warm in it, to the point of Yad Soledet Bo, is permitted to be placed on an insulated pot on Shabbos so that it maintains its warmth and does not become cold. You may seal it with dough, if you have dough which was kneaded the day before. But we may not place a vessel that has in it something that is not so warm on top of a pot that is slightly warm, because the top one may warm up from the heat until it is Yad Soledet Bo.
7. There are commentators that permit placing a vessel that has something hot inside it on an insulated pot even if the bottom vessel is on the fire. And there are commentators who say that if the bottom pot is on the fire, it is forbidden [to do so].
8. There are those who say that to place something cold, that is cooked all the way, on a warm vessel that is on the fire - the law is the same as placing something next to the fire. And everything that is permitted to be placed next to the fire, in a place were it is Yad Soledet Bo, such as something dry, is permitted to be placed on top of something warm that is on the fire. There are those who say that if you place something on the Kirah initially it is forbidden, even if the food is cooked all the way and even if cooking it further will make the food worse; even if you placed it there to retain its heat and it seems to be your main purpose. In all cases, if it is a dish that has gravy and by cooking it further it will make the dish better, it is forbidden according to all.
9. A Keli Rishon (the cooking vessel one uses on the fire) has the ability to cook even after having been removed from the fire, as long as it is Yad soledes bo, therefore, it is forbidden to add spices to it. However salt may be added once it has been removed from the fire, as salt requires cooking as much as beef. There is an opinion that forbids placing salted meat into this keli even if it is beef. RAMA: It appears to me that even unsalted meat is assur (to place in a Keli Rishon) but he mentioned salted meat because otherwise it is forbidden due to blood within. There are those who hold that it is forbidden to put salt even into a Keli Sheini as long as it is Yad soledes bo, and one who is stringent shall be blessed. (Tosefos; Mordechai Perek Kirah) If one deliberately transgressed and put salt into a Keli Rishon, even if it is on the fire, the food may be eaten because the salt is batel (nulified) by the food. (Beis Yosef in the name of Shibulei HaLeket)
10. It is forbidden to place spices into a plate and pour hot water over them from a Keli Rishon.
11. The bathtub of a bathhouse, which is full of hot water (even though it is a Keli Sheini) [Tosefos, the Rosh and the Tur] one may not add into it cold water because its waters are extremely hot. However, one may pour hot water from this tub into another tub containing cold water.
12. A hot water urn that has been emptied may have (a large amount of) cold water poured into it in order to warm the water. It is permissible to pour hot water into cold water or to pour cold water into hot water as long as they are not in a Keli Rishon as the water there is very hot. RAMA: If there is a large amount of water (being poured into the hot) to the extent that the water will not get cooked, instead the water will merely lose its chill, and it is permitted (to do so) even into a Keli Rishon as long as it is not on the fire. [Tur]
13. One is permitted to place a container of water or other liquids into hot water which is in a Keli Sheini but it is forbidden when it is in a Keli Rishon.
14. One is permitted to place a container of water or other liquids next to a fire in order to remove the chill, as long as the container is distanced from the fire in such a way that it will not reach Yad soledes bo, the degree that would scorch a baby’s stomach. However, it is forbidden to place it so close to the fire where it could become Yad soledes bo even when he one intends to leave it there only for a short while, since it can become cooked there. RAMA: The same rule applies to fruit or other food items which can be eaten raw. (Mordechai, Perek Kirah and see above Siman 254).
15. One is permitted to place fully cooked dry food, with no liquid, near a fire, even in a place that is Yad soledes bo, RAMA: even if it is now cold, but if it is hot, even if liquid is present it is permitted. Some authorities are lenient and say that even if the food has cooled down it is permitted to place next to fire, as long as it is not placed above a fire or Kirah. (HaMagid, Perek 22). The custom in this matter is to be lenient as long as it has not completely cooled down, as I have written in Siman 253.
16. It is permitted to place an Empanada [this is a type of layered bread with slivers of fat within] close to fire in a place that is Yad soledes bo even though the congealed fat within will melt. RAMA: all the more so a pot that has congealed gravy inside [may be heated], for when the fat melts it is unnoticeable. (Rabbeinu Yerucham). Some authorities are stringent (R"an, Perek Bameh Tomnin), and that is the custom. However, when necessary one may rely on the first opinion.
17. It is forbidden to place a cold food item (above a hot urn) even for the sake of warming, if the urn is hot to the point that if the food would be left there it would cook, which is the degree of Yad soledes bo. The rule of placing (food) above a hot urn is comparable to the rules of placing (food) near a fire. If the urn is not so hot, it is muter.
18. One may not spoon food from a cooking utensil or pot removed hot from the fire if the food is not fully cooked, because it is stirring. But if fully cooked it is permitted. However, wool in a dying tub (also hot), even if the wool is already dyed, is forbidden to stir (i.e. to stir with a spoon). RAMA: Initially one should be careful (not to spoon food) even from a pot of food in all circumstances. [Piskei Mahar”i Weil, known as the Mahariv]
19. It is forbidden to baste a roast with oil or garlic while near a fire, even if it was roasted before Shabbos, because the garlic and oil will cook.