זרע קישואין שנים זרע דילועין שנים זרע פול המצרי שנים חגב חי טהור כל שהוא מת כגרוגרת צפורת כרמים בין חיה בין מתה כל שהוא שמצניעין אותה לרפואה רבי יהודה אומר אף המוציא חגב חי טמא כל שהוא שמצניעין אותו לקטן לשחוק בו:
The measure that determines liability for carrying out cucumber seeds is two seeds because they are large and conspicuous. The measure that determines liability for carrying out squash seeds is two seeds. The measure that determines liability for carrying out seeds of Egyptian beans is two. The measure that determines liability for carrying out a live kosher locust is any amount. For carrying out a dead kosher locust, which is edible, it is the same as any other food, a fig-bulk. The measure that determines liability for carrying out the locust called tzipporet keramim, whether dead or alive, is any amount; this is because one stores them for medicinal purposes or as a talisman, which renders even a small quantity significant. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even one who carries out a live non-kosher locust is liable for carrying out any amount, because people store locusts for a child who wants to play with it.
גמ׳ ורמינהי זבל וחול הדק כדי לזבל קלח של כרוב דברי רבי עקיבא וחכמים אומרים כדי לזבל כרישא אמר רב פפא הא דזריע הא דלא זריע לפי שאין אדם טורח להוציא נימא אחת לזריעה:
GEMARA: We learned in the mishna the measure that determines liability for carrying out garden seeds on Shabbat. And the Gemara raised a contradiction from what we learned: The measure that determines liability for carrying out compost and fine sand on Shabbat is equivalent to that which is used to fertilize a cabbage stalk; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. And the Rabbis say: Equivalent to that which is used to fertilize a single leek. Even a single plant is a significant amount. Rav Pappa said: This smaller measure applies to a case where the seed was already planted and growing. In that case, one carries out manure to fertilize one plant. That larger measure applies to a case where the seed was not yet planted, because a person does not go to the trouble to carry out a single seed for planting.
זרע קישואין: תנו רבנן המוציא גרעינין אם לנטיעה שתים אם לאכילה כמלא פי חזיר וכמה מלא פי חזיר אחת אם להסיק כדי לבשל ביצה קלה אם לחשבון שתים אחרים אומרים חמש תנו רבנן המוציא שני נימין מזנב הסוס ומזנב הפרה חייב שמצניעין אותן לנישבין מקשה של חזיר אחת צורי דקל שתים תורי דקל אחת:
With regard to what the mishna said about the measure for carrying out cucumber and squash seeds, the Sages taught: One who carries out date pits on Shabbat, if he did so in order to plant, he is liable for carrying out two pits. If he did so in order for the animals to eat, he is liable for carrying out enough to fill a pig’s mouth. And how much is enough to fill a pig’s mouth? One date pit. If he did so in order to burn the pits, the measure that determines liability is equivalent to that which is used to cook an easily cooked egg. If he carried them out in order to use them to count, the measure for liability is two pits. Aḥerim say the measure for liability is five pits. A person is capable of keeping track of up to five items without help. The Sages taught: One who carries out two hairs from a horse’s tail or from a cow’s tail on Shabbat is liable, since people store them to use in traps. The measure that determines liability for carrying out stiff hair of a pig is one hair. It is significant because it is used to sew shoes. The measure that determines liability for carrying out palm fronds is two fronds, but the measure for palm vines, which are peeled off the frond and are thinner, is one vine.
