Shabbat 18bשבת י״ח ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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18bי״ח ב

מוגמר וגפרית מאי טעמא שרו בית שמאי התם מנח אארעא גיגית ונר וקדרה ושפוד מאי טעמא שרו בית שמאי דמפקר להו אפקורי

with regard to placing incense and sulfur beneath clothes and silver vessels, respectively, what is the reason Beit Shammai permitted this? The Gemara answers: The case under discussion was not one where the incense was placed in a vessel; rather, there, the incense was placed on the ground, and therefore there was no utensil that was obligated to rest. The Gemara asks further: A tub in which fruit or grains are placed to ferment into beer, and where they stay for an extended period; and a Shabbat lamp; and a pot in which food is being cooked, which they place on the fire while it is still day; and a spit [shapud] on which they placed food to roast while it is still day; what is the reason Beit Shammai permitted placing them on Shabbat eve while it is still day even though the prohibited labor continues over time, including on Shabbat? The Gemara answers: These are cases where he declares the utensils ownerless. According to Beit Shammai, the utensils must be declared ownerless while it is still day. Once the utensils are declared ownerless, they no longer belong to a Jew and, consequently, there is no obligation to let them rest.

מאן תנא להא דתנו רבנן לא תמלא אשה קדרה עססיות ותורמסין ותניח לתוך התנור ערב שבת עם חשכה ואם נתנן למוצאי שבת אסורין בכדי שיעשו כיוצא בו לא ימלא נחתום חבית של מים ויניח לתוך התנור ערב שבת עם חשכה ואם עשה כן למוצאי שבת אסורין בכדי שיעשו לימא בית שמאי היא ולא בית הלל אפילו תימא בית הלל גזירה שמא יחתה בגחלים

The Gemara asks: Based on these conclusions, who is the tanna who taught this Tosefta that the Sages taught: A woman may not fill up a pot with pounded wheat and lupines, a type of legume, and place them in the oven to cook on Shabbat eve at nightfall. And if she placed them in the oven, not only may they not be eaten on Shabbat itself, but even at the conclusion of Shabbat they are forbidden for a period of time that would be sufficient for them to be prepared, i.e., the time it takes to cook the dish from the beginning, so that he will derive no benefit from a prohibited labor performed on Shabbat. Similarly, the Tosefta said: A baker may not fill a barrel of water and place it in the oven on Shabbat eve at nightfall to boil the water that is in the barrel, and if he did so, even at the conclusion of Shabbat it is forbidden for the period of time that would be sufficient for it to be prepared from the beginning. Let us say that this Tosefta is in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai and not in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel. The Gemara answers: Even if you say that it is in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel, in those cases the Sages issued a decree due to concern lest the one cooking stoke the coals on Shabbat in order to accelerate the cooking.

אי הכי מוגמר וגפרית נמי לגזור התם לא מחתי להו דאי מחתי סליק בהו קוטרא וקשי להו אונין של פשתן נמי ליגזור התם כיון דקשי להו זיקא לא מגלו ליה צמר ליורה ליגזור אמר שמואל ביורה עקורה וניחוש שמא מגיס בה בעקורה וטוחה

The Gemara asks: If so, with regard to incense and sulfur, the Sages should also issue a decree that prohibits placing them beneath clothes and silver vessels, respectively, on Shabbat eve at nightfall. The Gemara answers: There, in that case, he will not stoke them, as if he stokes them smoke will rise into the garments and the silver, and that is damaging for them. The smoke from the wood will ruin the fragrance and the coating of sulfur. The Gemara asks further: With regard to bundles of flax, the Sages should also issue a decree. The Gemara answers: There, since wind is damaging for them, he does not expose them, and he will not come to stoke the coals. The Gemara asks further: With regard to wool placed in the dyer’s kettle, the Sages should also issue a decree. Shmuel said: The mishna is referring to a pot that is removed from the fire, where there is no concern lest he stoke the coals. The Gemara still asks: Let us be concerned lest he stir that same pot, thereby accelerating the cooking, which is prohibited by Torah law. Rather, the mishna is referring to a pot that is removed from the fire and sealed with clay spread around its cover to prevent it from opening.

והשתא דאמר מר גזירה שמא יחתה בגחלים האי קדרה חייתא שרי לאנוחה ערב שבת עם חשיכה בתנורא מאי טעמא כיון דלא חזי לאורתא אסוחי מסח דעתיה מיניה ולא אתי לחתויי גחלים ובשיל שפיר דמי בשיל ולא בשיל אסיר ואי שדא ביה גרמא חייא שפיר דמי

The Gemara comments: And now that the Master said that in these cases the prohibition of placing the pot on the fire is due to a decree issued by the Sages lest he stoke the coals; with regard to this pot of raw meat, it is permitted to place it in an oven on Shabbat eve at nightfall. What is the reason for this? Since it is not fit for consumption during the night, as it will not be cooked by then, he diverts his thoughts from it and will not come to stoke the coals. And the same is true of cooked meat; it is permitted to place it on the fire on Shabbat eve at nightfall. Since it is reasonably cooked, one will not come to stoke the coals to cook it more. Meat that is cooked and not sufficiently cooked is prohibited, as there is concern lest he come to stoke the coals. And if he threw a raw bone into this pot, he may well do so, as due to the bone he will not remove the meat to eat it in the evening.

והשתא דאמר מר כל מידי דקשי ליה זיקא לא מגלו ליה האי בשרא דגדיא ושריק שפיר דמי דברחא ולא שריק אסור דגדיא ולא שריק דברחא ושריק רב אשי שרי ורב ירמיה מדיפתי אסיר ולרב אשי דשרי (והתניא) אין צולין בשר בצל וביצה אלא כדי שיצולו מבעוד יום התם דברחא ולא שריק

And now that the Master said that anything for which wind is damaging one does not expose, one could say that with regard to meat of a kid and an oven whose opening is sealed with clay, he may well place it there on Shabbat eve at nightfall. Since the meat of the kid cooks quickly and the opening of the oven is sealed, there is no concern lest he come to stoke the coals. If it is the meat of a ram [barḥa] and the opening of the oven is not sealed with clay, it is prohibited to place it there on Shabbat eve at nightfall. The above are cases where the ruling is clear. However, with regard to the case of the meat of a kid and the opening of the oven is not sealed with clay, or the case of a ram and the opening of the oven is sealed, there is a dispute. Rav Ashi permitted placing it in the oven on Shabbat eve at nightfall, and Rav Yirmeya from Difti prohibited doing so. The Gemara asks: And according to the opinion of Rav Ashi, who permitted placing it there on Shabbat eve at nightfall, wasn’t it taught in a baraita that one may not roast meat, an onion, and an egg on Shabbat eve unless there is sufficient time for them to be roasted while it is still day? Apparently, one may not place meat that is not sufficiently roasted in an oven on Shabbat eve. The Gemara answers: There, the baraita is referring to the meat of a ram and the opening of the oven is not sealed with clay. However, in other cases it is permitted.

איכא דאמרי דגדיא בין שריק בין לא שריק שפיר דמי דברחא נמי ושריק שפיר דמי כי פליגי דברחא ולא שריק דרב אשי שרי ורב ירמיה מדפתי אסיר ולרב אשי דשרי (והתניא) אין צולין בשר בצל וביצה אלא כדי שיצולו מבעוד יום התם בבשרא אגומרי אמר רבינא האי קרא חייא שפיר דמי כיון דקשי ליה זיקא כבשרא דגדיא דמי:

Others say that with regard to the meat of a kid, whether it is in an oven that is sealed or whether it is in one that is not sealed, everyone agrees that he may well do so. With regard to the meat of a ram, when the opening of the oven is sealed, one may well do so too. Where they disagreed was in the case of the meat of a ram and the opening of the oven was not sealed. Rav Ashi permitted placing it in the oven on Shabbat eve at nightfall, and Rav Yirmeya from Difti prohibited doing so. The Gemara asks: And according to the opinion of Rav Ashi, who permitted this, wasn’t it taught in a baraita that one may only roast meat, an onion, and an egg on Shabbat eve if there is sufficient time for them to be roasted while it is still day? Apparently, one may not place meat that is not sufficiently roasted in an oven on Shabbat eve. The Gemara answers: There, the baraita is referring to the case of meat roasted directly on the coals. In that case, there is greater concern that he will come to stoke the coals. Ravina said: With regard to that raw gourd, one may well place it in a pot on the fire on Shabbat eve at nightfall. The reason for this is that since the wind is damaging for it, it is considered like the meat of a kid.

בית שמאי אומרים אין מוכרין: תנו רבנן בית שמאי אומרים לא ימכור אדם חפצו לגוי ולא ישאילנו ולא ילונו ולא יתן לו במתנה אלא כדי שיגיע לביתו ובית הלל אומרים כדי שיגיע לבית הסמוך לחומה רבי עקיבא אומר כדי שיצא מפתח ביתו אמר רבי יוסי ברבי יהודה הן הן דברי רבי עקיבא הן הן דברי בית הלל לא בא רבי עקיבא אלא לפרש דברי בית הלל:

The full text of the baraita is: Beit Shammai say: One may only sell an item to a gentile on Shabbat eve, and one may only load a burden onto his donkey with him, and one may only lift a burden onto him if the destination of the gentile is near enough that there remains sufficient time for the gentile to arrive at a place near there prior to Shabbat. The Sages taught in a baraita that elaborated upon this dispute between Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel with regard to selling to a gentile on Shabbat eve: Beit Shammai say: A person may not sell his object to a gentile, and lend it to him, and loan him money, and give him an object as a gift on Shabbat eve, unless there is sufficient time for him, the gentile, to reach his house while it is still day. And Beit Hillel say: He is permitted to do this if there is sufficient time for him to reach a house adjacent to the wall of the place where he is going. Rabbi Akiva says: It is permitted to give an object to a gentile on Shabbat eve if there is sufficient time for him to exit the entrance of the Jewish person’s house. What the gentile does afterward is irrelevant. Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, said: That is the statement of Rabbi Akiva; that is the statement of Beit Hillel. Rabbi Akiva came only to explain the statement of Beit Hillel. The tanna whose version of Beit Hillel’s statement was: Until he reaches the house adjacent to the wall, held that Beit Hillel’s opinion was similar to Beit Shammai’s opinion. Rabbi Akiva came to elucidate the actual opinion of Beit Hillel.

תנו רבנן בית שמאי אומרים לא ימכור אדם חמצו לגוי אלא אם כן יודע בו שיכלה קודם הפסח דברי בית שמאי ובית הלל אומרים כל זמן שמותר לאוכלו מותר למוכרו רבי יהודה אומר

The Sages taught a similar principle in a baraita with regard to another tannaitic dispute. Beit Shammai say: A person may not sell his leaven to a gentile on Passover eve unless he knows that the leaven will be finished before Passover. And Beit Hillel say: As long as it is permitted for the Jew to eat leaven, it is also permitted for him to sell it to a gentile. The Jew ceases to be responsible for the leaven sold to a gentile from the moment it is sold. And Rabbi Yehuda says: