בְּיַיִן חַרְדָּלִי? בְּמֵסַב רָחָב, אוֹ בְּמֵסַב קָצָר? בְּחָבֵר טוֹב, אוֹ בְּחָבֵר רָע? אָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: וְכוּלָּן לִזְנוּת.
on black wine? Sitting on a wide divan or on a narrow divan? With a good friend or a bad friend? And Rav Ḥisda said: And all these allude to promiscuity. These are all euphemisms for different types of women. Well-kneaded bread refers to a woman who is not a virgin; white wine refers to a fair-complexioned woman; a wide divan refers to a fat woman; a good friend refers to a good-looking woman.
אָמַר רַחֲבָה אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה: עֲצֵי יְרוּשָׁלַיִם שֶׁל קִינָּמוֹן הָיוּ, וּבְשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיוּ מַסִּיקִין מֵהֶן, רֵיחָן נוֹדֵף בְּכָל אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל. וּמִשֶּׁחָרְבָה יְרוּשָׁלַיִם נִגְנְזוּ, וְלֹא נִשְׁתַּיֵּיר אֶלָּא כִּשְׂעוֹרָה, וּמִשְׁתְּכַח בֵּי גַזָּא דְּצִימְצְמַאי מַלְכְּתָא.
On the topic of Jerusalem, Raḥava said that Rabbi Yehuda said: The logs of Jerusalem used for fuel were from the cinnamon tree, and when they would ignite them, their fragrance would waft through all of Eretz Yisrael. And since Jerusalem was destroyed, these fragrant logs were buried, and only a sliver the size of a grain of barley remains, and it is located in the treasury of [gazzai] Tzimtzemai the queen.
מַתְנִי׳ לֹא יֵצֵא הָאִישׁ לֹא בְּסַיִיף וְלֹא בְּקֶשֶׁת וְלֹא בִּתְרִיס וְלֹא בְּאַלָּה וְלֹא בְּרוֹמַח. וְאִם יָצָא — חַיָּיב חַטָּאת.
MISHNA: Just as it is prohibited for a woman to carry out certain items unique to a woman into the public domain, the Sages said that a man may neither go out on Shabbat with a sword, nor with a bow, nor with a shield [teris], nor with an alla, nor with a spear. And if he unwittingly went out with one of these weapons to the public domain he is liable to bring a sin-offering.
רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר: תַּכְשִׁיטִין הֵן לוֹ.
Rabbi Eliezer says: These weapons are ornaments for him; just as a man is permitted to go out into the public domain with other ornaments, he is permitted to go out with weapons.
וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים: אֵינָן אֶלָּא לִגְנַאי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וְכִתְּתוּ חַרְבוֹתָם לְאִתִּים וַחֲנִיתוֹתֵיהֶם לְמַזְמֵרוֹת וְלֹא יִשָּׂא גוֹי אֶל גּוֹי חֶרֶב וְלֹא יִלְמְדוּ עוֹד מִלְחָמָה״.
And the Rabbis say: They are nothing other than reprehensible and in the future they will be eliminated, as it is written: “And they shall beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks; nation will not raise sword against nation, neither will they learn war anymore” (Isaiah 2:4).
בִּירִית — טְהוֹרָה וְיוֹצְאִין בָּהּ בְּשַׁבָּת.
With regard to women’s ornaments, they added that a garter placed on her leg to hold up stockings is pure and cannot become ritually impure as a utensil, and she may even go out with it on Shabbat.
כְּבָלִים — טְמֵאִים וְאֵין יוֹצְאִין בָּהֶן בְּשַׁבָּת.
However, ankle chains, which were also women’s ornaments, can become ritually impure, and she may not go out with them on Shabbat.
גְּמָ׳ מַאי ״בְּאַלָּה״ — קוּלְפָא.
GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the term alla? It means club [kulpa].
רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר תַּכְשִׁיטִין הֵן לוֹ. תַּנְיָא: אָמְרוּ לוֹ לְרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר: וְכִי מֵאַחַר דְּתַכְשִׁיטִין הֵן לוֹ, מִפְּנֵי מָה הֵן בְּטֵלִין לִימוֹת הַמָּשִׁיחַ? אָמַר לָהֶן: לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָן צְרִיכִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״לֹא יִשָּׂא גוֹי אֶל גּוֹי חֶרֶב״. וְתֶהֱוֵי לְנוֹי בְּעָלְמָא! אָמַר אַבָּיֵי: מִידֵּי דְּהָוֵה אַשְּׁרָגָא בְּטִיהֲרָא.
