Shabbat 78bשבת ע״ח ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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78bע״ח ב

נייר מחוק כדי לכרוך על צלוחית קטנה של פלייטון עור כדי לעשות קמיע (דוכסוסטוס כדי לכתוב מזוזה) קלף כדי לכתוב עליו פרשה קטנה שבתפילין שהיא שמע ישראל דיו כדי לכתוב שתי אותיות

The measure that determines liability for carrying out paper from which the writing has been erased and which can no longer be used for writing, is equivalent to that which is used to wrap around a small jar of perfume. The measure that determines liability for carrying out animal hide is equivalent to that which is used to make an amulet. The measure that determines liability for carrying out dokhsostos, a layer of the animal hide, is equivalent to that which is used to write a mezuza. The measure that determines liability for carrying out parchment is equivalent to that which is used to write the shortest portion in the phylacteries, which is the portion of Shema Yisrael. The measure that determines liability for carrying out ink is equivalent to that which is used to write two letters.

כחול כדי לכחול עין אחת דבק כדי ליתן בראש השפשף זפת וגפרית כדי לעשות נקב שעוה כדי ליתן על פי נקב קטן חרסית כדי לעשות פי כור של צורפי זהב רבי יהודה אומר כדי לעשות פיטפוט סובין כדי ליתן על פי כור של צורפי זהב סיד כדי לסוד קטנה שבבנות רבי יהודה אומר כדי לעשות כלכל רבי נחמיה אומר כדי לסוד אונדפי:

The measure that determines liability for carrying out blue eye shadow is equivalent to that which is used to paint one eye blue. The measure that determines liability for carrying out glue is equivalent to that which is used to place on the top of a board to catch birds. The measure that determines liability for carrying out tar and sulfur is equivalent to that which is used to seal a hole in a vessel and to make a small hole in that seal. The measure that determines liability for carrying out wax is equivalent to that which is used to place on the opening of a small hole to seal it. The measure that determines liability for carrying out crushed earthenware is equivalent to that which is used to knead and make from it an opening for the bellows to be placed in a gold refiners’ crucible. Rabbi Yehuda says: Equivalent to that which is used to make a small tripod [pitput] for the crucible. The measure that determines liability for carrying out bran is equivalent to that which is used to place on the hole of a gold refiners’ crucible. The measure that determines liability for carrying out lime is equivalent to that which is used to spread as a depilatory on the smallest of girls. Rabbi Yehuda says: Equivalent to that which is used to spread on the hair that grows over the temple so that it will lie flat. Rabbi Neḥemya says: Equivalent to that which is used to spread on the temple to remove fine hairs.

גמ׳ חבל נמי ליחייב כדי לעשות תלאי לנפה ולכברה כיון דחריק במנא לא עבדי אינשי תנו רבנן הוצין כדי לעשות אוזן לסל כפיפה מצרית סיב אחרים אומרים כדי ליתן על פי משפך קטן לסנן את היין רבב כדי לסוך תחת אספגין קטנה וכמה שיעורה כסלע והתניא כגרוגרת אידי ואידי חד שיעורא הוא מוכין כדי לעשות כדור קטנה וכמה שיעורו כאגוז:

GEMARA: We learned in the mishna: The measure that determines liability for carrying out a rope is equivalent to that which is used to form an ear-shaped handle for a basket. The Gemara asks: In the case of rope, too, let one be liable for carrying out a measure equivalent to that which is used to make a loop for hanging a sifter or a sieve, as he is with a reed. The Gemara answers: Since rope is tough and would cut grooves in the vessel, people do not make loops from it. The Sages taught: The measure that determines liability for carrying out hard palm leaves is equivalent to that which is used to make an ear-shaped handle for an Egyptian wicker basket, which is made from woven palm branches. Aḥerim say: The measure that determines liability for carrying out bast is equivalent to that which is used to place on the opening of a small funnel to filter the wine. The measure that determines liability for carrying out fat is equivalent to that which is used to smear beneath a small cake. And how much is its measure? Equivalent to the size of a sela. The Gemara asks: Was it not taught in a baraita that its measure is equivalent to a dried fig? The Gemara answers: This, the width of a sela, and that, the volume of a dried fig, are one measure. The measure that determines liability for carrying out soft material is equivalent to that which is used to make a small ball. And how much is its measure? It is like the size of a nut.

נייר כדי לכתוב עליו קשר מוכסין: תנא כמה קשר מוכסין שתי אותיות (של קשר מוכסין) ורמינהו המוציא נייר חלק אם יש בו כדי לכתוב שתי אותיות חייב ואם לאו פטור אמר רב ששת מאי שתי אותיות שתי אותיות של קשר מוכסין רבא אמר שתי אותיות דידן ובית אחיזה דהיינו קשר מוכסין

We learned in the mishna: The measure that determines liability for carrying out paper is equivalent to that which is used to write a tax receipt. A tanna taught in a Tosefta: How much is the measure of a tax receipt? Enough to write two letters characteristic of a tax receipt, which are larger than regular letters. And the Gemara raises a contradiction: One who carries out blank paper; if it has space equivalent to that which is used to write two letters, he is liable, and if not, he is exempt. That paper is smaller than a tax receipt. Rav Sheshet said: What are the two letters taught in the Tosefta? Two letters of a tax receipt. Rava said: The Tosefta can even be explained as referring to two standard-size letters of ours and blank space with which to hold the paper on which the text is written, which is the size of a tax receipt.

מיתיבי המוציא נייר מחוק ושטר פרוע אם יש בלובן שלו כדי לכתוב שתי אותיות או בכולו כדי לכרוך על פי צלוחית קטנה של פלייטון חייב ואם לאו פטור בשלמא לרב ששת דאמר מאי שתי אותיות שתי אותיות של קשר מוכסין שפיר אלא לרבא דאמר שתי אותיות דידן ובית אחיזה דהיינו קשר מוכסין הכא בית אחיזה לא צריך קשיא

The Gemara raises an objection: One who carries out paper from which the writing has been erased or a promissory note whose debt has been repaid, if there is in its white section, the space with no text, equivalent to that which is used to write two letters, or if the entire paper is equivalent to that which is used to wrap around a small jar of perfume, he is liable; and if not, if it is smaller, he is exempt. The Gemara elaborates: Granted, according to Rav Sheshet, who said: What are the two letters taught in the Tosefta, two letters of a tax receipt, it works out well. However, according to Rava, who said: Two standard-size letters of ours and blank space with which to hold the paper on which the text is written, which is the size of a tax receipt, here, on this paper or document, blank space with which to hold the paper is not necessary, as one can hold it on the erased part or on the text of the voided promissory note. Nevertheless, the measure for liability in the Tosefta for carrying out paper from which the writing was erased is no smaller. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, it is difficult.

תנו רבנן המוציא קשר מוכסין עד שלא הראהו למוכס חייב משהראהו למוכס פטור רבי יהודה אומר אף משהראהו למוכס חייב מפני שצריך לו מאי בינייהו אמר אביי איכא בינייהו רהיטי מוכסא רבא אמר מוכס גדול ומוכס קטן איכא בינייהו רב אשי אמר חד מוכס איכא בינייהו מפני שצריך לו להראות למוכס שני דאמר ליה חזי גברא דמוכס אנא:

The Sages taught in a Tosefta: One who carries out a tax receipt on Shabbat before he has shown it to the tax collector, and he still needs it, is liable for carrying out on Shabbat. Once he has shown it to the tax collector he is exempt, as it has no significance. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even once he has shown it to the tax collector he is liable because there will be a time when he needs it. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between their opinions? Abaye said: There is a practical difference between their opinions with regard to tax runners. Occasionally, the tax collectors send inspectors after those who already passed the tax audit in order to verify that they indeed paid. In that case, even though one already showed it to the original tax collector, he will be required to produce it again. Rava said: There is a practical difference between their opinions with regard to a senior tax collector and a junior tax collector. Sometimes, when the first tax collector that one encounters is a minor official, he will need to keep the receipt with him and produce it if he encounters a more senior official. Rav Ashi said: There is a difference between them even in a case where there is just one tax collector. Nevertheless, it is to his advantage to keep it in his possession because he needs it to show it to a second tax collector whom he may encounter in the future, as he says to him: Look, I am a man trusted by the tax collector. The document in his possession proves that he is on good terms with the tax authorities.

תנו רבנן המוציא שטר חוב עד שלא פרעו חייב משפרעו פטור רבי יהודה אומר אף משפרעו חייב מפני שצריך לו מאי בינייהו אמר רב יוסף אסור לשהות שטר פרוע איכא בינייהו רבנן סברי אסור לשהות שטר פרוע ורבי יהודה סבר מותר לשהות שטר פרוע

The Sages taught: One who carries out a promissory note on Shabbat before he repaid the debt is liable; however, once he repaid it, he is exempt. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even once he repaid the debt, he is liable for carrying out the document because he needs it. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between their opinions? Rav Yosef said: There is a practical difference between their opinions with regard to the halakha whether or not it is prohibited to keep a repaid promissory note in one’s possession. The Rabbis hold: It is prohibited to keep a repaid promissory note in one’s possession, so that the creditor will not use it to collect the debt a second time. Since it is prohibited to keep a repaid promissory note, the document has no value. And Rabbi Yehuda holds: It is permitted to keep a repaid promissory note in one’s possession and use it as paper.

אביי אמר דכולי עלמא אסור לשהות שטר פרוע והכא במודה בשטר שכתבו שצריך לקיימו קמיפלגי תנא קמא סבר מודה בשטר שכתבו צריך לקיימו ורבי יהודה סבר מודה בשטר שכתבו אין צריך לקיימו ומאי עד שלא פרעו ומשפרעו

Abaye said: Everyone agrees that it is prohibited to keep a repaid promissory note in one’s possession, and here they disagree with regard to the question whether or not, in a case where a debtor admits that he wrote a promissory note, the creditor must ratify it in court. The first tanna holds: When a debtor admits that he wrote a promissory note, the creditor must ratify it in court to confirm that it is not a forgery. If it cannot be ratified, the debtor can claim that he already repaid the debt. And Rabbi Yehuda holds: When a debtor admits that he wrote a promissory note, the creditor need not ratify it in court and can collect his debt without ratification. The document is considered more reliable than the debtor’s claims. And what is the meaning of: Before he repaid the debt and once he repaid it?