Shabbat 78aשבת ע״ח א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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78aע״ח א

וליתא דרבי ינאי והכא בהא קמיפלגי רבי שמעון בן אלעזר סבר אבר קטן דגדול ואבר גדול דקטן בן יומו כי הדדי נינהו ורבי נתן סבר אבר קטן דגדול אין אבר גדול דקטן בן יומו לא מאי הוי עלה תא שמע דתניא רבי שמעון בן אלעזר אומר שמן כדי לסוך אבר קטן של קטן בן יומו:

and the opinion of the school of Rabbi Yannai is not accepted. And here, in this baraita, they disagree about this: Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar holds: A small limb of an adult and a large limb of a day-old child are equal to one another, and Rabbi Natan holds: For carrying out oil in a measure equivalent to that which is used to spread on a small limb of an adult, yes, one is liable; however, a large limb of a day-old child, no, he is exempt. The Gemara asks: What conclusion was reached in this matter? Come and hear a proof, as it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says explicitly: The measure that determines liability for carrying out oil is equivalent to that which is used to spread on a small limb of a day-old child.

מים כדי לשוף בהן את הקילור: אמר אביי מכדי כל מילתא דשכיחא ולא שכיחא אזול רבנן בתר דשכיחא לקולא שכיחא ושכיחא אזול רבנן בתר דשכיחא לחומרא

We learned in the mishna: The measure that determines liability for carrying out water is equivalent to that which is used to rub and spread on an eye bandage. Abaye said: Now, since, with regard to any substance that is utilized for both common and uncommon uses, the Sages, in their ruling, followed the common usage even as a leniency, i.e., one is liable only for carrying out the larger measure. However, when a substance has different uses and one is common and the other is common as well, the Sages, in their ruling, followed the common use that leads to a stringency, i.e., one is liable for carrying out even the smaller amount.

יין שתייתו שכיחא רפואתו לא שכיחא אזול רבנן בתר שתייתו דשכיחא לקולא חלב אכילתו שכיחא רפואתו לא שכיחא אזול רבנן בתר אכילתו לקולא דבש אכילתו שכיחא רפואתו שכיחא אזול רבנן בתר רפואתו לחומרא

Proof for this principle can be seen in the following examples. Wine, its use for drinking is common and its use for healing is uncommon. The Sages, in establishing the measure that determines liability for carrying out wine, followed its use for drinking, which is common, which led to a leniency. The amount of wine that one typically drinks is greater that the amount of wine used for healing. Milk, its consumption is common and its use for healing is uncommon. The Sages, in establishing the measure that determines liability for carrying out milk, followed its consumption, which is common, as a leniency. Honey, its consumption is common and its use for healing is also common. The Sages, in establishing the measure that determines liability for carrying out honey, followed its use for healing, the smaller amount, as a stringency.

אלא מים מכדי שתייתו שכיחא רפואתו לא שכיחא מאי טעמא אזול רבנן בתר רפואתו לחומרא אמר אביי בגלילא שנו רבא אמר אפילו תימא בשאר מקומות כדשמואל דאמר שמואל כל שקייני מסו ומטללי לבר ממיא דמסו ולא מטללי:

However, water, since its drinking is common and its use for healing is uncommon, what is the reason that the Sages followed its use for healing as a stringency? Based on the above principle, the Sages should have determined the measure based on its use for drinking. Abaye said: They taught this halakha in the Galilee where they typically drink wine. There, water is used as commonly for healing as it is for drinking (Tosafot). Rava said: Even if you say that this halakha applies in the rest of the places as well as in the Galilee, the use of water in treating the eye is common, in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel, as Shmuel said: All liquids placed on the eye effect a cure and cloud the vision, except for water which cures and does not cloud the vision.

ושאר כל המשקין ברביעית: תנו רבנן דם וכל מיני משקין ברביעית רבי שמעון בן אלעזר אומר דם כדי לכחול בעין אחת שכן כוחלין לברקית ומאי נינהו דמא דתרנגולת ברא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר דם כדי לכחול בו עין אחת שכן כוחלין ליארוד ומאי ניהו דמא דכרושתינא וסימניך גוא לגוא ברא לברא

We learned in the mishna: And the measure that determines liability for all other liquids is a quarter of a log. The Sages taught in a Tosefta: The measure that determines liability for carrying out blood and all types of liquids on Shabbat is a quarter of a log. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: The measure that determines liability for blood is less than that. The measure that determines liability for carrying out blood is equivalent to that which is used to apply to one eye, as one applies blood to heal a wart on the eye. The Gemara asks: And what type of blood effects this cure? The blood of a wild chicken. Rabbi Shimon ben Gamliel says: The measure that determines liability for carrying out blood is equivalent to that which is used to apply to one eye, as one applies blood to heal a cataract. And what type of blood effects this cure? The blood of a bat. And a mnemonic to ensure that you do not confuse these cures: Inside for inside, outside for outside. The blood of a bat, which lives in inhabited areas, for the cataract, which is inside the eye; the blood of a wild chicken, which lives outside inhabited areas, for the wart, which is external to the eye.

במה דברים אמורים במוציא אבל במצניע כל שהוא חייב רבי שמעון אומר במה דברים אמורים במצניע אבל במוציא אינו חייב אלא ברביעית ומודים חכמים לרבי שמעון במוציא שופכין לרשות הרבים ששיעורן ברביעית:

The Gemara cites a Tosefta: In what case are these matters, the measures for the substances in the mishna, stated? They were stated with regard to one who carries them out from one domain to another without ascribing special significance to them. However, with regard to one who stores them, thereby ascribing significance to them, the ruling is that he is liable for carrying out any measure. Rabbi Shimon says: In what case are these matters stated? They were stated with regard to one who stores those amounts. However, if one merely carries them out, he is liable only if he carries out a quarter of a log. And the Rabbis agree with Rabbi Shimon with regard to one who carries out waste water to the public domain that even when one merely carries it out, the measure that determines liability is a quarter of a log.

אמר מר במה דברים אמורים במוציא אבל במצניע כל שהוא אטו מצניע לאו מוציא הוא אמר אביי הכא במאי עסקינן בתלמיד שאמר לו רבו לך ופנה לי המקום לסעודה הלך ופנה לו דבר חשוב לכל חייב עילויה דבר שאינו חשוב לכל אי אצנעיה רביה מיחייב עילויה ואי לא לא מיחייב

The Master said in the Tosefta: In what case are these matters, the measures for the substances in the mishna, stated? They were stated with regard to one who carries them out from one domain to another without ascribing special significance to them. However, with regard to one who stores them, he is liable for any amount. The Gemara is surprised at this: Isn’t the one who stores also the one who carries out? One is not liable for merely storing. He is liable only for carrying out the stored item. Abaye said: With what are we dealing here? With the case of a student whose teacher said to him: Go and clear for me space for a meal, and he went and cleared space for him and removed the items to another domain. If he cleared an item that is significant to all, he is liable for carrying it out. If he cleared an item that is not significant to all, then, if his teacher had stored it, he is liable for carrying it out, and if his teacher had not stored it, he is not liable for carrying it out, since the student is fulfilling his teacher’s wishes.

אמר מר מודים חכמים לרבי שמעון במוציא שופכין לרשות הרבים ששיעורן ברביעית: שופכין למאי חזו אמר רבי ירמיה לגבל בהן את הטיט והתניא טיט כדי לעשות בהן פי כור לא קשיא הא דמיגבל הא דלא מיגבל לפי שאין אדם טורח לגבל טיט לעשות פי כור:

The Master said in the Tosefta: And the Rabbis agree with Rabbi Shimon with regard to one who carries out waste water to the public domain, that the measure that determines liability is a quarter of a log. The Gemara asks: For what use is waste water fit? Rabbi Yirmeya said: It is used to knead clay. The Gemara asks: If that is its purpose, why is such a large amount required? Was it not taught in a baraita: The measure that determines liability for carrying out clay on Shabbat is equivalent to that which is used to make an opening for the bellows to be placed in a crucible, which is a much smaller measure? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This, where the measure for clay is equivalent to that which is used to make an opening for the bellows to be placed in a crucible, is referring to a case where it was already kneaded; that, where the measure for waste water is a quarter of a log to knead clay, is referring to a case where it is not yet kneaded, as a person does not go to the trouble of kneading clay just to make an opening for the bellows to be placed in a crucible. When carrying out water to knead clay, a large amount is required; however, clay that was already prepared is fit for use for smaller objects as well.

מתני׳ המוציא חבל כדי לעשות אוזן לקופה גמי כדי לעשות תלאי לנפה ולכברה רבי יהודה אומר כדי ליטול ממנו מדת מנעל לקטן נייר כדי לכתוב עליו קשר מוכסין והמוציא קשר מוכסין חייב

MISHNA: One who carries out a rope is liable in a measure equivalent to that which is used to form an ear-shaped handle for a basket. The measure that determines liability for carrying out reed grass is equivalent to that which is used to make a loop for hanging a sifter or a sieve. Rabbi Yehuda says: The measure for liability is equivalent to that which is used to take the measure of a shoe for a child, as the reed is used to measure the size of the foot. The measure that determines liability for carrying out paper is equivalent to that which is used to write a tax receipt. And one who carries out a tax receipt itself on Shabbat is liable.