בְּקוֹלָב הַלֵּךְ אַחַר מַסְמְרוֹתָיו. בְּסוּלָּם הַלֵּךְ אַחַר שְׁלִיבוֹתָיו. בְּעַרְסָא הַלֵּךְ אַחַר שַׁלְשְׁלוֹתָיו. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים: הַכֹּל הוֹלֵךְ אַחַר הַמַּעֲמִיד.
With a hanging board, follow its nails, upon which the objects hang. With a ladder, follow its rungs. With a large scale, follow its chains and not its baseplates. And the Rabbis say, with regard to all of these vessels, everything follows the support. The legal status of the object is not determined by the component of the vessel most significant in terms of function. It is determined by the component most significant in terms of structure. Therefore, according to Rabbi Neḥemya there is a distinction, even in the halakhot of Shabbat, between a ring with a seal and a ring without a seal, as in his opinion the seal constitutes the primary function of the ring. However, the Rabbis hold with regard to the halakhot of ritual impurity that the essential part of the ring is the ring itself, not the seal. Therefore, they permit going out into the public domain on Shabbat even with a ring that has a seal.
רָבָא אָמַר, לִצְדָדִים קָתָנֵי: יֵשׁ עָלֶיהָ חוֹתָם — תַּכְשִׁיט דְּאִישׁ, אֵין עָלֶיהָ חוֹתָם — תַּכְשִׁיט דְּאִשָּׁה.
Rava said: This contradiction can be resolved in another manner. The mishna dealing with the halakhot of ritual impurity taught with regard to the two types of rings disjunctively, i.e., referring to different circumstances: A ring that has a seal on it can become ritually impure because it is a man’s ornament; a ring that does not have a seal on it can become ritually impure because it is a woman’s ornament.
רַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק אָמַר: טוּמְאָה אַשַּׁבָּת קָרָמֵית?! טוּמְאָה, ״כְּלִי מַעֲשֶׂה״ אֲמַר רַחֲמָנָא — וּכְלִי הוּא. שַׁבָּת, מִשּׁוּם מַשּׂוֹי אֲמַר רַחֲמָנָא, אֵין עָלֶיהָ חוֹתָם — תַּכְשִׁיט, יֵשׁ עָלֶיהָ חוֹתָם — מַשּׂוֹי.
Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said an additional resolution to the contradiction between the mishnayot: Are you raising a contradiction from the halakhot of ritual impurity to the halakhot of Shabbat? The underlying principles of these areas of halakha are totally different. With regard to ritual impurity, the Torah stated: “All vessels with which labor is done” (Numbers 31:51), and a ring with a seal is a vessel and can therefore become ritually impure. However, with regard to Shabbat, the Torah stated that the prohibition is due to the fact that the object is a burden. Therefore, in a case where there is not a seal on it, it is an ornament and may be worn in the public domain. In a case where there is a seal on it, it is a burden and may not be worn.
וְלֹא בְּמַחַט שֶׁאֵינָהּ נְקוּבָה. לְמַאי חַזְיָא? אָמַר רַב יוֹסֵף: הוֹאִיל וְאִשָּׁה אוֹגֶרֶת בָּהּ שְׂעָרָהּ.
We also learned in the mishna: Nor with a needle that is not perforated. The Gemara asks: For what use is that type of needle suited? Rav Yosef said: Since a woman gathers her hair and pins it to her hairnet with the unperforated needle.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַבָּיֵי: וְתֶהֱוֵי כְּבִירִית טְהוֹרָה, וְתִשְׁתְּרֵי.
Abaye said to him: And if so, let the needle be like a ritually pure garter and consequently be permitted. There is a type of garter, a strap that ensures that a woman’s stockings will not fall, that cannot become ritually impure. A woman is permitted to go out into the public domain wearing it on Shabbat even if it is ornamented. For reasons of modesty, a woman will certainly not remove her garter or display it in the public domain. Similarly, with regard to the needle, the assumption is that a woman will not loosen her hair in the street.
אֶלָּא תַּרְגְּמַהּ רַב אַדָּא נַרְשָׁאָה קַמֵּיהּ דְּרַב יוֹסֵף: הוֹאִיל וְאִשָּׁה חוֹלֶקֶת בָּהּ שְׂעָרָהּ. בְּשַׁבָּת לְמַאי חַזְיָא? אָמַר רָבָא: טַס שֶׁל זָהָב יֵשׁ לָהּ עַל רֹאשָׁהּ. בַּחוֹל חוֹלֶקֶת בָּהּ שְׂעָרָהּ, בְּשַׁבָּת מַנִּיחָתָהּ כְּנֶגֶד פַּדַּחְתָּהּ.
Rather, Rav Adda from the city of Naresh explained before Rav Yosef: Since a woman parts her hair with it. The Gemara asks: On Shabbat, when it is prohibited to comb one’s hair, for what use is this needle suited? Rava said: There is a gold plate on the other end of the needle. On a weekday, she uses it to part her hair. On Shabbat, she inserts the needle into her head covering and lays the gold plate against her forehead for ornamental purposes.
