וְנִמְסְרוּ לְעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ.
and they were given, among others, to ignoramuses to fulfill. When they are negligent in the performance of these mitzvot, they are punished for it.
תַּנְיָא רַבִּי נָתָן אוֹמֵר: בַּעֲוֹן נְדָרִים מֵתָה אִשָּׁה שֶׁל אָדָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״אִם אֵין לְךָ לְשַׁלֵּם לָמָּה יִקַּח מִשְׁכָּבְךָ מִתַּחְתֶּיךָ״. רַבִּי אוֹמֵר: בַּעֲוֹן נְדָרִים בָּנִים מֵתִים כְּשֶׁהֵן קְטַנִּים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״אַל תִּתֵּן אֶת פִּיךָ לַחֲטִיא אֶת בְּשָׂרֶךָ וְאַל תֹּאמַר לִפְנֵי הַמַּלְאָךְ כִּי שְׁגָגָה הִיא לָמָּה יִקְצוֹף הָאֱלֹהִים עַל קוֹלֶךָ וְחִבֵּל אֶת מַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיךָ״. אֵיזֶה הֵן מַעֲשֵׂה יָדָיו שֶׁל אָדָם? הֱוֵי אוֹמֵר בָּנָיו וּבְנוֹתָיו שֶׁל אָדָם.
It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Natan says: Due to the sin of vows unfulfilled a person’s wife dies. The allusion is as it is stated: “If you have not the wherewithal to pay, why should He take away your bed from under you?” (Proverbs 22:27). Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: Due to the sin of vows unfulfilled, children die when they are young, as it is stated: “Better is it that you should not vow, than that you should vow and not pay. Suffer not your mouth to bring your flesh into guilt, neither say you before the messenger that it was an error; wherefore should God be angry at your voice and destroy the work of your hands?” (Ecclesiastes 5:4–5). What is the work of a person’s hands? You must say that it is a person’s sons and daughters.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: בַּעֲוֹן נְדָרִים בָּנִים מֵתִים, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה הַנָּשִׂיא אוֹמֵר: בַּעֲוֹן בִּיטּוּל תּוֹרָה. בִּשְׁלָמָא לְמַאן דְּאָמַר בַּעֲוֹן נְדָרִים — כְּדַאֲמַרַן, אֶלָּא לְמַאן דְּאָמַר בַּעֲוֹן בִּיטּוּל תּוֹרָה מַאי קְרָאָה? דִּכְתִיב: ״לַשָּׁוְא הִכֵּיתִי אֶת בְּנֵיכֶם מוּסָר לֹא לָקָחוּ״. רַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק אָמַר: לְמַאן דְּאָמַר בַּעֲוֹן נְדָרִים נָמֵי מֵהָכָא: ״לַשָּׁוְא הִכֵּיתִי אֶת בְּנֵיכֶם״ — עַל עִסְקֵי שָׁוְא. מִכְּדֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה הַנָּשִׂיא הַיְינוּ רַבִּי, וְרַבִּי בַּעֲוֹן נְדָרִים קָאָמַר?! בָּתַר דְּשַׁמְעַהּ מֵרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן.
In order to clarify which sins cause one’s young children to die, the Gemara cites what the Sages taught in a baraita: For the sin of vows, one’s children die, this is the statement of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: For the sin of dereliction in the study of Torah. The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the opinion of the one who said that one’s children die due to the sin of vows, as we stated above. However, according to the opinion of the one who said that one’s children die due to sin of dereliction in the study of Torah, what is the verse that supports this? The Gemara replies: As it is written: “In vain have I smitten your children; they received no morality” (Jeremiah 2:30). Children die because their fathers did not accept the morality, the Torah. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: According to the one who said that one’s children die because of the sin of vows, it can also be derived from here: In vain have I smitten your children; on matters of vanity, i.e., when one vows in vain and does not fulfill it. The Gemara asks: After all, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi is Rabbi, and it was taught in a Tosefta that Rabbi said that one’s children die because of the sin of vows. How then could it be that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said that it is due to the sin of dereliction in the study of Torah? The Gemara answers: After he heard it from Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, he reconsidered and taught in accordance with Rabbi Elazar’s opinion.
פְּלִיגִי בַּהּ רַבִּי חִיָּיא בַּר אַבָּא וְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי, חַד אָמַר בַּעֲוֹן מְזוּזָה. וְחַד אָמַר בַּעֲוֹן בִּיטּוּל תּוֹרָה. לְמַאן דְּאָמַר בַּעֲוֹן מְזוּזָה, מִקְרָא נִדְרָשׁ לְפָנָיו וְלֹא לִפְנֵי פָנָיו. וּלְמַאן דְּאָמַר בַּעֲוֹן בִּיטּוּל תּוֹרָה, מִקְרָא נִדְרָשׁ לְפָנָיו וְלִפְנֵי פָנָיו.
On the same topic, Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba and Rabbi Yosei disagree. One said that children die due to the sin of not affixing a mezuza to one’s doorpost. And one said children die due to the sin of dereliction in the study of Torah. According to the one who said that children die because of the sin of not affixing a mezuza, his opinion there is based on an exegetical principle, which states that a verse is interpreted homiletically based on juxtaposition to the verse immediately preceding it and not on juxtaposition to the verse before the one preceding it. In this case, it says: “That your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children” (Deuteronomy 11:21), and the preceding verse says: “And you shall write them upon the doorposts of your house, and upon your gates” (Deuteronomy 11:20). And according to the one who said that children die due to the sin of dereliction in the study of Torah, that is because in his opinion the exegetical principle is that a verse is interpreted homiletically based on juxtaposition to the verse immediately preceding it, as well as to the verse before the one preceding it. In his opinion, the blessing of long life also relates to the verse before the one immediately preceding it: “And you shall teach them your children, talking of them” (Deuteronomy 11:19).
פְּלִיגִי בַּהּ רַבִּי מֵאִיר וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה. חַד אָמַר בַּעֲוֹן מְזוּזָה, וְחַד אָמַר בַּעֲוֹן צִיצִית. בִּשְׁלָמָא לְמַאן דְּאָמַר בַּעֲוֹן מְזוּזָה, דִּכְתִיב: ״וּכְתַבְתָּם עַל מְזוּזוֹת בֵּיתֶךָ״, וּכְתִיב בָּתְרֵיהּ: ״לְמַעַן יִרְבּוּ יְמֵיכֶם וִימֵי בְנֵיכֶם״. אֶלָּא לְמַאן דְּאָמַר בַּעֲוֹן צִיצִית מַאי טַעְמָא? אָמַר רַב כָּהֲנָא, וְאִיתֵּימָא שֵׁילָא מָרִי, דִּכְתִיב: ״גַּם בִּכְנָפַיִךְ נִמְצְאוּ דַּם נַפְשׁוֹת אֶבְיוֹנִים נְקִיִּים״. רַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק אָמַר: לְמַאן דְּאָמַר בַּעֲוֹן מְזוּזָה נָמֵי מֵהָכָא, דִּכְתִיב: ״לֹא בַּמַּחְתֶּרֶת מְצָאתִים״ — שֶׁעָשׂוּ פְּתָחִים כְּמַחְתֶּרֶת.
The tanna’im Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yehuda also disagreed about this. One said: Children die due to the sin of mezuza, and one said children die due to the sin of not affixing ritual fringes. The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the opinion of the one who said that children die due to the sin of mezuza, it is based on the juxtaposition of the verses, as it is written: “And you shall write them upon the doorposts of your house, and upon your gates,” and it says thereafter: “That your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children.” However, according to the one who said that children die because of the sin of ritual fringes, what is the reason? What is the connection between these matters? Rav Kahana said, and some say that it was Sheila Mari: It is homiletically interpreted as is written: “Also in your corners is found the blood of the souls of the innocent poor” (Jeremiah 2:34). Due to one’s failure to affix ritual fringes to the corners of his garments, the innocent poor, young children, who have not had opportunity to sin, die. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: According to the one who said that children die because of the sin of mezuza, it is also derived from here, as it is written in the continuation of that verse: “You did not find them breaking in; yet for all these things.” We see that this punishment comes because they made entrances like a thief’s breach in the wall. They did not place mezuzot in their entrances.
אָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ: כׇּל הַזָּהִיר בְּצִיצִית זוֹכֶה וּמְשַׁמְּשִׁין לוֹ שְׁנֵי אֲלָפִים וּשְׁמוֹנֶה מֵאוֹת עֲבָדִים. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״כֹּה אָמַר ה׳ [צְבָאוֹת] בַּיָּמִים הָהֵמָּה אֲשֶׁר יַחֲזִיקוּ עֲשָׂרָה אֲנָשִׁים מִכֹּל לְשׁוֹנוֹת הַגּוֹיִם [וְהֶחֱזִיקוּ] בִּכְנַף אִישׁ יְהוּדִי לֵאמֹר נֵלְכָה עִמָּכֶם וְגוֹ׳״.
Since the Gemara discussed the importance of the mitzva of ritual fringes, it cites that which Reish Lakish said: Anyone who is vigilant in performing the mitzva of ritual fringes merits that two thousand eight hundred servants will serve him in the World-to-Come. As it is stated: “Thus says the Lord of hosts: In those days it shall come to pass, that ten men shall take hold, out of all the languages of the nations, shall even take hold of the corner of the garment of him that is a Jew, saying: We will go with you, for we have heard that God is with you” (Zechariah 8:23). On each corner of a Jewish person’s garment with ritual fringes, ten people from each of the seventy nations will take hold. That totals seven hundred people on each corner; 2,800 people altogether.
סִימָן: שְׂנֹא חַלָּה תְּרוּמָה נִגְזֶלֶת דִּינָא שְׁבוּעָה שִׁיפּוּכְתָּא גִּילּוּיָא וְנִבְלוּתָא. תַּנְיָא, רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אוֹמֵר: בַּעֲוֹן שִׂנְאַת חִנָּם מְרִיבָה רָבָה בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם, וְאִשְׁתּוֹ מַפֶּלֶת נְפָלִים, וּבָנָיו וּבְנוֹתָיו שֶׁל אָדָם מֵתִים כְּשֶׁהֵן קְטַנִּים. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: בַּעֲוֹן חַלָּה אֵין בְּרָכָה בַּמְכוּנָּס, וּמְאֵרָה מִשְׁתַּלַּחַת בַּשְּׁעָרִים, וְזוֹרְעִין זְרָעִים וַאֲחֵרִים אוֹכְלִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״אַף אֲנִי אֶעֱשֶׂה זֹּאת לָכֶם וְהִפְקַדְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם בֶּהָלָה אֶת הַשַּׁחֶפֶת וְאֶת הַקַּדַּחַת מְכַלּוֹת עֵינַיִם וּמְדִיבוֹת נָפֶשׁ וּזְרַעְתֶּם לָרִיק זַרְעֲכֶם וַאֲכָלֻהוּ אוֹיְבֵיכֶם״. אַל תִּקְרֵי ״בֶּהָלָה״ אֶלָּא ״בַּחַלָּה״. וְאִם נוֹתְנִין — מִתְבָּרְכִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״[וְ]רֵאשִׁית עֲרִיסוֹתֵיכֶם תִּתְּנוּ לַכֹּהֵן לְהָנִיחַ בְּרָכָה אֶל בֵּיתֶךָ״.
Together with these statements, the Gemara cites a mnemonic for additional rabbinic adages with regard to punishments for various sins: Hate, ḥalla, teruma, stolen, judgment, oath, pouring, uncovering, and vulgarity. It was taught in a baraita, Rabbi Neḥemya says: Due to the sin of gratuitous hatred that one has for another, the punishment is great discord within a person’s home, and his wife miscarries, and his sons and daughters die when they are young. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yehuda, said: Due to the sin of failure to separate ḥalla from the dough, no blessing takes effect on the grain gathered in the storehouse and a curse spreads to the prices of crops, which increase, and they plant seeds and others eat their yield, as it is stated: “I also will do this unto you: I will appoint terror [behala] over you, even consumption and fever, that shall make the eyes to fail and the soul to languish; and you shall sow your seed in vain, for your enemies shall eat it” (Leviticus 26:16). Do not read it behala; rather, read it as beḥalla. Due to negligence in the separation of ḥalla from the dough, these punishments come. And if they give ḥalla, they are blessed, as it is stated: “And the first of your dough you shall give unto the priest to cause a blessing to rest on your house” (Ezekiel 44:30).
בַּעֲוֹן בִּיטּוּל תְּרוּמוֹת וּמַעַשְׂרוֹת שָׁמַיִם נֶעֱצָרִין מִלְּהוֹרִיד טַל וּמָטָר, וְהַיּוֹקֶר הֹוֶה, וְהַשָּׂכָר אָבֵד, וּבְנֵי אָדָם רָצִין אַחַר פַּרְנָסָתָן וְאֵין מַגִּיעִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״צִיָּה גַם חוֹם יִגְזְלוּ מֵימֵי שֶׁלֶג שְׁאוֹל חָטָאוּ״. מַאי מַשְׁמַע? תָּנָא דְּבֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל: בִּשְׁבִיל דְּבָרִים שֶׁצִּוִּיתִי אֶתְכֶם בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה וְלֹא עֲשִׂיתֶם, יִגָּזְלוּ מִכֶּם מֵימֵי שֶׁלֶג בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים. וְאִם נוֹתְנִין — מִתְבָּרְכִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״הָבִיאוּ אֶת כׇּל הַמַּעֲשֵׂר אֶל בֵּית הָאוֹצָר וִיהִי טֶרֶף בְּבֵיתִי וּבְחָנוּנִי נָא בָּזֹאת אָמַר ה׳ צְבָאוֹת אִם לֹא אֶפְתַּח לָכֶם אֵת אֲרוּבּוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם וַהֲרִיקוֹתִי לָכֶם בְּרָכָה עַד בְּלִי דָי״. מַאי ״עַד בְּלִי דָי״? אָמַר רָמֵי בַּר (רַב) [חָמָא] אָמַר רַב: עַד שֶׁיִּבְלוּ שִׂפְתוֹתֵיכֶם מִלּוֹמַר ״דָּי״.
They also said: Due to the sin of abrogation of terumot and tithes, the heavens are prevented from pouring down dew and rain, and expense prevails, and profit is lost, and people pursue their livelihood but do not attain it, as it is stated: “Drought and heat consume the snow waters; so does the netherworld those that have sinned” (Job 24:19). The Gemara asks: What is the inference? How is that concept derived from this verse? The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught that it should be explained as follows: Due to the things that I commanded you during the summer, separating terumot and tithes from the summer crops, and you did not do them, the snow waters will be robbed from you during the rainy season. And if people give terumot and tithes, they are blessed, as it is stated: “Bring you the whole tithe into the storehouse, that there may be food in My house, and try Me now with this, says the Lord of Hosts, if I will not open you the windows of heaven, and pour you out a blessing, that there shall be more than sufficiency [ad bli dai]” (Malachi 3:10). The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: More than sufficiency [ad bli dai]? Rami bar Rav said that Rav said: It means that the abundance will be so great that your lips will be worn out [yivlu], similar to the word beli, from saying enough [dai].
בַּעֲוֹן גֵּזֶל הַגּוֹבַאי עוֹלֶה, וְהָרָעָב הוֹוֶה, וּבְנֵי אָדָם אוֹכְלִים בְּשַׂר בְּנֵיהֶן וּבְנוֹתֵיהֶן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״שִׁמְעוּ הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה פָּרוֹת הַבָּשָׁן אֲשֶׁר בְּהַר שׁוֹמְרוֹן הָעוֹשְׁקוֹת דַּלִּים הָרוֹצְצוֹת אֶבְיוֹנִים״. אָמַר רָבָא: כְּגוֹן הָנֵי נְשֵׁי דְמָחוֹזָא
Due to the sin of robbery, locusts emerge, and famine prevails, and people eat the flesh of their sons and daughters, as it is stated: “Hear this word, you cows of Bashan, that are in the mountain of Samaria, that oppress the poor, that crush the needy, that say unto their lords: Bring, that we may feast” (Amos 4:1). Afterward it says: “And I also have given you cleanness of teeth in all your cities, and want of bread in all your places” (Amos 4:6), which refers to famine. Rava said: The cows of Bashan; like those women of the city of Meḥoza,