We learned in the mishna that Rabbi Eliezer says: These weapons are ornaments for him. It was taught in a baraita that elaborates on this subject: The Rabbis said to Rabbi Eliezer: And since, in your opinion, they are ornaments for him, why are they to be eliminated in the messianic era? He said to them: They will not be needed anymore, as it is stated: “Nation will not raise sword against nation” (Isaiah 2:4). The Gemara asks: And let the weapons be merely for ornamental purposes, even though they will not be needed for war. Abaye said: It is just as in the case of a candle in the afternoon. Since its light is not needed, it serves no ornamental purpose. Weapons, too; when not needed for war, they serve no ornamental purpose either.
וּפְלִיגָא דִּשְׁמוּאֵל. דְּאָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל: אֵין בֵּין הָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה לִימוֹת הַמָּשִׁיחַ אֶלָּא שִׁיעְבּוּד גָּלֻיוֹת בִּלְבַד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״כִּי לֹא יֶחְדַּל אֶבְיוֹן מִקֶּרֶב הָאָרֶץ״.
And this baraita disagrees with the opinion of Shmuel, as Shmuel said: The only difference between this world and the messianic era is subjugation of the exiles to other kingdoms, from which the Jewish people will be released. However, in other respects, the world will remain as it is, as it is written: “Because the poor will not cease from within the land” (Deuteronomy 15:11). Society will not change, and wars will continue to be waged.
מְסַיַּיע לֵיהּ לְרַבִּי חִיָּיא בַּר אַבָּא. דְּאָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּיא בַּר אַבָּא: כׇּל הַנְּבִיאִים לֹא נִתְנַבְּאוּ אֶלָּא לִימוֹת הַמָּשִׁיחַ, אֲבָל לְעוֹלָם הַבָּא: ״עַיִן לֹא רָאָתָה אֱלֹהִים זוּלָתְךָ״.
However, this baraita supports the opinion of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba who disagrees with Shmuel. As Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said: All of the prophets only prophesied with regard to the messianic era; however, with regard to the World-to-Come it was stated: “No eye sees, God, except You, that which He will do for he that waits for Him” (Isaiah 64:3). What will be in the World-to-Come cannot be depicted even by means of prophecy.
וְאִיכָּא דְאָמְרִי: אָמְרוּ לוֹ לְרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר: וְכִי מֵאַחַר דְּתַכְשִׁיטִין הֵן לוֹ, מִפְּנֵי מָה הֵן בְּטֵלִין לִימוֹת הַמָּשִׁיחַ? אָמַר לָהֶן: אַף לִימוֹת הַמָּשִׁיחַ אֵינָן בְּטֵלִין. הַיְינוּ דִּשְׁמוּאֵל, וּפְלִיגָא דְּרַבִּי חִיָּיא בַּר אַבָּא.
And some say the disagreement between Rabbi Eliezer and the Rabbis was different. They said to Rabbi Eliezer: Since in your opinion they are ornaments for him, why will they be eliminated in the messianic era? He said to them: Even in the messianic era they will not be eliminated. And that is in accordance with that which Shmuel stated that the world will remain fundamentally the same, and he disagrees with Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַבָּיֵי לְרַב דִּימִי, וְאָמְרִי לַהּ לְרַב אַוְיָא, וְאָמְרִי לַהּ רַב יוֹסֵף לְרַב דִּימִי, וְאָמְרִי לַהּ לְרַב אַוְיָא, וְאָמְרִי לַהּ אַבָּיֵי לְרַב יוֹסֵף: מַאי טַעְמָא דְּרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר דְּאָמַר תַּכְשִׁיטִין הֵן לוֹ — דִּכְתִיב: ״חֲגוֹר חַרְבְּךָ עַל יָרֵךְ גִּבּוֹר הוֹדְךָ וַהֲדָרֶךָ״.