ציפורת כרמים בין חיה בין מתה כל שהוא: מאי ציפורת כרמים אמר רב פליא ביארי אמר אביי ומשתכח בדיקלא דחד נבארא ועבדי לה לחוכמא אכיל ליה לפלגא דימיניה ופלגא דשמאליה רמי לה בגובתא דנחשא וחתים לה בשיתין גושפנקי ותלי לה באיברא דשמאלא וסימניך לב חכם לימינו ולב כסיל לשמאלו וחכים כמה דבעי וגמר כמה דבעי ואכיל ליה לאידך פלגא דאי לא מיעקר תלמודו:
We learned in the mishna: With regard to carrying out the locust called tzipporet keramim, whether dead or alive, the measure for liability is any amount. This is because one stores them for medicinal purposes or as a talisman, which renders even one locust significant. The Gemara asks: What is tzipporet keramim? Rav said: It is the locust called palya biari. Abaye said: And it can be found in a palm tree that has only one vine, and it is used as a talisman for wisdom. One eats its right half, and casts its left half into a copper tube, and seals it with sixty seals, and hangs it on his left arm. And the mnemonic reminding you which half to eat and which half to hang on the arm is the verse: “A wise heart to his right and a foolish heart to his left” (Ecclesiastes 10:2). And one then grows wise as much as he wants, and studies as much as he wants, and then eats the other half, as if he does not do so, his learning will be forgotten.
רבי יהודה אומר אף המוציא כו׳: ותנא קמא סבר לא מאי טעמא דילמא אכיל ליה אי הכי טהור נמי דהא רב כהנא הוה קאים קמיה דרב והוה קמעבר שושיבא אפומיה אמר ליה שקליה דלא לימרו מיכל קאכיל ליה וקעבר משום בל תשקצו את נפשתיכם אלא דילמא מיית ואכיל ליה ורבי יהודה אי מיית קטן מיספד ספיד ליה:
We learned in the mishna that Rabbi Yehuda says: Even one who carries out a live non-kosher locust is liable for carrying out any amount, because people store locusts for play. The Gemara explains: And the first tanna holds that people do not give children non-kosher locusts for play. What is the reason for this? Due to the concern that perhaps the child will eat it. And the Gemara asks: If so, it should also be prohibited to give a child a kosher locust, lest the child will eat it, as the Gemara related that Rav Kahana stood before Rav and passed a live kosher locust near his mouth. Rav said to Rav Kahana: Put it down, so that people will not mistakenly say: He is eating it and violating the prohibition of “You shall not make yourselves detestable” (Leviticus 11:43). Apparently, eating a kosher locust is prohibited while it is alive. Rather, even according to the unattributed mishna, there is no room for concern that a young child will eat a locust with which he is playing. The reason that the first tanna prohibits giving a non-kosher locust to a child for play is the concern that perhaps it will die and he will eat it. And Rabbi Yehuda, who permits giving a non-kosher locust to a child for play, does not share that concern. If the locust dies, the child will eulogize it and mourn its death, and certainly would not eat it.
הדרן עלך אמר רבי עקיבא
מתני׳ המצניע לזרע ולדוגמא ולרפואה והוציאו בשבת חייב בכל שהוא וכל אדם אין חייב עליו אלא כשיעורו חזר והכניסו אינו חייב אלא כשיעורו:
MISHNA: One who stores a seed for sowing, or as a sample, or for medicinal purposes and carried it out on Shabbat is liable for carrying out any amount. By storing that measure, he indicates that it is significant to him. Therefore, he is liable for carrying it, despite the fact that what he carried out is less than the halakhic measure that determines liability for that item. And any other person is only liable for carrying it out on Shabbat if he carries out its measure for liability. If one stored the seed, carried it out, and then brought it back in, with no intention to utilize it for the specific purpose for which he stored it, he is only liable if he brought in its measure for liability (Rav Shmuel Strashun).
גמ׳ למה ליה למיתני המצניע ליתני המוציא לזרע ולדוגמא ולרפואה חייב בכל שהוא אמר אביי הכא במאי עסקינן כגון שהצניעו ושכח למה הצניעו והשתא קא מפיק ליה סתמא
GEMARA: The Gemara asks: Why does the mishna teach: One who stores a seed for a specific purpose and carried it out? Let the mishna simply teach: One who carries out a seed for planting, or as a sample, or for medicinal purposes is liable for carrying out any amount. One is not liable for storing the seed. He is liable for carrying out less than the measure that determines liability because he attributed significance to that measure. Abaye said: With what we are dealing here? We are dealing with a case where one stored it for a specific purpose and forgot why he stored it, and now he carries it out for no specific purpose.