הָא בְּרַבְרְבֵי, וְהָא בְּזוּטְרֵי. אָמַר רַב אַסִּי, שׁוֹנִין: כְּלֵי חֶרֶס שִׁיעוּרוֹ בְּכוֹנֵס מַשְׁקֶה. וְלֹא אָמְרוּ מוֹצִיא מַשְׁקֶה אֶלָּא לְעִנְיַן גִּיסְטְרָא בִּלְבַד. מַאי טַעְמָא? אָמַר מָר זוּטְרָא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַב נַחְמָן: לְפִי, שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים ״הָבֵא גִּיסְטְרָא לְגִיסְטְרָא״.
This statement, that a hole must be large enough to enable a pomegranate to go out in order to purify the vessel, is referring to large vessels. And this statement, that teaches that a vessel is purified only when the majority of the vessel is broken, is referring to small vessels. Rav Asi said that they teach this halakha: With regard to an earthenware vessel, the measure of the hole that renders it unable to become ritually impure is large enough to enable liquid to enter it. And they only said: The measure of a small hole from which liquid seeps, with regard to the impurity of a shard [gistera]. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this? The Gemara answers that Mar Zutra, son of Rav Naḥman, said: A shard is used as a plate beneath a perforated earthenware vessel. If the shard is also perforated and leaks, it is no longer of any use. Because one does not say: Bring another shard to seal the leak of a shard, but throws it out immediately.
אָמַר עוּלָּא: פְּלִיגִי בַּהּ תְּרֵי אָמוֹרָאֵי בְּמַעְרְבָא, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי אָבִין וְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר זַבְדָּא. חַד אָמַר כְּמוֹצִיא רִמּוֹן, וְחַד אָמַר: כְּשׁוֹרֶשׁ קָטָן. וְסִימָנָיךְ, אֶחָד הַמַּרְבֶּה וְאֶחָד הַמַּמְעִיט. אָמַר רַב חִינָּנָא בַּר כָּהֲנָא מִשְּׁמֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר: כְּלִי חֶרֶס שִׁיעוּרוֹ כְּמוֹצִיא זֵיתִים. וּמָר קַשִּׁישָׁא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבָּה מְסַיֵּים בַּהּ מִשְּׁמֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר: וַהֲרֵי הֵן כִּכְלֵי גְלָלִים וּכְלֵי אֲבָנִים וּכְלֵי אֲדָמָה — שֶׁאֵין מְקַבְּלִין טוּמְאָה לֹא מִדִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה וְלֹא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. וּלְעִנְיַן צָמִיד פָּתִיל, עַד שֶׁיִּפְחַת רוּבּוֹ.
Ulla said: Two amora’im in the West, Eretz Yisrael, disagree about this topic: They are Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Avin, and Rabbi Yosei bar Zavda. One said: The measure of a hole that purifies an earthenware vessel is large enough to enable a pomegranate to go out. And one said: The size of a small root. And your mnemonic to remember that neither holds that the measure is size of an olive is the expression: Both one who increases and one who decreases. They hold extreme positions in this dispute and eschew the intermediate position. Rav Ḥinnana bar Kahana said an intermediate position in the name of Rabbi Eliezer: An earthenware vessel becomes ritually pure with a hole large enough to enable olives to go out. And Mar Kashisha, son of Rabba, concluded this halakha in the name of Rabbi Eliezer: And vessels that have been perforated are like dung vessels, and so too, stone vessels and earth vessels that were not baked in a kiln, which neither become impure by Torah law nor by rabbinic law. And, as far as the matter of an earthenware vessel with a sealed cover in a room with a corpse, it maintains its impurity until the majority of it is broken.
הדרן עלך המצניע
מַתְנִי׳ הַזּוֹרֵק מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד — חַיָּיב. מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים בָּאֶמְצַע — רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא מְחַיֵּיב, וַחֲכָמִים פּוֹטְרִין.
MISHNA: One who throws an object on Shabbat from the private domain to the public domain or from the public domain to the private domain is liable. However, one who throws an object from the private domain to the other private domain, and the object passes through the public domain between the two, Rabbi Akiva deems him liable for carrying into the public domain, and the Rabbis deem him exempt.
כֵּיצַד? שְׁתֵּי גְזוּזְטְרָאוֹת זוֹ כְּנֶגֶד זוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, הַמּוֹשִׁיט וְהַזּוֹרֵק מִזּוֹ לָזוֹ — פָּטוּר, הָיוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן בִּדְיוֹטָא אַחַת — הַמּוֹשִׁיט חַיָּיב וְהַזּוֹרֵק פָּטוּר, שֶׁכָּךְ הָיְתָה עֲבוֹדַת הַלְוִיִּם.
How so? If there are two balconies [gezuztra’ot] that are private domains opposite each other on either side of the public domain, one who passes or throws an object from the one on this side to the one on that side is exempt. However, if the balconies were on the same level on the same side of the public thoroughfare, and the public domain separated the two, one who passes from one to the other is liable, and one who throws is exempt, as that method, passing, was the service of the Levites who carried the beams of the Tabernacle.
שְׁתֵּי עֲגָלוֹת זוֹ אַחַר זוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, מוֹשִׁיטִין הַקְּרָשִׁים מִזּוֹ לָזוֹ, אֲבָל לֹא זוֹרְקִין.
In the Tabernacle, two wagons along the same level stood behind one another in the public domain, and the Levites passed the beams from one wagon to the other through the public domain on the same side of a thoroughfare. But they did not throw from one wagon to another because the beams were heavy. Passing, which was performed in the Tabernacle, is prohibited. Throwing, which was not performed in the Tabernacle, is not prohibited.