Shabbat 44aשבת מ״ד א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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44aמ״ד א

אי לא שרית ליה אתי לכבויי אמר רבי יהודה בן שילא אמר רב אסי אמר רבי יוחנן הלכה כרבי יהודה בן לקיש במת:

if you do not permit him to move the corpse in an atypical manner, he will come to extinguish the fire. The Sages permitted performing an act prohibited by rabbinic law so that one will not come to transgress a Torah prohibition. Rabbi Yehuda ben Sheila said that Rav Asi said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda ben Lakish with regard to the issue of rescuing a corpse from a fire.

אין ניאותין הימנו לפי שאינו מן המוכן: תנו רבנן מותר השמן שבנר ושבקערה אסור ורבי שמעון מתיר:

We learned in the mishna that one may not make use of the oil that drips from the candle on Shabbat because it is not among the oil prepared from Shabbat eve for use on Shabbat. With regard to this same issue, the Sages taught in a baraita: The remaining oil that is in the lamp or in a bowl in which a wick was burning is prohibited for use on Shabbat. However, Rabbi Shimon permits using the remaining oil as, according to his opinion, there is virtually nothing prohibited due to the prohibition of set-aside.

מתני׳ מטלטלין נר חדש אבל לא ישן רבי שמעון אומר כל הנרות מטלטלין חוץ מן הנר הדולק בשבת:

MISHNA: The dispute in this mishna seems to be a local one; however, it is the key to several halakhot in the area of the prohibition of set-aside [muktze]. One may move a new oil lamp on Shabbat but not an old one that was already used. A lamp that was used is covered with soot and unsuitable for use. It is therefore considered set aside from use due to its disgusting nature. Rabbi Shimon says: All oil lamps may be moved on Shabbat except for an oil lamp that is burning on Shabbat, due to the concern that it might be extinguished.

גמ׳ תנו רבנן מטלטלין נר חדש אבל לא ישן דברי רבי יהודה רבי מאיר אומר כל הנרות מטלטלין חוץ מן הנר שהדליקו בו בשבת רבי שמעון אומר חוץ מן הנר הדולק בשבת כבתה מותר לטלטלה אבל כוס וקערה ועששית לא יזיזם ממקומם ורבי אליעזר ברבי שמעון אומר מסתפק מן הנר הכבה ומן השמן המטפטף ואפילו בשעה שהנר דולק

GEMARA: The Sages taught the dispute in the mishna in greater detail in a Tosefta: One may move a new oil lamp on Shabbat but not an old one; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Meir says: All oil lamps may be moved on Shabbat except for an oil lamp that they kindled on that Shabbat. Rabbi Meir does not hold that one must distance himself from objects that are disgusting. However, since the lamp was burning on Shabbat, it may not be moved, as it is an object set aside due to prohibition for the entire Shabbat. Rabbi Shimon says: All lamps may be moved except for an oil lamp that is burning on Shabbat. If the flame was extinguished, one is permitted to move it. However, a cup and a bowl and a lantern that are full of oil with a wick lit in them, one may not move them from their place even after the flame is extinguished. And Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Shimon, says: One may supply himself with oil from an extinguished candle and from the oil that drips from the lamp, and even while the lamp is burning.

אמר אביי רבי אליעזר ברבי שמעון סבר לה כאבוה בחדא ופליג עליה בחדא סבר לה כאבוה בחדא דלית ליה מוקצה ופליג עליה בחדא דאילו אבוה סבר כבה אין לא כבה לא ואיהו סבר אף על גב דלא כבה

Abaye said: Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Shimon, holds in accordance with the opinion of his father in one matter and disagrees with him in one matter. He holds in accordance with the opinion of his father in one matter, as he is not of the opinion that moving set-aside objects is prohibited. And he disagrees with him in one matter; as his father holds that if the flame was extinguished, yes, he may move it, if it was not extinguished, no, he may not move it. And Rabbi Eliezer holds: Even though the flame was not extinguished, it is permitted to carry the lamp and to use the oil that drips from it. In his opinion, doing so in no way extinguishes the flame and it is in no way comparable to extinguishing the flame.

אבל כוס וקערה ועששית לא יזיזם ממקומם מאי שנא הני אמר עולא סיפא אתאן לרבי יהודה

Following Rabbi Shimon’s statement, it was taught in the Tosefta: However, a cup, and a bowl, and a lantern, one may not move them from their place. The Gemara asks: What is different about these, that even Rabbi Shimon prohibits moving them? Ulla said: In the latter clause of this Tosefta, we came back to explain the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda,who prohibits moving items that are set-aside.

מתקיף לה מר זוטרא אי הכי מאי אבל אלא אמר מר זוטרא לעולם רבי שמעון וכי קשרי רבי שמעון בנר זוטא דדעתיה עלויה אבל הני דנפישי לא

Mar Zutra strongly objects to Ulla’s explanation: If so, what is the meaning of the word however in the phrase: However, a cup and a bowl, etc.? Rabbi Yehuda prohibited moving an oil lamp as well. In what way could the legal status of a bowl be any different? Rather, Mar Zutra said: Actually, this must be explained differently. That phrase was stated by Rabbi Shimon. And when Rabbi Shimon permitted moving a lamp, that was in the case of a small lamp, which he has in mind, i.e., he is certain that the flame will be extinguished on Shabbat and that he will have the opportunity to use the remaining oil that day. However, these, the bowl and the lantern, which have much oil, no, he does not expect them to be extinguished and he sets them aside from use for the entire Shabbat.

והתניא מותר השמן שבנר ושבקערה אסור ורבי שמעון מתיר התם קערה דומיא דנר הכא קערה דומיא דכוס

The Gemara asks: Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: Using the remaining oil that is in an oil lamp or in a bowl is prohibited on Shabbat, and Rabbi Shimon permits using it. Apparently, Rabbi Shimon does not distinguish between a candle and a bowl. The Gemara answers: There, where Rabbi Shimon permitted a bowl, was specifically in a case where it is similar to a lamp, i.e., a small bowl in which the flame will quickly extinguish. Here, where Rabbi Shimon prohibited using the oil remaining in a bowl, it is referring to a bowl that is similar to a cup, which is large.

אמר רבי זירא פמוט שהדליקו בו בשבת לדברי המתיר אסור לדברי האוסר מותר למימרא דרבי יהודה מוקצה מחמת מיאוס אית ליה מוקצה מחמת איסור לית ליה והתניא רבי יהודה אומר כל הנרות של מתכת מטלטלין חוץ מן הנר שהדליקו בו בשבת אלא אי איתמר הכי איתמר אמר רבי זירא פמוט שהדליקו עליו בשבת דברי הכל אסור לא הדליקו עליו דברי הכל מותר:

Rabbi Zeira said: A metal candlestick [pamot] that was kindled on Shabbat, according to Rabbi Shimon, who permits moving a lamp, it is prohibited because it is large. Whereas, according to Rabbi Yehuda, who prohibits moving a lamp, a metal candlestick is permitted because it does not become disgusting (Rabbeinu Ḥananel). The Gemara asks: Is that to say that Rabbi Yehuda is of the opinion that an object that is set-aside [muktze] due to repugnance may not be moved, and he is not of the opinion that an object that is set-aside due to prohibition may not be moved, and therefore permits moving the candlestick? Wasn’t it taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda says: All metal candlesticks may be moved on Shabbat with the exception of a candlestick that was kindled on Shabbat itself? Apparently, he prohibits moving the metal candlestick, not because it is disgusting but because it is set-aside due to prohibition. Rather, if it was stated, it was stated as follows, Rabbi Zeira said: A metal candlestick that was kindled on Shabbat, everyone agrees that it is prohibited. One that was not kindled on Shabbat, everyone agrees that it is permitted because it is neither set aside due to prohibition nor set aside due to repugnance.

אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מטה שיחדה למעות אסור לטלטלה מיתיביה רב נחמן בר יצחק מטלטלין נר חדש אבל לא ישן

Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: A bed which one designated to place money upon it may not be moved on Shabbat because it is set-aside. It is prohibited even though it no longer has money upon it. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak raised an objection to Rav Yehuda from our mishna: One may move a new oil lamp on Shabbat but not an old one.