Shabbat 66bשבת ס״ו ב
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66bס״ו ב

לתרוצי סוגיא עבידא הכא לסמוך עילויה הוא דעבידא וסמיך עליה:

it is made merely to align his steps and straighten his posture. He does not completely lean all his weight on it. Here, in the case of a wooden leg, it is made to lean on, and in fact he leans all his weight on it.

טמאין מדרס ואין יוצאין בהן בשבת ואין נכנסין בהן לעזרה:

It was taught in the mishna that the supports of a zav and his chair are subject to ritual impurity imparted by treading, and one may not go out with them on Shabbat, and one may not enter into the Temple courtyard with them.

תני תנא קמיה דרבי יוחנן נכנסין בהן לעזרה

The tanna, who recited mishnayot before Rabbi Yoḥanan, taught the opposite halakha in the mishna: One may enter into the Temple courtyard with them.

אמר ליה אני שונה אשה חולצת בו ואת אמרת נכנסין תני אין נכנסין בהן לעזרה:

Rabbi Yoḥanan said to him: I teach that a woman may perform ḥalitza with this support, as it has the legal status of a shoe in every sense, and you say that one may enter the Temple courtyard? Teach the mishna in the following manner: One may not enter into the Temple courtyard with them.

לוקטמין טהורה: מאי לוקטמין אמר רבי אבהו חמרא דאכפא רבא בר פפא אמר קשירי רבא בר רב הונא אמר פרמי:

We learned in the mishna that loketamin are pure. The Gemara asks: What are loketamin? Rabbi Abbahu said: They are wooden toys in the shape of a donkey one carried on the shoulders, creating the impression that the donkey is riding him. Rava bar Pappa said: They are stilts used to avoid getting dirty when walking in mud or for amusement. Rava bar Rav Huna said: They are masks [peramei].

מתני׳ הבנים יוצאין בקשרים ובני מלכים בזוגין וכל אדם אלא שדברו חכמים בהווה:

MISHNA: Young boys may go out on Shabbat with knots as a folk remedy and princes with bells. And any person is permitted to go out on Shabbat with those objects; however, the Sages spoke in the present, addressing situations that were prevalent.

גמ׳ מאי קשרים אמר אדא מרי אמר רב נחמן בר ברוך אמר רב אשי בר אבין אמר רב יהודה קשורי פואה

GEMARA: We learned in the mishna that young boys may go out on Shabbat with knots. The Gemara asks: What are these knots? Adda Mari said that Rav Naḥman bar Barukh said that Rav Ashi bar Avin said that Rav Yehuda said: They are garlands of the madder plant that are tied for their medicinal qualities.

אמר אביי אמרה לי אם תלתא מוקמי חמשה מסו שבעה אפילו לכשפים מעלי

Abaye said: Mother, actually his foster mother, said to me about the healing properties of madder: Three garlands maintain the illness at its present state and prevent it from worsening, five garlands heal the illness, and seven are effective even against sorcery.

אמר רב אחא בר יעקב והוא דלא חזי ליה שמשא וסיהרא ולא חזי מיטרא ולא שמיע ליה קול ברזלא וקל תרנגולתא וקל ניגרי אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק נפל פותא בבירא

Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: And that benefit provided by the madder plant is specifically in a case where one on whom the knots were tied does not look at the sun and the moon, and does not see rain, and hears neither the sound of clanging iron, nor the sound of the hen, nor the sound of footsteps. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: If that is the case, the remedial powers of the madder fell in a pit, i.e., if so many conditions exist, for all intents and purposes it provides no benefit at all.

מאי איריא בנים אפילו בנות נמי מאי איריא קטנים אפילו גדולים נמי

The Gemara asks: If these knots in the madder plant have remedial qualities, why specifically were boys mentioned in the mishna? Even girls can benefit from the cure as well. By the same token, why specifically were young boys mentioned in the mishna? Even adults can benefit from the cure as well.

