Shabbat 20aשבת כ׳ א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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20aכ׳ א

ובגבולין כדי שתאחוז האור ברובו רבי יהודה אומר בפחמין כל שהוא:

And, however, in the outlying areas, meaning in all of Eretz Yisrael outside the Temple, it is prohibited to light a bonfire on Shabbat eve, unless there is sufficient time for the fire to take hold in most of the bonfire, while it is still day. Rabbi Yehuda says: With a bonfire of coals, even in the outlying areas one is permitted to light the fire on Shabbat eve at nightfall, even if the fire only spread to any amount of the bonfire. The coals, once they are kindled, will not be extinguished again, and there is no concern lest he come to tend to them on Shabbat.

גמ׳ וכמה אמר רבי אלעזר אמר רב כדי שיצולו מבעוד יום כמאכל בן דרוסאי איתמר נמי אמר רב אסי אמר רבי יוחנן כל שהוא כמאכל בן דרוסאי אין בו משום בישולי גוים תניא חנניא אומר כל שהוא כמאכל בן דרוסאי מותר להשהותו על גבי כירה ואף על פי שאין גרופה וקטומה:

GEMARA: We learned in the mishna that one may only roast meat and other food items if there remains sufficient time so that they could be roasted while it is still day. The Gemara asks: And how much do they need to be roasted in order to be considered sufficient, so that it will be permitted to complete their cooking afterward? Rabbi Elazar said that Rav said: So that they will be roasted while it is still day like the food of ben Drosai, which was partially roasted. Ben Drosai was a robber and pursued by all. He could not wait for his food to roast completely, so he sufficed with a partial roasting. It was also stated by another of the Sages, as Rav Asi said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Anything that is already cooked like the food of ben Drosai by a Jew, no longer has a problem of the cooking of gentiles. If a gentile completed cooking this food, it is, nevertheless, permitted to eat, even though, as a rule, it is prohibited to eat food cooked by gentiles. It was taught in a baraita, Ḥananya says: With regard to anything that is already cooked like the food of ben Drosai, it is permitted to keep it on the stove on Shabbat and even though this stove is not swept of coals and the burning coals are not covered with ashes. Since the food was already cooked to that extent, there is no concern that he will come to stoke the coals.

אין נותנין את הפת כו׳: איבעיא להו תחתון האיך דגבי תנור או דילמא תחתון האיך דגבי האור תא שמע רבי אליעזר אומר כדי שיקרמו פניה המדובקין בתנור:

We learned in the mishna that one may only place bread in the oven on Shabbat eve at nightfall if there remains sufficient time for its surface to form a crust while it is still day. According to Rabbi Eliezer, it is permitted to place bread in the oven on Shabbat eve while it is still day if there remains enough time for a crust to form on its bottom side. A dilemma was raised before them: With regard to the bottom mentioned in the mishna, is it that side close to the oven, or perhaps is it the bottom that is close to the fire? Come and hear a resolution to this dilemma from what was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says explicitly: So that its surface that is stuck to the oven will form a crust.

משלשלין את הפסח: מאי טעמא משום דבני חבורה זריזין הן הא לאו הכי לא והאמר מר גדיא בין שריק בין לא שריק שפיר דמי התם מינתח הכא לא מינתח:

We learned in the mishna that one may lower the Paschal lamb into the oven on Shabbat eve at nightfall. The Gemara explains: What is the reason that this was permitted? Because the people of the group who registered to be counted together for the offering and eating of the Paschal lamb are vigilant in the performance of mitzvot and they will not transgress the halakhot of Shabbat. The Gemara asks: And if that was not so, there would not be permission to do so? Didn’t the Master say: The meat of a kid, whether it is in an oven that is sealed or whether it is in one that is not sealed, everyone agrees that he may well place it in the oven at nightfall because taking it out of the oven harms it, and there is no room for concern that he will do so? If so, there is no room for concern with regard to the meat of the Paschal lamb, which must be either a goat or a lamb (Exodus 12:5). The Gemara answers: In any case, it is necessary to emphasize the vigilance of the members of the group, as there, where it was permitted, it was specifically in a case that the goat was cut into pieces. However, here, with regard to the Paschal lamb, the goat is not cut into pieces. It is roasted whole, in accordance with the halakhot of the Paschal lamb. Consequently, it does not roast quickly, and there is room for concern lest he stoke the coals in order to accelerate the roasting. However, since the members of the group are vigilant, the Sages permitted it.

ומאחיזין את האור וכו׳: מנהני מילי אמר רב הונא לא תבערו אש בכל מושבותיכם בכל מושבותיכם אי אתה מבעיר אבל אתה מבעיר במדורת בית המוקד מתקיף לה רב חסדא אי הכי אפילו בשבת נמי אלא אמר רב חסדא קרא כי אתא למישרי אברים ופדרים הוא דאתא וכהנים זריזין הן:

We learned the following in the mishna: And one may light the fire in the bonfire of the Chamber of the Hearth in the Temple on Shabbat eve adjacent to nightfall and allow the fire to spread afterward throughout the entire bonfire. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters that doing so is permitted, derived? Rav Huna said, as it is stated: “You shall kindle no fire in all of your habitations on the day of Shabbat” (Exodus 35:3). The Gemara infers: “In all of your habitations,” the dwelling places of the Jewish people, you may not kindle fire, but you may kindle fire on Shabbat in the bonfire of the Chamber of the Hearth, which is in the Temple. Rav Ḥisda objects: If so, if that is the source for the fact that kindling the fire is permitted on Shabbat eve at nightfall, it should also be permitted to kindle it even on Shabbat itself. Why kindle the fire while it is still day? Rather, Rav Ḥisda said, it should be understood as follows: When the verse came, it came to permit burning the limbs and fats of the sacrifices on the altar, even on Shabbat. Lighting the bonfire of the Chamber of the Hearth was not permitted on Shabbat itself, since it is not part of the Temple service. It was kindled merely for the benefit of the priests. The fact that there was no concern about lighting the bonfire on Shabbat eve at nightfall is because the priests are vigilant with regard to mitzvot, and they will certainly not come to stoke the coals.

ובגבולין כדי שתאחוז כו׳: מאי רובן אמר רב רוב כל אחד ואחד ושמואל אמר כדי שלא יאמרו הבא עצים ונניח תחתיהן תנא רב חייא לסיעיה לשמואל כדי שתהא שלהבת עולה מאיליה ולא שתהא שלהבת עולה על ידי דבר אחר

We also learned in the mishna that in the outlying areas one may not light a bonfire on Shabbat eve at nightfall unless there is sufficient time for the fire to take hold in most of the bonfire. The Gemara asks about this: What is meant by the measure of most of it? Rav said: Most of each and every one of the branches. And Shmuel said: It is sufficient if the branches are sufficiently lit so that they will not say to each other: Bring thinner branches, which are easier to kindle, and we will place them beneath the existing branches to accelerate their burning. Rav Ḥiyya taught a baraita to support Shmuel, from a halakha that was stated with regard to the Temple candelabrum. The baraita said that it must be lit to the point that the flame will ascend on its own and not that the flame will ascend due to something else. In a place where kindling is required, it is sufficient to ensure that the fire burns on its own (Tosafot).

עץ יחידי רב אמר רוב עביו ואמרי לה ברוב היקפו אמר רב פפא הלכך בעינן רוב עביו ובעינן רוב היקפו כתנאי רבי חייא אמר כדי שישחת העץ ממלאכת האומן רבי יהודה בן בת ירא אומר כדי שתאחז האש משני צדדין ואף על פי שאין ראיה לדבר זכר לדבר את שני קצותיו אכלה האש ותוכו נחר היצלח למלאכה:

To this point, the Gemara was discussing a bonfire. However, the Gemara asks: What is the halakha with regard to a single branch that one kindles on Shabbat eve? Rav said: Most of the thickness of the wood must ignite while it is still day, before Shabbat. Others say the same halakha in the name of Rav: Most of the circumference of the wood must ignite while it is still day, before Shabbat. Rav Pappa said: Since there is disagreement with regard to Rav’s halakha, and it is not clear exactly what he said, therefore, we require most of its thickness to ignite and we require most of its circumference to ignite; thereby, we avoid entering into a situation of uncertainty. The Gemara comments: This dispute is parallel to the dispute of the tanna’im, who disagreed with regard to a different matter. Rabbi Ḥiyya said: A fire is considered to be kindled when the wood will be ruined to the extent that it can no longer be used for the work of a craftsman. And Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: So that the fire will take hold from both sides of the wood. And he added: And even though there is no proof for the matter, i.e., what constitutes burning as far as Shabbat is concerned, nevertheless there is an allusion to the matter that wood in this condition is considered burnt, as it is stated: “Behold, it is cast into the fire for fuel; the fire consumed both of its ends and the midst of it is burned. Is it fit for any work?” (Ezekiel 15:4).

והאח לפניו מבערת מאי אח אמר רב אחוונא ושמואל אמר עצים שנדלקו באחוונא ההוא דאמר להו מאן בעי אחוונא אשתכח ערבתא

Along the same lines, the Gemara cites a different verse that discusses burning fire, as it relates to King Jehoiakim: “And the hearth [aḥ] was burning before him” (Jeremiah 36:22). Amora’im disputed the question: What is the aḥ mentioned in the verse? Rav said that it means willow branch [aḥvana]. And Shmuel said: It is referring to wood that was lit with aḥvana, meaning with fraternity [aḥva], i.e., that each piece of wood is lit from another, even small ones from large ones. The meaning of the word aḥvana was forgotten; the Gemara relates that this man, who said to people in the marketplace: Who wants aḥvana? And he was found to be selling willow, and therefore, the meaning of the word was understood.

אמר רב הונא קנים אין צריכין רוב אגדן צריכין רוב גרעינין אין צריכין רוב נתנן בחותלות צריכין רוב מתקיף לה רב חסדא אדרבה איפכא מסתברא קנים מבדרן אגדן לא מבדרן גרעינין מבדרן נתנן בחותלות לא מבדרן איתמר נמי

Rav Huna said: Reeds with which he lights a bonfire on Shabbat eve do not require that most of the reeds ignite prior to Shabbat, because they burn easily. However, if he tied them together into a bundle, the reeds assume the legal status of a wooden beam and most of the reeds need to catch fire before Shabbat. The same is true with regard to date seeds that he kindles. They do not require that most of them catch fire before Shabbat, because they burn easily. However, if he placed them in woven baskets [ḥotalot], most of the seeds need to ignite before Shabbat. Rav Ḥisda strongly objects to this: On the contrary, the opposite makes sense, as reeds are scattered and difficult to burn. When they are bundled, they are not scattered, and therefore burn more easily. Similarly, seeds are scattered. And if he placed them in woven baskets, they are not scattered. It was also stated