נוֹטֵל אֶת הַכִּיסּוּי, וְהֵן נוֹפְלוֹת.
He lifts the cover, which he is permitted to move, and the wool fleece falls by itself. Contrary to Rava’s statement, even wool fleece in which a person insulated food may not be moved on Shabbat.
אֶלָּא אִי אִיתְּמַר, הָכִי אִיתְּמַר: אָמַר רָבָא לֹא שָׁנוּ אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא יִחֲדָן לְהַטְמָנָה. אֲבָל יִחֲדָן לְהַטְמָנָה — מְטַלְטְלִין אוֹתָן.
Rather, if it was stated, it was stated as follows: Rava said: This halakha that wool fleece may not be moved on Shabbat applies only in a case where one did not designate it for insulating food. However, if he designated it for insulating food, one may move it, as in that case, it is no longer set-aside.
אִיתְּמַר נָמֵי, כִּי אֲתָא רָבִין אָמַר רַבִּי יַעֲקֹב אָמַר רַבִּי אַסִּי בֶּן שָׁאוּל אָמַר רַבִּי: לֹא שָׁנוּ אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא יִחֲדָן לְהַטְמָנָה, אֲבָל יִחֲדָן לְהַטְמָנָה — מְטַלְטְלִין אוֹתָן.
It was also stated that when Ravin came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that Rabbi Ya’akov said that Rabbi Asi ben Shaul said that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: This halakha that wool fleece may not be moved on Shabbat applies only in a case where one did not designate it for insulating food. However, if one designated it for insulating food, he may move it.
רָבִינָא אוֹמֵר: בְּשֶׁל הֶפְתֵּק שָׁנוּ. תַּנְיָא נָמֵי הָכִי, גִּיזֵּי צֶמֶר שֶׁל הֶפְתֵּק אֵין מְטַלְטְלִין אוֹתָן. וְאִם הִתְקִינָן בַּעַל הַבַּיִת לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן — מְטַלְטְלִין אוֹתָן.
Ravina said: In fact, Rava’s statement can be understood as it was originally understood, i.e., one who insulated food in wool fleece may move it because it is considered designated for insulating food. In the mishna that indicates otherwise they taught about wool fleece taken from a merchant’s shelves [heftek]. That wool was certainly not designated for insulating food. It will be returned to those shelves to be sold. Therefore, it is set-aside for that purpose and may not be moved on Shabbat, even if it is used to insulate food. That was also taught in a baraita: With regard to wool fleece taken from a merchant’s shelves, one may not move it on Shabbat. And if a homeowner prepared the fleece to use it, one may move it.
תָּנָא רַבָּה בַּר בַּר חַנָּה קַמֵּיהּ דְּרַב: חֲרִיּוֹת שֶׁל דֶּקֶל שֶׁגְּדָרָן לְעֵצִים, וְנִמְלַךְ עֲלֵיהֶן לִישִׁיבָה — צָרִיךְ לְקַשֵּׁר. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר: אֵין צָרִיךְ לְקַשֵּׁר. הוּא תָּנֵי לַהּ וְהוּא אָמַר לַהּ: הֲלָכָה כְּרַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל.
With regard to the question of what can be done to permit use of items ordinarily set-aside on Shabbat, Rabba bar bar Ḥana taught the following baraita before Rav: With regard to hard branches of a palm tree that one cut for fire wood or for construction, and then he reconsidered their designation and decided to use them for sitting, he must tie the branches together on Shabbat eve. This allows him to move them on Shabbat like any other household utensil. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: He need not tie them together and, nevertheless, he is permitted to move them. Rabba bar bar Ḥana taught the baraita, and he said about it that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel.
אִיתְּמַר רַב אָמַר: קוֹשֵׁר, וּשְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר: חוֹשֵׁב, וְרַב אַסִּי אָמַר: יוֹשֵׁב, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא קִישֵּׁר וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא חִישֵּׁב.
On that same topic, it was stated that Rav said: He ties the branches together on Shabbat eve. And Shmuel said: If he merely has in mind on Shabbat eve that he wishes to sit on them on Shabbat, he need not tie them together. And Rav Asi said: If he even briefly sits on them on Shabbat eve, sitting on the branches is permitted the next day, even though he did not tie them together and even though he did not have that in mind.
בִּשְׁלָמָא רַב הוּא דְּאָמַר כְּתַנָּא קַמָּא, וּשְׁמוּאֵל נָמֵי הוּא דְּאָמַר כְּרַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל. אֶלָּא רַב אַסִּי דְּאָמַר כְּמַאן?
The Gemara comments: Granted, Rav, he stated his opinion in accordance with the unattributed opinion of the first tanna of the baraita, and Shmuel, too, he stated his opinion in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel. However, in accordance with whose opinion did Rav Asi state his opinion? Apparently, he disagrees with both tanna’im who expressed an opinion on the issue.
הוּא דְּאָמַר כִּי הַאי תַּנָּא דְּתַנְיָא: יוֹצְאִין בְּפָקוֹרִין וּבְצִיפָא, בִּזְמַן שֶׁצְּבָעָן בְּשֶׁמֶן וּכְרָכָן בִּמְשִׁיחָה. לֹא צְבָעָן בְּשֶׁמֶן וְלֹא כְּרָכָן בִּמְשִׁיחָה — אֵין יוֹצְאִין בָּהֶם. וְאִם יָצָא בָּהֶן שָׁעָה אַחַת מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא צָבַע וְלֹא כְּרָכָן בִּמְשִׁיחָה מוּתָּר לָצֵאת בָּהֶן.
The Gemara explains: Rav Asi stated his opinion in accordance with the opinion of this tanna, as it was taught in the Tosefta: One may go out into a public domain on Shabbat with combed flax [pakorin] or combed wool covering a wound, when he previously dipped them in oil and tied them to the wound with twine. If he did not dip them in oil or tie them with twine, he may not go out into the public domain with them. And if he went out with them for a brief period on Shabbat eve while it was still day, even if he did not dip them in oil or tie them with twine, he is permitted to go out with them on Shabbat. Apparently, there is a tanna who maintains that using an item before Shabbat enables one to use it on Shabbat as well. No additional steps are necessary.
אָמַר רַב אָשֵׁי, אַף אֲנַן נָמֵי תְּנֵינָא: הַקַּשׁ שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּטָּה לֹא יְנַעְנְעֶנּוּ בְּיָדוֹ, אֲבָל מְנַעַנְעוֹ בְּגוּפוֹ. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה עָלָיו מַאֲכַל בְּהֵמָה, אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה עָלָיו כַּר אוֹ סָדִין מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם — מְנַעַנְעוֹ בְּיָדוֹ. שְׁמַע מִינָּה.
Rav Ashi said: We too have also learned in a mishna: Straw that is piled on a bed to be used for fuel or mixed with clay is set aside for that purpose and may not be moved. Therefore, one who seeks to lie on the bed may not move the straw with his hand, but he may move it with his body, as this is not the typical way of moving straw. However, if that straw had been designated as animal feed, or if there was a pillow or sheet spread over it on Shabbat eve while it was still day and he lay on it before Shabbat, he may move it with his hand. Apparently, even brief use before Shabbat suffices to permit use on Shabbat as well. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, conclude from it that there is a tannaitic opinion in accordance with which Rav Asi stated his opinion.
וּמַאן תְּנָא דִּפְלִיג עֲלֵיהּ דְּרַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל — רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן עֲקִיבָא. דְּכִי אֲתָא רַב דִּימִי, אָמַר זְעֵירִי אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא: פַּעַם אַחַת הָלַךְ רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן עֲקִיבָא לְמָקוֹם אֶחָד, וּמָצָא חֲרִיּוֹת שֶׁל דֶּקֶל שֶׁגְּדָרוּם לְשׁוּם עֵצִים, וְאָמַר לָהֶם לְתַלְמִידָיו: צְאוּ וְחַשְּׁבוּ כְּדֵי שֶׁנֵּשֵׁב עֲלֵיהֶן לְמָחָר. וְלָא יָדַעְנָא אִי בֵּית הַמִּשְׁתֶּה הֲוָה, אִי בֵּית הָאֵבֶל הֲוָה.
The Gemara asks: And who is the unnamed tanna who disagrees with Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel in the baraita cited above? He holds that in order to use palm branches for sitting, one must perform an action, e.g., tie them together, before Shabbat? The Gemara answers: It is Rabbi Ḥanina ben Akiva, as when Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that Ze’iri said that Rabbi Ḥanina said: Rabbi Ḥanina ben Akiva once went to a certain place on Shabbat eve and found there hard branches of a palm tree that they had cut for fire wood. And he said to his disciples: Go out and have in mind that you will use them so that we will be permitted to sit on them tomorrow, on Shabbat. And, Ze’iri added, I do not know if the house where Rabbi Ḥanina ben Akiva went was the house of a wedding feast or if it was the house of mourning.
מִדְּקָאָמַר אִי בֵּית הַמִּשְׁתֶּה הֲוָה אִי בֵּית הָאֵבֶל הֲוָה — דַּוְקָא בֵּית הָאֵבֶל אוֹ בֵּית הַמִּשְׁתֶּה דִּטְרִידִי, אֲבָל הָכָא קָשַׁר — אִין, לֹא קָשַׁר — לָא.
The Gemara explains: From the fact that Ze’iri said: I do not know whether it was the house of a wedding feast or the house of mourning, it may be inferred that this halakha applies specifically to the house of mourning or the house of a feast because they are preoccupied with other matters and do not have time to tie the wood. However, here, in ordinary circumstances, if he tied the branches together, yes, it is permitted to sit on them on Shabbat; if he did not tie them together, no, it is not permitted.
אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה: מַכְנִיס אָדָם מְלֹא קוּפָּתוֹ עָפָר, וְעוֹשֶׂה בָּהּ כׇּל צָרְכּוֹ. דָּרֵשׁ מָר זוּטְרָא מִשְּׁמֵיהּ דְּמָר זוּטְרָא רַבָּה: וְהוּא שֶׁיִּחֵד לוֹ קֶרֶן זָוִית.
Rav Yehuda said: A person may bring a basket full of earth into his house on Shabbat eve, pour it on the floor, and use it for all his needs on Shabbat, e.g., to cover excrement. Mar Zutra taught in the name of Mar Zutra Rabba: That applies only if he designated a specific corner in his house for the earth.
אֲמַרוּ רַבָּנַן קַמֵּיהּ דְּרַב פָּפָּא: כְּמַאן — כְּרַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל. דְּאִי כְּרַבָּנַן — הָאָמְרִי בָּעֵינַן מַעֲשֶׂה.
The Sages said before Rav Pappa: In accordance with whose opinion was this last ruling taught, that designating a place for the earth is sufficient to permit its use on Shabbat? It must have been taught in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel with respect to palm branches, as if it was taught in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, didn’t they say that in order to permit use of an object that is set-aside on Shabbat, we require an action, e.g., tying the palm branches together? Thought alone is insufficient.
אֲמַר לְהוּ רַב פָּפָּא: אֲפִילּוּ תֵּימָא רַבָּנַן, עַד כָּאן לָא קָאָמְרִי רַבָּנַן דְּבָעֵינַן מַעֲשֶׂה אֶלָּא מִידֵּי דְּבַר מֶיעְבַּד בֵּיהּ מַעֲשֶׂה, אֲבָל מִידֵּי דְּלָא בַּר מֶיעְבַּד בֵּיהּ מַעֲשֶׂה — לָא.
Rav Pappa said to them: Even if you say that the halakha was taught in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, the Rabbis stated their opinion that we require an action, only with regard to something with which it is possible to perform a preparatory action. However, with regard to something with which it is not possible to perform a preparatory action, no, they did not require an action. Since it is not possible to perform a preparatory action with the earth, one is permitted to use the earth by means of thought alone.
נֵימָא כְּתַנָּאֵי: בַּכֹּל חֹפִין אֶת הַכֵּלִים חוּץ מִכְּלֵי כֶסֶף בִּגְרַתְקוֹן. הָא נֶתֶר וָחוֹל מוּתָּר.
The Gemara asks: Let us say that this issue, whether or not an action is required in that case, is parallel to a dispute among the tanna’im. As it was taught in one baraita: One may clean utensils on Shabbat with any type of cleaning agent, except for silver utensils with cream of tartar [gartekon], as that not only polishes the silver, but also smooths it. By inference: Cleaning with natron and sand is permitted.
וְהָתַנְיָא: נֶתֶר וָחוֹל — אָסוּר. מַאי לָאו בְּהָא קָמִיפַּלְגִי: דְּמָר סָבַר בָּעֵינַן מַעֲשֶׂה, וּמָר סָבַר לָא בָּעֵינַן מַעֲשֶׂה.
Wasn’t it taught in the Tosefta: Cleaning with natron and sand is prohibited on Shabbat? What, is it not that they disagree with regard to this following point? That one Sage, who prohibits use of sand on Shabbat, holds that an action is required in order to permit the use of items that would otherwise be set-aside on Shabbat. Since it is impossible to perform an action with sand, its use is prohibited. And the other Sage, who permits use of sand, holds that an action is not required.
לָא, דְּכוּלֵּי עָלְמָא לָא בָּעֵינַן מַעֲשֶׂה, וְלָא קַשְׁיָא: הָא רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, הָא רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן.
The Gemara rejects this argument: No, everyone agrees that an action is not required; and, nevertheless, it is not difficult. This baraita, which prohibits use of sand and natron, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda; that baraita, which permits their use, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon.
הָא רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, דְּאָמַר: דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין מִתְכַּוֵּין — אָסוּר. הָא רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן, דְּאָמַר: דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין מִתְכַּוֵּין — מוּתָּר.
The Gemara elaborates: This baraita, which prohibits use of sand and natron, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who said with regard to the laws of Shabbat in general that an unintentional act is prohibited. It is prohibited to perform an otherwise permitted action from which an unintended prohibited labor ensues. Therefore, cleaning a silver utensil with sand or natron is prohibited because he thereby unintentionally smooths the utensil, which is prohibited on Shabbat. That baraita, which permits the use of sand and natron, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, who said that an unintentional act is permitted.
בְּמַאי אוֹקֵימְתָּא לְהָא דְּשָׁרֵי — כְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן, אֵימָא סֵיפָא: אֲבָל לֹא יָחוֹף בָּהֶם שְׂעָרוֹ, וְאִי רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן — מִשְׁרָא קָשָׁרֵי. דִּתְנַן:
The Gemara raises an objection: In what manner did you establish that baraita, which permits the use of sand and natron? You established it in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon. If so, say the latter clause of that same baraita: However, one may not wash his hair with them on Shabbat. And, if it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, he permits doing so. As we learned in a mishna: