וְהָתַנְיָא, רַבִּי אוֹשַׁעְיָא אוֹמֵר: וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יֹאחֲזֶנּוּ בְּיָדוֹ וְיַעֲבִירֶנּוּ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים! But wasn’t it taught in a baraita that Rabbi Oshaya says with regard to an amulet: As long as he does not hold it in his hand and carry it four cubits in the public domain? Apparently, even with regard to an amulet, there is a distinction between wearing it and carrying it.
[אֶלָּא] הָכָא בְּמַאי עָסְקִינַן — בִּמְחוּפֶּה עוֹר. Rather, with what are we dealing here? With an amulet that is covered in leather. Since the writing itself is covered, the name of God is not degraded when the amulet is brought into the bathroom with him.
וַהֲרֵי תְּפִילִּין דִּמְחוּפּוֹת עוֹר, וְתַנְיָא: הַנִּכְנָס לְבֵית הַכִּסֵּא — חוֹלֵץ תְּפִילִּין בְּרִחוּק אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וְנִכְנָס. The Gemara objects. There is writing on the scrolls of phylacteries, which is covered in the leather of boxes housing the scrolls, and nevertheless it was taught in a baraita: One who enters a bathroom while wearing phylacteries must remove the phylacteries at a distance of four cubits and only then enter. There is no halakhic difference whether or not the writing is covered.
הָתָם מִשּׁוּם שִׁין. דְּאָמַר אַבָּיֵי: שִׁין שֶׁל תְּפִילִּין הֲלָכָה לְמֹשֶׁה מִסִּינַי. וְאָמַר אַבָּיֵי: דָּלֶת שֶׁל תְּפִילִּין הֲלָכָה לְמֹשֶׁה מִסִּינַי. וְאָמַר אַבָּיֵי: יוֹד שֶׁל תְּפִילִּין הֲלָכָה לְמֹשֶׁה מִסִּינַי. The Gemara rejects this: There, with regard to phylacteries, the prohibition to enter the bathroom is not due to the sacred writing on the scrolls inside the phylacteries. Rather, it is due to the letter shin that protrudes from the leather of the boxes housing the scroll in the phylacteries of the head, as Abaye said: The source of the requirement of the shin of the phylacteries is a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai. It is required by Torah law. And, Abaye said: The knot in the shape of the letter dalet in the straps of the phylacteries of the head is a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai. And, Abaye said: The letter yod of the phylacteries is a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai. It is due to those letters that one must safeguard the sanctity of the phylacteries and refrain from taking them into the bathroom.
וְלֹא בְּשִׁרְיוֹן וְלֹא בְּקַסְדָּא וְלֹא בְּמַגָּפַיִים. We learned in the mishna: And he may neither go out with shiryon, nor with a kasda, nor with maggafayim. These terms were not understood, and therefore the Gemara explains them:
שִׁרְיוֹן — זַרְדָּא. קַסְדָּא — אָמַר רַב: סַנְוָארְתָא. מַגָּפַיִים — אָמַר רַב: פֻּזְמָקֵי. Shiryon is a coat of mail [zerada], armor made of scales. Kasda: Rav said that it is a leather hat [sanvarta] worn under a metal helmet. Maggafayim: Rav said they are leg armor worn beneath the knee.
מַתְנִי׳ לֹא תֵּצֵא אִשָּׁה בַּמַּחַט הַנְּקוּבָה, וְלֹא בְּטַבַּעַת שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלֶיהָ חוֹתָם, וְלֹא בְּכוֹלֵיאָר, וְלֹא בְּכוֹבֶלֶת, וְלֹא בִּצְלוֹחִית שֶׁל פִּלְיָיטוֹן. MISHNA: A woman may neither go out to the public domain with a perforated needle, i.e., a standard needle with an eye, nor with a ring that has a seal on it, nor with a kulyar, nor with a kovelet, the identity of which will be discussed in the Gemara, nor with a flask of balsam oil.
וְאִם יָצְתָה — חַיֶּיבֶת חַטָּאת, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים פּוֹטְרִין בְּכוֹבֶלֶת וּבִצְלוֹחִית שֶׁל פִּלְיָיטוֹן. And if she did go out into the public domain, she is liable to bring a sin-offering; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir, who holds that in doing so she violated the Torah prohibition of carrying a burden in the public domain on Shabbat. And the Rabbis exempt one who goes out on Shabbat with a kovelet and with a flask of balsam oil. In their opinion, these are ornaments, and therefore they do not fundamentally violate the Torah prohibition of carrying in the public domain on Shabbat.
גְּמָ׳ אָמַר עוּלָּא וְחִילּוּפֵיהֶן בְּאִישׁ. אַלְמָא קָסָבַר עוּלָּא: כָּל מִידֵּי דַּחֲזֵי לְאִישׁ לָא חֲזֵי לְאִשָּׁה, וּמִידִּי דַּחֲזֵי לְאִשָּׁה לָא חֲזֵי לְאִישׁ. GEMARA: With regard to that which we learned in the mishna that a woman may not go out on Shabbat with a ring that has a seal, and by inference that she may go out with a ring without a seal, Ulla said: And the reverse of these halakhot is true with regard to a man. A man who wears a ring with a seal in the public domain is exempt. However, if he wears a ring without a seal, he is liable to bring a sin-offering as it is not considered an ornament for a man. Based on that statement, the Gemara concludes: Apparently, Ulla holds that every object that is suitable for a man is not suitable for a woman, and an object that is suitable for a woman is not suitable for a man.
מֵתִיב רַב יוֹסֵף: הָרוֹעִים יוֹצְאִין בְּשַׂקִּין. וְלֹא הָרוֹעִים בִּלְבַד אָמְרוּ, אֶלָּא כָּל אָדָם. אֶלָּא שֶׁדַּרְכָּן שֶׁל הָרוֹעִים לָצֵאת בְּשַׂקִּין. Rav Yosef raised an objection from the Tosefta: Shepherds may go out on Shabbat in garments made of sacks. And not with regard to the shepherds alone did the Sages say that they are permitted to go out in sacks on Shabbat; rather, any person may do so. However, the Sages taught the halakha with regard to shepherds because it is the standard practice of shepherds to go out in sacks. Apparently, although a sack is not a typical garment for most people, it is permitted even for one who is not a shepherd and would not generally wear it. Based on the same principle, although men do not generally wear women’s ornaments and women do not generally wear men’s ornaments, since occasionally a man might wear an ornament belonging to a woman or vice versa, each should be permitted to go out into the public domain with the ornament of the other.
[אֶלָּא] אָמַר רַב יוֹסֵף: קָסָבַר עוּלָּא נָשִׁים עַם בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן הֵן. Rather, Rav Yosef said: Ulla holds that women are a people unto themselves. The difference between the standard practice of men and women is greater than the difference between the standard practice of practitioners of different professions.
אֵיתִיבֵיהּ אַבָּיֵי: הַמּוֹצֵא תְּפִילִּין — מַכְנִיסָן זוּג זוּג, אֶחָד הָאִישׁ וְאֶחָד הָאִשָּׁה. וְאִי אָמְרַתְּ נָשִׁים עַם בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן הֵן, וְהָא מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁהַזְּמַן גְּרָמָא הוּא, וְכׇל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁהַזְּמַן גְּרָמָא נָשִׁים פְּטוּרוֹת? Abaye raised an objection to Rav Yosef’s statement from the Tosefta: One who finds phylacteries outside of the city on Shabbat should don them and bring them into the city one pair at a time. This applies to both a man and a woman. And if you say that women are a people unto themselves, isn’t the mitzva to don phylacteries a time-bound, positive mitzva, as there are times when the mitzva to don phylacteries is not in effect? And the following is a halakhic principle: Women are exempt from every time-bound, positive mitzva. If, in fact, the clothing and ornaments of a man are not suitable for a woman under any circumstances, why is a woman permitted to don the phylacteries and bring them into the city on Shabbat? Shouldn’t that be considered a prohibited act of carrying?
הָתָם קָסָבַר רַבִּי מֵאִיר: לַיְלָה זְמַן תְּפִילִּין הוּא, וְשַׁבָּת זְמַן תְּפִילִּין הוּא. הָוֵה לֵיהּ מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁלֹּא הַזְּמַן גְּרָמָא, וְכׇל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁלֹּא הַזְּמַן גְּרָמָא — נָשִׁים חַיָּיבוֹת. The Gemara answers: There, with regard to phylacteries, Rabbi Meir holds that night is an appropriate time to don phylacteries, and Shabbat and Festivals are similarly an appropriate time to don phylacteries. Consequently, the mitzva of phylacteries is a positive mitzva that is not time bound; and in every positive mitzva that is not time bound, women are obligated. Therefore, women are permitted to don the phylacteries and bring them into the city.
וְהָא הוֹצָאָה כִּלְאַחַר יָד הִיא! With regard to Rabbi Meir’s ruling in the mishna that a woman is liable by Torah law if she goes out into the public domain wearing a ring with a seal, the Gemara asks: Isn’t it considered carrying out in a backhanded manner? A ring with a seal is not an ornament for a woman; it is an object like any other. One typically carries objects holding them in his hand. Wearing an object around one’s finger is atypical. There is no Torah prohibition violated when a labor is performed in an atypical manner.
אָמַר רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה: בָּאִשָּׁה גִּזְבָּרִית עָסְקִינַן. אָמַר רַבָּה בַּר בַּר חָנָה אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: תֵּרַצְתָּ אִשָּׁה, אִישׁ מַאי אִיכָּא לְמֵימַר? Rabbi Yirmeya said that we are dealing in the mishna with a woman who is a treasurer for charity. A woman with that occupation typically wears a ring with a seal on her finger in order to perform her job. She does not, though, wear it as an ornament. Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: You answered and explained why, in the case of a woman, she would be liable to bring a sin-offering. However, in the case of a man who wore a ring without a seal, what is there to say? Why should he be liable?
אֶלָּא אָמַר רָבָא: פְּעָמִים שֶׁאָדָם נוֹתֵן לְאִשְׁתּוֹ טַבַּעַת שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלֶיהָ חוֹתָם לְהוֹלִיכָהּ לַקּוּפְסָא, וּמַנִּיחָתָהּ בְּיָדָהּ עַד שֶׁמַּגַּעַת לַקּוּפְסָא. וּפְעָמִים שֶׁהָאִשָּׁה נוֹתֶנֶת לְבַעֲלָהּ טַבַּעַת שֶׁאֵין עָלֶיהָ חוֹתָם לְהוֹלִיכָהּ אֵצֶל אוּמָּן לְתַקֵּן, וּמַנִּיחָהּ בְּיָדוֹ עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ אֵצֶל אוּמָּן. Rather, Rava said that there is a different reason: Sometimes a person gives his wife a ring that has a seal on it to take it to his house and place it in a box for safekeeping, and, in order to ensure that she does not lose the ring, the woman places it in on her hand, i.e., on her finger, until she reaches the box. And, likewise, sometimes a woman gives her husband a ring that does not have a seal on it to take it to a craftsman to repair it, and the husband places it on his hand, i.e., on his finger, until he reaches the craftsman. The purpose of wearing these rings is not for ornamentation. Nevertheless, it is considered a typical manner of carrying them.
וְלֹא בְּכוֹלֵיאָר וְלֹא בְּכוֹבֶלֶת. מַאי כּוֹלֵיאָר? אָמַר רַב: מַכְבַּנְתָּא. כּוֹבֶלֶת — אָמַר רַב: חוּמַרְתָּא דְפִילוֹן. וְכֵן אָמַר רַב אַסִּי: חוּמַרְתָּא דְפִילוֹן. We learned in the mishna: Nor with a kulyar, nor with a kovelet. The Gemara asks: What is a kulyar? Rav said: A brooch with which a woman fastens the collar of her garment. Kovelet: Rav said that it is a bundle of fragrant herbs [pilon]. And, similarly, Rav Asi said: A bundle of fragrant herbs.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: לֹא תֵּצֵא בְּכוֹבֶלֶת, וְאִם יָצְתָה — חַיֶּיבֶת חַטָּאת, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים: לֹא תֵּצֵא, וְאִם יָצְתָה — פְּטוּרָה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר: יוֹצְאָה אִשָּׁה בְּכוֹבֶלֶת לְכַתְּחִלָּה. The Sages taught in a baraita: A woman may not go out on Shabbat with a bundle of fragrant herbs, and if she did go out she is liable to bring a sin-offering, as she violated a Torah prohibition; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: She may not go out ab initio; however, if she went out, she is exempt. Rabbi Eliezer says: A woman may go out with a bundle of fragrant herbs even ab initio.
בְּמַאי קָמִיפַּלְגִי? רַבִּי מֵאִיר סָבַר מַשּׂאוֹי הוּא. וְרַבָּנַן סָבְרִי תַּכְשִׁיט הוּא, וְדִילְמָא שָׁלְפָא וּמַחְוְיָא, וְאָתְיָא לְאֵיתוֹיֵיהּ. וְרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר סָבַר: מַאן דִּרְכַּהּ לְמִירְמֵיהּ — אִשָּׁה שֶׁרֵיחָהּ רַע, אִשָּׁה שֶׁרֵיחָהּ רָע לָא שָׁלְפָא וּמַחְוְיָא, וְלָא אָתְיָא לְאֵתוֹיֵיהּ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. The Gemara asks: With regard to what principle do they disagree? Rabbi Meir holds that it is a burden. Therefore, one who takes it out into the public domain on Shabbat is liable to bring a sin-offering. And the Rabbis hold that it is an ornament. Nevertheless, they prohibited going out with it ab initio due to concern lest she remove the bundle of herbs from its place, and show it to others, and come to carry it in the public domain. And Rabbi Eliezer holds: Whose practice is it to place fragrant herbs on herself? A woman whose odor is foul. But a woman whose odor is foul does not remove and show the bundle to others because, by doing so, her odor will be detected, a situation that she would prefer to avoid. And, therefore she will not come to carry it four cubits in the public domain.
וְהָתַנְיָא, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר פּוֹטֵר בְּכוֹבֶלֶת וּבִצְלוֹחִית שֶׁל פְּלַיְיטוֹן! This baraita cites the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, who permits, even ab initio, going out into the public domain with a bundle of herbs. The Gemara asks: Wasn’t it taught in another baraita: Rabbi Eliezer exempts a woman who goes out on Shabbat with a bundle of herbs and with a flask of balsam oil? With regard to the halakhot of Shabbat, exempt means that although it is not prohibited by Torah law, it is prohibited ab initio by rabbinic law.
לָא קַשְׁיָא: הָא כִּי קָאֵי — אַדְּרַבִּי מֵאִיר. הָא כִּי קָאֵי — אַדְּרַבָּנַן. כִּי קָאֵי אַדְּרַבִּי מֵאִיר דְּאָמַר חַיָּיב חַטָּאת — אָמַר אִיהוּ פָּטוּר. כִּי קָאֵי אַדְּרַבָּנַן דְּאָמְרִי פָּטוּר אֲבָל אָסוּר — אָמַר אִיהוּ מוּתָּר לְכַתְּחִלָּה. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. When Rabbi Eliezer made this statement, it was when he was addressing the statement of Rabbi Meir. When Rabbi Eliezer made that statement, it was when he was addressing the statement of the Rabbis. To clarify: When he was addressing the statement of Rabbi Meir, who said that she is liable to bring a sin-offering, he said to him that she is exempt from bringing the sacrifice. When he was addressing the statement of the Rabbis, who said that she is exempt but it is prohibited ab initio, he said that it is permitted even ab initio.