אלא מאי קשרים כי הא דאמר אבין בר הונא אמר רבי חמא בר גוריא בן שיש געגועין על אביו נוטל רצועה ממנעל של ימין וקושר לו בשמאלו אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק וסימניך תפילין וחילופא סכנתא

Rather, what are these knots? Like that which Avin bar Huna said that Rav Ḥama bar Gurya said: A son who has longings for his father and has a difficult time leaving him, the father takes a strap from the right shoe and ties it on the boy’s left arm as a talisman to help the child overcome his longings. These feelings are more common in small children and especially in boys for their fathers, as fathers were more involved in raising their sons than they were in raising their daughters. Therefore, the Sages allowed specifically young boys to go out with these knots. With regard to this practice, Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: And your mnemonic for where to tie the strap is phylacteries, which are tied by the right hand on the left arm. And the opposite, tying the strap from the left shoe onto his right arm, is dangerous because it will exacerbate his longings.

אמר אבין בר הונא אמר רב חמא בר גוריא סחופי כסא אטיבורי בשבתא שפיר דמי

On the topic of the use of various forms of healing and medicinal practices and their permissibility on Shabbat, the Gemara cites additional statements by that Sage on these topics. Avin bar Huna said that Rav Ḥama bar Gurya said: With regard to overturning an empty cup in which there had been hot water and placing it on one’s navel for healing purposes on Shabbat, he may well do so.

ואמר אבין בר הונא אמר רב חמא בר גוריא מותר לסוך שמן ומלח בשבת

And Avin bar Huna said that Rav Ḥama bar Gurya said: It is permissible to smear oil and salt on oneself on Shabbat.

כי הא דרב הונא מבי רב ורב מבי רבי חייא ורבי חייא מבי רבי כי הוו מיבסמי מייתי משחא ומילחא ושייפי להו לגוייתא דידייהו וגוייתא דכרעייהו ואמרי כי היכי דציל הא מישחא ליציל חמריה דפלניא בר פלניתא ואי לא מייתי שיעא דדנא ושרי ליה במיא ואמר כי היכי דליציל האי שיעא ליציל חמריה דפלניא בר פלניתא

As in this case of Rav Huna, who departed from the house of Rav, and Rav, who departed from the house of Rabbi Ḥiyya, and Rabbi Ḥiyya, who departed from the house of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, when they were drunk, the rabbi would bring oil and salt and rub them on the palms of their hands and the soles of their feet and say: Just as this oil is clear, so let the wine of so-and-so, son of so-and-so, his mother, become clear. In other words, let them become sober. And if he could not bring oil and salt, or if they did not work, he would bring the sealing clay of a barrel and soak it in water and say: Just as this sealing clay is clear, so let the wine of so-and-so, son of so-and-so, become clear.

ואמר אבין בר הונא אמר רב חמא בר גוריא מותר לחנק בשבת

And Avin bar Huna said that Rav Ḥama bar Gurya said: It is permitted to strangle, i.e., tightly bandage the neck of one whose vertebra was dislocated in order to reset it, on Shabbat.

ואמר אבין בר הונא אמר רב חמא בר גוריא לפופי ינוקא בשבתא שפיר דמי

And Avin bar Huna said that Rav Ḥama bar Gurya said: With regard to tightly swaddling a baby born on Shabbat in order to align any limbs that may have been dislocated in birth, one may well do so.

רב פפא מתני בנים רב זביד מתני בן רב פפא מתני בנים ותרוייהו מתני להו באבין בר הונא רב זביד מתני בן קמייתא מתני באבין בר הונא והאי מתני לה ברבה בר בר חנה דאמר רבה בר בר חנה לפופי ינוקא בשבתא שפיר דמי

There were different versions with regard to the halakhot of Avin bar Huna. Rav Pappa taught two halakhot with regard to children in his name and Rav Zevid taught one halakha with regard to a child in his name. The Gemara explains: Rav Pappa taught two halakhot with regard to children, and he taught both of them in the name of Avin bar Huna, i.e., the halakha with regard to knots and the halakha with regard to swaddling. Rav Zevid taught one halakha with regard to a child. The first, with regard to knots, he taught in the name of Avin bar Huna. And this, with regard to swaddling, he taught in the name of Rabba bar bar Ḥana, as Rabba bar bar Ḥana said: With regard to tightly swaddling a baby on Shabbat, one may well do so.

אמר אביי אמרה לי אם כל מנייני בשמא דאימא וכל קטרי בשמאלא

The Gemara cites additional statements said by Abaye in the name of the woman who raised him with regard to remedies. Abaye said, Mother said to me: All incantations that are repeated are intoned using the name of the mother of the one requiring the incantation, and all knots tied for the purpose of healing are tied on the left.

ואמר אביי אמרה לי אם כל מנייני דמפרשי כדמפרשי ודלא מפרשי ארבעין וחד זימני

And Abaye said, Mother said to me: All incantations for which the number of times they must be intoned is specified, one recites them as they are specified; and those for which the number of times they must be intoned is not specified, one recites them forty-one times.

תנו רבנן יוצאין באבן תקומה בשבת משום רבי מאיר אמרו אף במשקל אבן תקומה ולא שהפילה אלא שמא תפיל ולא שעיברה אלא שמא תתעבר ותפיל אמר רב יימר בר שלמיא משמיה דאביי והוא דאיכוון ואיתקל בעי אביי משקל דמשקל מאי תיקו

The Sages taught in a baraita: One may go out with a preservation stone, which prevent miscarriages, on Shabbat. They said in the name of Rabbi Meir that one may go out even with the counterweight of a preservation stone; i.e., a stone or another object that was weighed against and found equivalent to the weight of the preservation stone, which is also effective. And this leniency applies not only to a woman who miscarried in the past and is concerned that she may miscarry again; rather, it applies even to a woman who never miscarried and is concerned lest she miscarry for the first time. And it applies not only to a woman who is aware that she is pregnant; rather, it applies even if a woman suspects that she may become pregnant and miscarry. Rav Yeimar bar Shelamya said in the name of Abaye: And this applies only when he happened upon an object that was found equal to the preservation stone when he weighed it against that stone, not when one alters the object to equal the weight of the preservation stone. Abaye raised a dilemma: With regard to a counterweight to the counterweight, i.e., one who finds an object and determines its weight by weighing it against the counterweight of the preservation stone, what is its legal status? May a woman go out into the public domain with it? The Gemara concludes: Let this dilemma stand unresolved.

ואמר אביי אמרה לי אם לאשתא בת יומא לישקול זוזא חיוורא וליזיל למלחתא וליתקול מתקליה מילחא ולצייריה בחללא דבי צואר בנירא ברקא

And Abaye said, Mother said to me: To heal a fever of one day, let one take a pale, i.e., newly minted, dinar and go to the salt pools, and weigh its weight in salt against it, and let him bind the salt to the opening of the neckline of his garment with a thread made of hair.

ואי לא ליתוב אפרשת דרכים וכי חזי שומשמנא גמלא דדרי מידי לישקליה ולישדייה בגובתא דנחשא וליסתמיא באברא וליחתמי בשיתין גושפנקי ולברזוליה ולידריה ולימא ליה טעונך עלי וטעונאי עלך אמר ליה רב אחא בריה דרב הונא לרב אשי ודילמא איניש אשכחיה ואיפסק ביה אלא לימא ליה טעונאי וטעונך עלך

And if this remedy is not effective, let him sit at a crossroads, and when he sees a large ant carrying something, he should take the ant and place it in a copper tube, and close it with lead, and seal it with sixty seals, and shake it, and lift it, and say to it: Your burden is upon me and my burden, my fever, is upon you. Rav Aḥa, son of Rav Huna, said to Rav Ashi: And perhaps a different person already found this ant and used this remedy to end his illness. In that case, by accepting the burden of the ant, he is bringing another’s illness upon himself. Rather, let him say to the ant: My burden and your burden are upon you.

ואי לא לישקול כוזא חדתא וליזיל לנהרא ולימא ליה נהרא נהרא אוזפן כוזא דמיא לאורחא דאיקלע לי וליהדר שב זימני על רישיה ולשדיין לאחוריה ולימא ליה נהרא נהרא שקול מיא דיהבת לי דאורחא דאיקלע לי ביומיה אתא וביומיה אזל

And if that remedy is not effective, let him take a new jug, and go to the river, and say to it: River, river, lend me a jug of water for a guest who happened to come to me. And let him turn it around his head seven times, and pour out the water behind him, and say to it: River, river, take back the water that you gave me because the guest who happened to come to me came on its day and left on its day.

אמר רב הונא

Rav Huna said: