Shabbat 81bשבת פ״א ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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81bפ״א ב

חסדא מהו להעלותם אחריו לגג אמר ליה גדול כבוד הבריות שדוחה את לא תעשה שבתורה יתיב מרימר וקאמר לה להא שמעתא איתיביה רבינא למרימר רבי אליעזר אומר נוטל אדם קיסם משלפניו לחצות בו שיניו וחכמים אומרים לא יטול אלא מן האבוס של בהמה הכי השתא התם אדם קובע מקום לסעודה הכא אדם קובע מקום לבית הכסא

Ḥisda: What is the halakha with regard to taking those stones up with him to the roof if his bathroom is there? Is it permitted or is it prohibited due to the exertion involved? He said to him: It is permitted; great is human dignity as it overrides a prohibition in the Torah. The Gemara relates: Mareimar sat and stated this halakha. Ravina raised an objection to the statement of Mareimar from a baraita where Rabbi Eliezer says: A person may take a wood chip from the ground before him to clean his teeth on Shabbat. And the Rabbis say one may take a wood chip only from the animal’s trough, which is already designated for the animal’s use, but not from wood on the ground, which is set-aside. Apparently, despite the fact that using the wood chip enhances human dignity, it is nevertheless prohibited due to the prohibition of set-aside. The Gemara rejects this: How can you compare? There, a person determines the place for his meal. Since he knows where he will eat he should have prepared toothpicks beforehand. Here, does a person determine the place for a bathroom? He relieves himself wherever he finds a discreet place to do so.

אמר רב הונא אסור לפנות בשדה ניר בשבת מאי טעמא אילימא משום דוושא אפילו בחול נמי ואלא משום עשבים והאמר ריש לקיש צרור שעלו בו עשבים מותר לקנח בה והתולש ממנה בשבת חייב חטאת אלא דילמא נקיט מעילאי ושדא לתתאי ומיחייב משום דרבה דאמר רבה היתה לו גומא וטממה בבית חייב משום בונה בשדה חייב משום חורש

Rav Huna said: It is prohibited to defecate in a plowed field on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for that prohibition? If you say it is due to the fact that in doing so he treads on the furrows and destroys them, it should be prohibited even on weekdays. Rather, it is due to the concern that he will clean himself with a clod of earth on which grasses have grown. Didn’t Reish Lakish say that it is permitted to wipe with a stone upon which grasses have grown even though the grasses will be detached as a result? And that is the halakha even though one who unwittingly detaches grasses from it on Shabbat is liable to bring a sin-offering. Rather, the concern is lest he take a clod of earth from a high place, a pile of dirt, and throw it to a low place, into a hole in the ground. And in that case, he would be liable due to that which Rabba said, as Rabba said: If one had a hole and filled it, in the house, he is liable due to the prohibited labor of building; in the field, he is liable due to plowing.

גופא אמר ריש לקיש צרור שעלו בו עשבים מותר לקנח בה והתולש ממנה בשבת חייב חטאת אמר רב פפי שמע מינה מדריש לקיש האי פרפיסא שרי לטלטולי מתקיף לה רב כהנא אם אמרו לצורך יאמרו שלא לצורך אמר אביי פרפיסא הואיל ואתא לידן לימא ביה מילתא היה מונח על גבי קרקע והניחו על גבי יתידות מיחייב משום תולש היה מונח על גבי יתידות והניחו על גבי קרקע חייב משום נוטע

With regard to the matter itself, Reish Lakish said: It is permitted to wipe with a stone upon which grasses have grown. And one who detaches grasses from it unwittingly on Shabbat is liable to bring a sin-offering. Rav Pappi said: Learn from that which Reish Lakish said that it is permitted to carry this perforated flowerpot on Shabbat. Rav Kahana strongly objects to this: If they said that it is permitted to carry a stone with weeds on it for a purpose, will they say it is permitted to carry a flowerpot for no purpose? Abaye said: Since the topic of a perforated pot has come to our hands, let us say something with regard to it: If it had been placed on the ground and one lifted it and placed it on top of pegs on Shabbat, he is liable for the labor of detaching. The roots of the plant could have protruded through the holes to draw sustenance from the ground, and when one lifts it he detaches it from that sustenance. Similarly, if it had been placed on pegs and one placed it on the ground, he is liable for the labor of planting.

אמר רבי יוחנן אסור לקנח בחרס בשבת מאי טעמא אילימא משום סכנה אפילו בחול נמי ואלא משום כשפים אפילו בחול נמי לא ואלא משום השרת נימין דבר שאין מתכוין הוא אמר להו רב נתן בר אושעיא גברא רבה אמר מילתא נימא בה טעמא לא מיבעיא בחול דאסור אבל בשבת הואיל ואיכא תורת כלי עליו שפיר דמי קא משמע לן

Rabbi Yoḥanan said: It is prohibited to wipe with an earthenware shard on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for that prohibition? If you say that it is due to the danger that he might injure himself with the sharp edges of the shard, it should be prohibited also on weekdays. Rather, it is due to the fact that it invites witchcraft. If so, he should also not do so on weekdays. Rather, the concern is lest he remove hairs with the earthenware shard. However, that is an unintentional act, which is permitted. Rav Natan bar Oshaya said to those who raised the question: A great man said something, let us say a reason for it, and explain Rabbi Yoḥanan’s statement as follows: It is not necessary to say that it is prohibited on a weekday for the aforementioned reasons because he has the option of using a stone. However, with regard to Shabbat we would have said that since this shard has the status of a utensil and is not set-aside, he may well use it, as it is preferable to a stone, which is set-aside. Therefore, he teaches us that it is prohibited.

רבא מתני לה משום השרת נימין וקשיא ליה דרבי יוחנן אדרבי יוחנן מי אמר רבי יוחנן אסור לקנח בחרס בשבת אלמא דבר שאין מתכוין אסור והאמר רבי יוחנן הלכה כסתם משנה ותנן נזיר חופף ומפספס אבל לא סורק אלא מחוורתא כדרב נתן בר אושעיא

Rava taught that Rabbi Yoḥanan ruled that it is prohibited due to the removal of hairs, and he raised a difficulty between that which Rabbi Yoḥanan said here and that which Rabbi Yoḥanan said elsewhere. Did Rabbi Yoḥanan say it is forbidden to wipe with an earthenware shard on Shabbat? Apparently, he holds that an unintentional act is prohibited. Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥanan state a principle: The halakha is ruled in accordance with an unattributed mishna? And we learned in a mishna: A nazirite, for whom it is prohibited to cut his hair, may wash his hair on a weekday with sand and natron and separate it with his fingers; however, he may not comb it, which would certainly pull out some hair. Apparently, the unintentional act of removing hair while shampooing is permitted. Rather, it is clearly in accordance with the explanation of Rav Natan bar Oshaya.

מאי כשפים כי הא דרב חסדא ורבה בר רב הונא הוו קא אזלי בארבא אמרה להו ההיא מטרוניתא אותבן בהדייכו ולא אותבוה אמרה איהי מילתא אסרתה לארבא אמרו אינהו מילתא שריוהא אמרה להו מאי איעביד לכו

The Gemara asks: What is the witchcraft involved with wiping with an earthenware shard? The Gemara explains: It is as that which transpired when Rav Ḥisda and Rabba bar Rav Huna were going on a boat. A certain matron [matronita] said to them: Let me sit with you, and they did not let her sit. She said something, an incantation of witchcraft, and stopped the boat. They said something, the Holy Name, and freed it. She said to them: What will I do to you, to enable me to harm you with witchcraft,