Abaye said to Rav Dimi, and some say it was to Rav Avya, and some say Rav Yosef said to Rav Dimi, and some say it was to Rav Avya, and some say Abaye said to Rav Yosef: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer who said: These weapons are ornaments for him? As it is written: “Gird your sword upon your thigh, mighty one, your glory and your splendor” (Psalms 45:4), indicating that a sword is considered an ornament.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַב כָּהֲנָא לְמָר בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַב הוּנָא: הַאי בְּדִבְרֵי תוֹרָה כְּתִיב! אֲמַר לֵיהּ: אֵין מִקְרָא יוֹצֵא מִידֵי פְּשׁוּטוֹ.
The Gemara relates that some time later Rav Kahana said to Mar, son of Rav Huna: Is that really a proof? This verse is written in reference to matters of Torah and should be interpreted as a metaphor. He said to him: Nevertheless, a verse does not depart from its literal meaning, although there may be additional homiletical interpretations.
אָמַר רַב כָּהֲנָא: כַּד הֲוֵינָא בַּר תַּמְנֵי סְרֵי שְׁנִין וַהֲוָה גְּמִירְנָא לֵיהּ לְכוּלֵּיהּ תַּלְמוּדָא, וְלָא הֲוָה יָדַעְנָא דְּאֵין מִקְרָא יוֹצֵא מִידֵּי פְּשׁוּטוֹ עַד הַשְׁתָּא. מַאי קָא מַשְׁמַע לַן? דְּלִיגְמַר אִינִישׁ וַהֲדַר לִיסְבַּר.
Rav Kahana said about this: When I was eighteen years old and had already learned the entire Talmud, and yet I did not know that a verse does not depart from its literal meaning until now. The Gemara asks: What is Rav Kahana teaching us with that statement? The Gemara answers: He comes to teach that a person should first learn and then understand the rationale.
Zarot is a mnemonic acronym for Elazar [zayin], Reish Lakish [reish], and their students [vav, tav], the amoraim who interpreted the verse in Psalms cited above
אָמַר רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר: שְׁנֵי תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים הַמְחַדְּדִין זֶה לְזֶה בַּהֲלָכָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַצְלִיחַ לָהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וַהֲדָרְךָ צְלַח״. אַל תִּקְרֵי: ״וַהֲדָרְךָ״, אֶלָּא ״וַחֲדָדְךָ״. וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא שֶׁעוֹלִין לִגְדוּלָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״צְלַח רְכַב״. יָכוֹל אֲפִילּוּ שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁמָהּ — תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: ״עַל דְּבַר אֱמֶת״. יָכוֹל אִם הֵגֵיס דַּעְתּוֹ — תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: ״וְעַנְוָה צֶדֶק״. וְאִם עוֹשִׂין כֵּן זוֹכִין לַתּוֹרָה שֶׁנִּיתְּנָה בְּיָמִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וְתוֹרְךָ נוֹרָאוֹת יְמִינֶךָ״.
Rabbi Yirmeya said that Rabbi Elazar said: Two Torah scholars who sharpen one another in halakha; the Holy One, Blessed be He, ensures success for them, as it is written: “And in your majesty [vahadarkha] prosper, ride on, in behalf of truth and meekness and righteousness; and let your right hand teach you tremendous things” (Psalms 45:5). The Sages said:
Do not read “and your majesty [vahadarkha],” rather, by changing some of the vocalization and the letters, read it as and He will sharpen you [veḥidedkha], and ultimately you will be successful.
Moreover, they who act in that manner will rise to prominence, as it is written: “Prosper, ride on.”
I might have thought even if one engages in the study of Torah not for its own sake; therefore, the verse states: “On behalf of truth.”
I might have thought that one would be rewarded with prosperity even if he became arrogant; therefore, the verse states: “Meekness and righteousness.”
And if they do so in the proper manner they merit the Torah that was given with the right hand of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is written: “And let your right hand teach you tremendous things” (Psalms 45:5).
רַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק אָמַר: זוֹכִין לִדְבָרִים שֶׁנֶּאֶמְרוּ בִּימִינָהּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה. דְּאָמַר רָבָא בַּר רַב שֵׁילָא, וְאָמְרִי לַהּ אָמַר רַב יוֹסֵף בַּר חָמָא אָמַר רַב שֵׁשֶׁת: מַאי דִכְתִיב ״אֹרֶךְ יָמִים בִּימִינָהּ בִּשְׂמֹאלָהּ עֹשֶׁר וְכָבוֹד״ — אֶלָּא בִּימִינָהּ אֹרֶךְ יָמִים אִיכָּא, עֹשֶׁר וְכָבוֹד לֵיכָּא?! אֶלָּא: לַמַּיְימִינִין בָּהּ — אֹרֶךְ יָמִים אִיכָּא, וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן עוֹשֶׁר וְכָבוֹד. לַמַּשְׂמְאִילִים בָּהּ — עוֹשֶׁר וְכָבוֹד אִיכָּא, אוֹרֶךְ יָמִים לֵיכָּא.
Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: They are rewarded with the matters stated with regard to the right hand of the Torah. As Rava bar Rav Sheila said and some say Rav Yosef bar Ḥama said that Rav Sheshet said: What is the meaning of that which is written, “Length of days is in her right hand and in her left hand are riches and honor” (Proverbs 3:16)? Is that to say, however, that in her right there is length of days, but there are not riches and honor? Rather, it means: Those who relate to it with the skilled right hand, i.e., who study Torah for its own sake and with proper intentions, there is length of days and all the more so riches and honor for them. Whereas, those who relate to it with the unskilled left hand, there are riches and honor; there is not length of days.
אָמַר רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ: שְׁנֵי תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים הַנּוֹחִין זֶה לָזֶה בַּהֲלָכָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַקְשִׁיב לָהֶן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״אָז נִדְבְּרוּ יִרְאֵי ה׳ וְגוֹ׳״ — אֵין דִּבּוּר אֶלָּא נַחַת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״יַדְבֵּר עַמִּים תַּחְתֵּינוּ״.
Rabbi Yirmeya said that Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: Two Torah scholars who are agreeable to each other when engaging in discussions of halakha, the Holy One, Blessed be He, listens to them, as it is stated: “Then they that feared the Lord spoke [nidberu] one with another; and the Lord hearkened, and heard, and a book of remembrance was written before Him, for them that feared the Lord, and that thought upon His name” (Malachi 3:16). And the term speech [dibbur] means nothing other than calm, as it is stated: “He subdues [yadber] people under us” (Psalms 47:4). He will cause the nations to submit to the Jewish people leading to a period of calm. Here too the term dibbur indicates calm and agreeability.
מַאי ״וּלְחוֹשְׁבֵי שְׁמוֹ״? אָמַר רַבִּי אַמֵּי: אֲפִילּוּ חִישֵּׁב לַעֲשׂוֹת מִצְוָה, וְנֶאֱנַס וְלֹא עֲשָׂאָהּ, מַעֲלֶה עָלָיו הַכָּתוּב כְּאִילּוּ עֲשָׂאָהּ.
The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase in that verse: “And those who thought of His name”? Rabbi Ami said: Even if one merely planned to perform a mitzva, and ultimately due to circumstances beyond his control did not perform that mitzva, the verse ascribes him credit as if he performed it.
אָמַר רַב חִינָּנָא בַּר אִידִי: כָּל הָעוֹשֶׂה מִצְוָה כְּמַאֲמָרָהּ אֵין מְבַשְּׂרִין אוֹתוֹ בְּשׂוֹרוֹת רָעוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״שׁוֹמֵר מִצְוָה לֹא יֵדַע דָּבָר רָע״.
The Gemara continues in praise of those who perform mitzvot: Rav Ḥinnana bar Idi said: Anyone who performs a mitzva as it was commanded, others do not apprise him of bad tidings, as it is stated: “He who keeps the commandment shall know no evil thing” (Ecclesiastes 8:5).
אָמַר רַב אַסִּי, וְאִיתֵּימָא רַבִּי חֲנִינָא: אֲפִילּוּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא גּוֹזֵר גְּזֵירָה — הוּא מְבַטְּלָהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״בַּאֲשֶׁר דְּבַר מֶלֶךְ שִׁלְטוֹן וּמִי יֹאמַר לוֹ מַה תַּעֲשֶׂה״, וּסְמִיךְ לֵיהּ: ״שׁוֹמֵר מִצְוָה לֹא יֵדַע דָּבָר רָע״.
Rav Asi, and some say Rabbi Ḥanina said: Even if the Holy One, Blessed be He, issued a decree, He may abrogate it, as it is stated: “For the word of the King has authority and who may say to Him: What do You do?” (Ecclesiastes 8:4). And, although this indicates that even though the King, God, issued a decree, juxtaposed to it is the verse: “He who guards the commandment shall know no evil thing” (Ecclesiastes 8:5). For one who observes mitzvot properly, the decree is abrogated and he will know no evil.
אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ: שְׁנֵי תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים הַמַּקְשִׁיבִים זֶה לָזֶה בַּהֲלָכָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שׁוֹמֵעַ לְקוֹלָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״הַיּוֹשֶׁבֶת בַּגַּנִּים חֲבֵרִים מַקְשִׁיבִים לְקוֹלֵךְ הַשְׁמִיעִנִי״.
Rabbi Abba said that Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: Two Torah scholars who listen to each other in the discussion of halakha, the Holy One, Blessed be He, hears their voice, as it is stated: “You who dwell in gardens, the companions heed your voice, cause me to hear it” (Song of Songs 8:13).
וְאִם אֵין עוֹשִׂין כֵּן — גּוֹרְמִין לַשְּׁכִינָה שֶׁמִּסְתַּלֶּקֶת מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״בְּרַח דּוֹדִי וּדְמֵה וְגוֹ׳״.
And if they do not do so, i.e., they do not listen to each other, they cause the Divine Presence to depart from among Israel, as it is stated in the following verse: “Run away, my beloved, and be like a gazelle or a young hart upon the mountains of spices” (Song of Songs 8:14).
אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ: שְׁנֵי תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים הַמַּדְגִּילִים זֶה לָזֶה בַּהֲלָכָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אוֹהֲבָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וְדִגְלוֹ עָלַי אַהֲבָה״. אָמַר רָבָא: וְהוּא דְּיָדְעִי צוּרְתָּא דִשְׁמַעְתָּא. וְהוּא דְּלֵית לְהוּ רַבָּה בְּמָתָא לְמִיגְמַר מִינֵּיהּ.
Rabbi Abba said that Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: Two individual Torah scholars who, while studying together, cause one another to err [madgilim] in halakha [Tosafot], nevertheless, the Holy One, Blessed be He, loves them, as it is stated: “And his banner [vediglo] over me is love” (Song of Songs 2:4). Rava said: And that is only true in a case where they know the foundation of the law, and their error resulted from the lack of more sophisticated knowledge. And that is only true in a case where they do not have a prominent person in the city from whom they could learn without error.
אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ: גָּדוֹל הַמַּלְוֶה יוֹתֵר מִן הָעוֹשֶׂה צְדָקָה. וּמֵטִיל בַּכִּיס, יוֹתֵר מִכּוּלָּן.
Rabbi Abba said that Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: One who loans another money is greater than one who gives him charity. And the one who places money into a common purse, i.e., one who enters into a partnership with a needy person, is the greatest of them all, since in that case the needy person is not embarrassed when receiving the assistance.
אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ: אִם תַּלְמִיד חָכָם נוֹקֵם וְנוֹטֵר כְּנָחָשׁ הוּא — חׇגְרֵיהוּ עַל מׇתְנֶיךָ. אִם עַם הָאָרֶץ הוּא חָסִיד — אַל תָּדוּר בִּשְׁכוּנָתוֹ.
Rabbi Abba said that Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: Even if a Torah scholar is as vengeful and begrudging as a snake, wrap him tightly around your waist, i.e., keep him close, because you will benefit from his Torah. On the other hand, even if an am ha’aretz is righteous, do not dwell in his neighborhood, as his righteousness does not compensate for the fact that he is ignorant.
אָמַר רַב כָּהֲנָא אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, וְאָמְרִי לַהּ אָמַר רַב אַסִּי אָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ, וְאָמְרִי לַהּ אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ: כׇּל הַמְגַדֵּל כֶּלֶב רַע בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ מוֹנֵעַ חֶסֶד מִתּוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״לַמָּס
Rav Kahana said that Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said, and some say Rav Asi said that Reish Lakish said, and some say Rabbi Abba said that Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: Anyone who raises an evil dog within his home prevents kindness from entering into his home, since poor people will hesitate to enter his house. As it is alluded to in the verse: “To him that is afflicted [lamas],