Shabbat 84aשבת פ״ד א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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84aפ״ד א

ולחנניא טילטול על ידי שוורים שמיה טילטול (אין) דתנן שלש עגלות הן עשויה כקתידרא טמאה מדרס כמטה טמאה טמא מת של אבנים טהורה מכלום ואמר רבי יוחנן ואם יש בה בית קבול רמונים טמאה טמא מת

And according to Ḥananya, who holds that a boat carried both full and empty can become ritually impure, is carrying by oxen considered carrying? He answered his own question. Yes, as we learned in a mishna: In terms of the halakhot of ritual purity and impurity, there are three distinct types of wagons: A wagon built like a chair, meaning closed on the sides, can become ritually impure with impurity imparted by treading. Since it is designated for sitting, it becomes impure if a zav sits on it, even if he does not touch it. A wagon built like a bed can become ritually impure with impurity imparted by a corpse. It contracts all types of impurity, except for impurity imparted by the treading of a zav. A wagon made of stone, whose bottom is netting, remains ritually pure and does not become impure from any type of impurity. And Rabbi Yoḥanan said: And if in the stone wagon there is a receptacle for pomegranates, i.e., the holes are not large enough for a pomegranate to fall through, it is considered a utensil and it can become impure with impurity imparted by a corpse. Even though a stone wagon is not carried full, but is pulled by oxen, it can become ritually impure. Apparently, carrying by oxen is considered carrying.

שלש תיבות הן תיבה שפתחה מצדה טמאה מדרס מלמעלה טמאה טמא מת והבאה במדה טהורה מכלום

By association, the Gemara now cites the second part of the mishna: With regard to laws of impurity, there are three types of chests: A chest that opens from the side, on which one can sit or lie, because it can be used for sitting, it can become ritually impure with impurity imparted by treading if a zav sits on it. Even if one needs to open the chest, a person can keep sitting on it. A chest that opens from the top does not become ritually impure with impurity imparted by treading because it cannot be opened with somebody on it. However, it can become impure with impurity imparted by a corpse. And a chest that comes in a very large size, and can hold more than forty se’a, remains ritually pure and does not become impure from any type of impurity.

תנו רבנן מדרס כלי חרס טהור רבי יוסי אומר אף הספינה מאי קאמר אמר רב זביד הכי קאמר מדרס כלי חרס טהור ומגעו טמא וספינה של חרס טמאה כחנניא רבי יוסי אומר אף הספינה טהורה כתנא דידן מתקיף לה רב פפא מאי אף אלא אמר רב פפא הכי קאמר מדרס כלי חרס טהור ומגעו טמא ושל עץ בין מדרסו ובין מגעו טמא וספינת הירדן טהורה כתנא דידן רבי יוסי אומר אף הספינה טמאה כחנניא

The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to impurity imparted by treading, an earthenware vessel is ritually pure. If a zav sits on an earthenware vessel and does not touch the inside of it, it does not become impure. Rabbi Yosei says: That is even the status of a ship. The Gemara asks: What is the baraita saying? Rav Zevid said that the baraita is saying the following: According to the first tanna, with regard to impurity imparted by treading, an earthenware vessel is ritually pure; however, if the zav touches the vessel it becomes impure. And an earthenware ship can become impure with impurity imparted by the treading of a zav, in accordance with the opinion of Ḥananya. Rabbi Yosei says: Even a boat is ritually pure, in accordance with the opinion of the tanna of our mishna. Rav Pappa strongly objects to this explanation: If so, what is the meaning of the word even employed by Rabbi Yosei, indicating that he is adding to the opinion of the first tanna of the baraita? According to the above explanation, the first tanna says that a boat can become ritually impure and Rabbi Yosei says that it is pure. Rabbi Yosei is not adding to the previous opinion but disagreeing with it. Rather, Rav Pappa said that the baraita is saying the following: With regard to impurity imparted by treading, an earthenware vessel is ritually pure, and with regard to its contact with a source of ritual impurity, it is impure. And as far as a wooden vessel is concerned, with regard to both its impurity imparted by treading and its contact with a source of ritual impurity, it is impure. And a Jordan ship is ritually pure in accordance with the opinion of the tanna of our mishna. Rabbi Yosei says: Even the boat is impure like other wooden vessels, in accordance with the opinion of Ḥananya.

ומדרס כלי חרס מנלן דטהור אמר חזקיה דאמר קרא ואיש אשר יגע במשכבו מקיש משכבו לו מה הוא אית ליה טהרה במקוה אף משכבו נמי אית ליה טהרה במקוה

The Gemara questions what was stated: And from where do we derive that with regard to impurity imparted by treading, an earthenware vessel is ritually pure? Ḥizkiya said: It is as the verse states: “And whoever touches his bed shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be impure until the evening” (Leviticus 15:5). The verse juxtaposes his bed to himself. Just as he has the possibility of purification through immersion in a ritual bath, so too, his bed is referring to a vessel that has the possibility of purification in a ritual bath. Since an impure earthenware vessel cannot be purified in a ritual bath, unlike other vessels, it does not become ritually impure when a zav lies on it.

דבי רבי ישמעאל תנא כמשכב נדתה יהיה לה מקיש משכבה לה מה היא אית לה טהרה במקוה אף משכבה נמי אית לה טהרה במקוה לאפוקי כלי חרס דלית ליה טהרה במקוה מתיב רבי אילעא מפץ במת מנין

Similarly, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught that the verse states: “Every bed on which she lies all the days of her zava emission shall be for her like the bed of her menstrual period” (Leviticus 15:26). The verse juxtaposes her bed to herself: Just as she has the possibility of purification in a ritual bath, so too, her bed is referring to a vessel that has the possibility of purification in a ritual bath. This is to the exclusion of an earthenware vessel, which does not have the possibility of purification in a ritual bath. Rabbi Ila strongly objects to this from what we learned: From where is it derived that a reed mat becomes ritually impure from contact with a corpse?