מַתְנִי׳ לֹא יֵצֵא הָאִישׁ בְּסַנְדָּל הַמְסוּמָּר. וְלֹא בְּיָחִיד, בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵין בְּרַגְלוֹ מַכָּה. וְלֹא בִּתְפִילִּין, וְלֹא בְּקָמֵיעַ בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִן הַמּוּמְחֶה. וְלֹא בְּשִׁרְיוֹן וְלֹא בְּקַסְדָּא וְלֹא בְּמַגָּפַיִים. וְאִם יָצָא — אֵינוֹ חַיָּיב חַטָּאת.
MISHNA: A man may not go out on Shabbat with a spiked sandal, as will be explained in the Gemara. And he may not go out with a single sandal when there is no wound on his foot. And he may neither go out with phylacteries, nor with an amulet when it is not from an expert, but rather it was written by someone who has not established a reputation as an expert in writing amulets that are effective for those who carry them. And he may neither go out with shiryon, nor with a kasda, nor with maggafayim. These terms will be explained in the Gemara. And if he went out into the public domain with any of these, he is not liable to bring a sin-offering.
גְּמָ׳ סַנְדָּל הַמְסוּמָּר מַאי טַעְמָא?
GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the reason that the Sages prohibited going out with a spiked sandal on Shabbat?
אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל: שִׁלְפֵי הַשְּׁמָד הָיוּ, וְהָיוּ נֶחְבָּאִין בִּמְעָרָה, וְאָמְרוּ: הַנִּכְנָס — יִכָּנֵס, וְהַיּוֹצֵא — אַל יֵצֵא.
Shmuel said: They were those who eluded the decrees of religious persecution, and after one of the wars they were hiding in a cave. And those hiding said: One who seeks to enter the cave may enter, but one who seeks to leave the cave may not leave. One leaving has no way to determine whether or not the enemy is lying in wait outside the cave. Therefore, leaving could reveal the presence of those hiding in the cave.
נֶהְפַּךְ סַנְדָּלוֹ שֶׁל אֶחָד מֵהֶן, כִּסְבוּרִין הֵם אֶחָד מֵהֶן יָצָא וְרָאוּהוּ אוֹיְבִים וְעַכְשָׁו בָּאִין עֲלֵיהֶן. דָּחֲקוּ זֶה בָּזֶה וְהָרְגוּ זֶה אֶת זֶה יוֹתֵר מִמַּה שֶּׁהָרְגוּ בָּהֶם אוֹיְבִים.
It happened that the sandal of one of them was reversed, the front of the sandal was in the back, and his footprints appeared like the steps of one leaving the cave. They thought that one of them left and feared that their enemies saw him and were now coming upon them to attack. In their panic, they pushed one another and killed one another in greater numbers than their enemies had killed among them. To commemorate this disaster that resulted from a spiked sandal, they prohibited going out into the public domain with it.
רַבִּי אִילְעַאי בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר: בִּמְעָרָה הָיוּ יוֹשְׁבִין, וְשָׁמְעוּ קוֹל מֵעַל גַּבֵּי הַמְּעָרָה. כִּסְבוּרִין הָיוּ שֶׁבָּאוּ עֲלֵיהֶם אוֹיְבִים. דָּחֲקוּ זֶה בָּזֶה וְהָרְגוּ זֶה אֶת זֶה יוֹתֵר מִמַּה שֶּׁהָרְגוּ בָּהֶן אוֹיְבִים.
Rabbi Elai ben Elazar says that the reason for the decree was different. Once they were sitting in a cave and heard the sound of a spiked sandal atop the cave. They thought that their enemies had come upon them. They pushed one another and killed one another in greater numbers than their enemies had killed among them.
רָמֵי בַּר יְחֶזְקֵאל אָמַר: בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת הָיוּ יוֹשְׁבִין, וְשָׁמְעוּ קוֹל מֵאֲחוֹרֵי בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת. כִּסְבוּרִין הָיוּ שֶׁבָּאוּ עֲלֵיהֶם אוֹיְבִים. דָּחֲקוּ זֶה בָּזֶה וְהָרְגוּ זֶה אֶת זֶה יוֹתֵר מִמַּה שֶּׁהָרְגוּ בָּהֶן אוֹיְבִים.
Rami bar Yeḥezkel said that the reason for the decree was different. They were sitting in a synagogue and they heard the sound of a spiked sandal from behind the synagogue. They thought that their enemies had come upon them. They pushed one another, and killed one another in greater numbers than their enemies had killed among them.
בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה אָמְרוּ: אַל יֵצֵא אָדָם בְּסַנְדָּל הַמְסוּמָּר. אִי הָכִי, בְּחוֹל נָמֵי לִיתְּסַר! מַעֲשֶׂה כִּי הֲוָה — בְּשַׁבָּת הֲוָה. בְּיוֹם טוֹב לִישְׁתְּרֵי! אַלְּמָה תְּנַן:
To commemorate that disaster which occurred due to a spiked sandal, at that time they said: A person may not go out with a spiked sandal. The Gemara asks: If so, on a weekday it should also be prohibited. The Gemara answers: When this incident occurred, it was on Shabbat. Therefore, they issued the decree prohibiting the spiked sandal specifically in parallel circumstances. The Gemara challenges: If so, on a Festival wearing a spiked sandal should be permitted. Why, then, did we learn in the same mishna: