Shabbat 37bשבת ל״ז ב
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37bל״ז ב

שמע מינה מצטמק ויפה לו מותר שאני הכא דקטמה אי הכי מאי למימרא הובערה איצטריכא ליה מהו דתימא כיון דהובערה הדרא לה למילתא קמייתא קמשמע לן

Conclude from this halakha that even when it is food that shrivels and improves by remaining on the fire, it is nevertheless permitted to leave it. The food is already completely cooked and there is no concern lest one come to stoke the coals and ignite the fire. Rabbi Oshaya did not distinguish between different types of foods in permitting this. The Gemara rejects this conclusion: Here, it is different because he covered the coals in the stove with ashes, and that is the reason that he is permitted to leave food on the stove. The Gemara asks: If so, what purpose was there to say this halakha? Is it to teach that if the coals are covered with ashes, there is no room for concern? That is obvious. The Gemara answers: The case where he covered it with ashes and it reignited on Shabbat was necessary and required additional articulation. Lest you say that since it reignited, it returns to its original status and is prohibited, therefore it taught us that this is not the case.

אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן קטמה והובערה משהין עליה חמין שהוחמו כל צורכן ותבשיל שבישל כל צורכו ואפילו גחלים של רותם שמע מינה מצטמק ויפה לו מותר שאני הכא דקטמה אי הכי מאי למימרא הובערה אצטריכא ליה היינו הך גחלים של רותם אצטריכא ליה

Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: With regard to a stove that he swept out or covered with ashes before Shabbat and subsequently reignited on Shabbat, one may leave hot water that was already completely heated and cooked food that was already completely cooked upon it, even if the coals were from the wood of a broom tree, which are very hot and long-burning. If so, conclude from this that even if food shrivels and improves while on the stove, it is permitted. The Gemara rejects this: Here, in this case, it is different because he covered it with ashes. Therefore, it is permitted to leave it on the stove. The Gemara asks: If so, what was the purpose of saying this halakha? The Gemara answers: Mention of the case where he covered it with ashes and it reignited on Shabbat was necessary. The Gemara challenges that explanation: This case is identical to the previous one. Why did Rabbi Yoḥanan find it necessary to repeat what was already said? The Gemara responds that there is a novel element in his statement. It was necessary to teach the case of coals from the wood of a broom tree. Even in a case of especially hot coals it is permitted.

אמר רב ששת אמר רבי יוחנן כירה שהסיקוה בגפת ובעצים משהין עליה חמין שלא הוחמו כל צורכן ותבשיל שלא בישל כל צורכו עקר לא יחזיר עד שיגרוף או עד שיתן אפר קסבר מתניתין להחזיר תנן אבל לשהות משהין אף על פי שאינו גרוף ואינו קטום

Rav Sheshet said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: With regard to a stove that was lit with pomace or with wood, one may leave hot water on it even if the water has not yet been completely heated, and the same is true for cooked food even if it was not yet completely cooked. However, if one removed the food from the stove, one may only return it if he sweeps the coals out of the stove while it is still day, or if he places ashes on the coals. The reason for mentioning this halakha is because he holds that in our mishna we learned with regard to returning the cooked food to the stove; however, with regard to leaving a pot on top of the stove, if it was placed there while it was still day, one may leave it on the stove even if it is not swept and not covered with ashes.

אמר רבא תרווייהו תננהי לשהות תנינא אין נותנין את הפת בתוך התנור עם חשיכה ולא חררה על גבי גחלים אלא כדי שיקרמו פניה הא קרמו פניה שרי להחזיר נמי תנינא בית הלל אומרים אף מחזירין ועד כאן לא קשרו בית הלל אלא בגרופה וקטומה אבל בשאינה גרופה וקטומה לא ורב ששת נמי דיוקא דמתניתין קמשמע לן

Rava said: We already learned both aspects of Rav Sheshet’s halakha and there is no need to teach us something that was already stated explicitly in the mishna. We already learned that it is permitted to leave a pot on the stove. One may not put bread into the oven at nightfall and may not place cake on top of coals unless there is enough time before Shabbat that its surface will form a crust. However, if its surface already formed a crust before Shabbat, it is permitted to leave it even in an oven that was not swept and not covered with coals. Likewise, we also already learned in our mishna the second aspect of Rav Sheshet’s halakha that it is permitted to return the pot to the fire, as Beit Hillel say: One may even return. And it is clear that Beit Hillel only went so far as permitting the return of the pot in a stove that is swept or covered with ashes; however, in one that is not swept or covered with ashes, they did not permit doing so. If so, Rav Sheshet’s statement is superfluous. The Gemara answers: Rav Sheshet also only came to teach us the inference from the mishna and not to introduce new halakhot.

אמר רב שמואל בר יהודה אמר רבי יוחנן כירה שהסיקוה בגפת ובעצים משהין עליה תבשיל שבישל כל צורכו וחמין שהוחמו כל צורכן ואפילו מצטמק ויפה לו אמר ליה ההוא מדרבנן לרב שמואל בר יהודה הא רב ושמואל דאמרי תרווייהו מצטמק ויפה לו אסור

Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: With regard to a stove that was lit with pomace or with wood, on Shabbat eve one may leave a cooked dish that was already completely cooked, as well as hot water that was already completely heated, upon it and even if it is the type of food that when left for a prolonged period of time on the fire it shrivels and improves. There is no concern lest one come to stoke the coals. The Gemara relates that one of the Sages said to Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda: Isn’t it Rav and Shmuel who both say, contrary to your opinion, that if food shrivels and improves when placed on the stove, leaving it on there on Shabbat is prohibited?

אמר ליה אטו לית אנא ידע דאמר רב יוסף אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מצטמק ויפה לו אסור כי קאמינא לך לרבי יוחנן קאמינא אמר ליה רב עוקבא ממישן לרב אשי אתון דמקרביתו לרב ושמואל עבידו כרב ושמואל אנן נעביד כרבי יוחנן

Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda said to him: Is that to say that I do not know that Rav Yosef said that Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: If food shrivels and improves when left on the fire for an extended period, it is prohibited to leave it there? When I said to you that it is permitted to leave it, I said it in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan. Rav Ukva from Meishan said to Rav Ashi: You, who are close to the place where Rav and Shmuel lived, act in accordance with the ruling of Rav and Shmuel; we will act in accordance with the ruling of Rabbi Yoḥanan.

אמר ליה אביי לרב יוסף מהו לשהות אמר ליה הא רב יהודה משהו ליה ואכיל אמר ליה בר מיניה דרב יהודה דכיון דמסוכן הוא אפילו בשבת נמי שרי למעבד ליה לי ולך מאי אמר ליה בסורא משהו דהא רב נחמן בר יצחק מרי דעובדא הוה ומשהו ליה ואכיל אמר רב אשי קאימנא קמיה דרב הונא ושהין ליה כסא דהרסנא ואכל ולא ידענא אי משום דקסבר מצטמק ויפה לו מותר אי משום דכיון דאית ביה מיחא מצטמק ורע לו הוא

Abaye said to Rav Yosef: What is the ruling with regard to leaving food on the stove from Shabbat eve? Rav Yosef said to him: Didn’t they leave food for Rav Yehuda and he ate it? Apparently, it is permitted to do so. Abaye said to him: No proof can be brought from Rav Yehuda. Since he is in danger, as he is sick and needs hot food, even on Shabbat as well, it is permitted to heat up food for him. However, for me and you as well as for all other people what is the ruling? Rav Yosef said to Abaye: In Sura, they leave food on the stove from Shabbat eve, as Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak from Sura was a master of good deeds who was meticulous in his performance of mitzvot, and they would leave food for him and he would eat it. Rav Ashi said: I stood before Rav Huna and saw that they left fish fried in oil [kasa deharsena] for him atop the stove on Shabbat, and he ate the fish on Shabbat. And I do not know if his reason for doing so is because he holds that it is permitted to leave food that shrivels and improves when left on the stove for a long time. Or, if it is because this dish has flour in it, and therefore it shrivels and deteriorates. Everyone agrees that it is permitted to leave food atop the stove that shrivels and deteriorates.

אמר רב נחמן מצטמק ויפה לו אסור מצטמק ורע לו מותר כללא דמלתא כל דאית ביה מיחא מצטמק ורע לו לבר מתבשיל דליפתא דאף על גב דאית ביה מיחא מצטמק ויפה לו הוא והני מילי דאית ביה בשרא אבל לית ביה בשרא מצטמק ורע לו הוא וכי אית ביה בשרא נמי לא אמרן אלא דלא קבעי לה לאורחין אבל קבעי לה לאורחין מצטמק ורע לו לפדא דייסא ותמרי מצטמק ורע להן

Rav Naḥman said: Food that shrivels and improves when left on the stove, it is prohibited to leave it on the stove; if it shrivels and deteriorates, it is permitted. The principle in this matter is as follows: Any food that has flour in it shrivels and deteriorates, except for a cooked turnip dish, which, even though it has flour, shrivels and improves. And this applies only when there is meat in it, but when there is no meat in it, it shrivels and deteriorates. And when there is meat in it, too, we only said that it shrivels and improves when one does not need it for guests, but when one needs it for guests, it shrivels and deteriorates because it is not polite to serve guests overcooked food, which is not aesthetic. Furthermore: Leaving dishes made of figs [lafda], porridge, or dates on the stove causes them to shrivel and deteriorate.

בעו מיניה מרבי חייא בר אבא

They raised a dilemma before Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba: