טָבִי רִישְׁבָּא אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל: אַף גִּידּוּלֵי תְרוּמָה תְּרוּמָה, בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם גָּזְרוּ. מַאי טַעְמָא? אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא: גְּזֵירָה מִשּׁוּם תְּרוּמָה טְהוֹרָה בְּיַד יִשְׂרָאֵל.
Tavi the bird hunter [rishba] that Shmuel said: The decree that growths of teruma, i.e., produce that grows from teruma that was planted in the ground, are considered teruma, the Sages also issued on that day. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this decree? Rabbi Ḥanina said: A decree due to pure teruma in the hand of a non-priest Israelite. One who seeks to avoid giving teruma to a priest would plant it in the ground and thereby negate its teruma status. To prevent him from doing so, the Sages decreed that that which grows from the teruma is also considered teruma. Consequently, one would gain nothing by replanting the teruma.
אָמַר רָבָא: אִי דַּחֲשִׁידִי לְהָכִי, אַפְרוֹשֵׁי נָמֵי לָא לַיפְרְשׁוּ! (אֶלָּא אָמַר רָבָא: יִשְׂרָאֵל) כֵּיוָן דְּאֶפְשָׁר לְמֶעְבַּד חִטָּה אַחַת כְּדִשְׁמוּאֵל וְלָא קָעָבֵיד, הֵימוֹנֵי מְהֵימְנֵי. אֶלָּא גְּזֵירָה מִשּׁוּם תְּרוּמָה טְמֵאָה בְּיַד כֹּהֵן, דִילְמָא מַשְׁהֵי לַהּ גַּבֵּיהּ וְאָתֵי לִידֵי תַקָּלָה.
Rava said: If they are suspected of that, let them refrain from separating teruma altogether. Rather, Rava said: We know that with regard to an Israelite, as opposed to a Levite, fundamentally it is possible to perform the mitzva of teruma by separating merely one grain of wheat, in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel, who said that by Torah law there is no fixed measure for teruma. By separating one grain of wheat as teruma for all the wheat on the threshing floor, one fulfills his obligation. Since he nevertheless did not take advantage of that possibility to exempt himself from the obligation of separating teruma, he is trustworthy, and there is no reason to suspect that he will seek to avoid giving teruma to the priest by planting it. Rather, the reason for the decree is due to impure teruma in the hand of a priest. A priest is forbidden to eat impure teruma and he is required to burn it. However, the priest is permitted to derive benefit from its burning. The Sages were concerned lest he keep the impure teruma with him until the season of sowing and sow his field with it, and, as a result, he encounter a stumbling-block because over time he is liable to forget that the teruma is impure and eat it.
וְאִידַּךְ, אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּיא בַּר אַמֵּי מִשְּׁמֵיהּ דְּעוּלָּא: אַף מִי שֶׁהֶחֱשִׁיךְ לוֹ בַּדֶּרֶךְ נוֹתֵן כִּיסוֹ לְגוֹי — בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם גָּזְרוּ.
With regard to the total of eighteen decrees, the Gemara asks: And what is the other decree? Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Ami said in the name of Ulla: In a case of one who was carrying a purse with money in it on Shabbat eve, and it got dark for him on the way, the Torah law permitted him to carry the purse in increments, each of which is less than four cubits. However, the Sages issued the following decree: It is prohibited to carry in increments; he should give his purse to a gentile accompanying him. This decree was also issued on that day.
וְאִידַּךְ, אָמַר בָּאלִי אָמַר אֲבִימִי סִנְוְותָאָה: פִּתָּן וְשַׁמְנָן וְיֵינָן וּבְנוֹתֵיהֶן — כּוּלָּן מִשְּׁמוֹנָה עָשָׂר דָּבָר הֵן. הָנִיחָא לְרַבִּי מֵאִיר, אֶלָּא לְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי שִׁבְסְרֵי הָוְיָין! אִיכָּא הָא דְּרַב אַחָא בַּר אַדָּא. דְּאָמַר רַב אַחָא בַּר אַדָּא אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק: גָּזְרוּ עַל פִּתָּן מִשּׁוּם שַׁמְנָן, וְעַל שַׁמְנָן מִשּׁוּם יֵינָן.
And the other decree: The Sage Bali said that Avimi of Sanvata said: The decrees with regard to gentiles that prohibit their bread, and their oil, and their wine, and their daughters are all one decree of the eighteen matters. The Gemara asks: This works out well according to Rabbi Meir, as according to his opinion the Gemara already enumerated eighteen decrees. However, according to Rabbi Yosei, who holds that the dispute remains with regard to the matter of vessels in the courtyard, they are only seventeen. The Gemara answers: There is also that statement of Rav Aḥa bar Adda, as Rav Aḥa bar Adda said that Rabbi Yitzḥak said: The Sages issued a decree prohibiting eating their bread due to their oil. And they issued a decree prohibiting their oil due to their wine. Consequently, there are two separate decrees.
עַל פִּתָּן מִשּׁוּם שַׁמְנָן?! מַאי אוּלְמֵיהּ דְּשֶׁמֶן מִפַּת? אֶלָּא גָּזְרוּ עַל פִּתָּן וְשַׁמְנָן מִשּׁוּם יֵינָן, וְעַל יֵינָן מִשּׁוּם בְּנוֹתֵיהֶן, וְעַל בְּנוֹתֵיהֶן מִשּׁוּם דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְעַל דָּבָר אַחֵר מִשּׁוּם דָּבָר אַחֵר. מַאי דָּבָר אַחֵר? אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק: גָּזְרוּ עַל תִּינוֹק גּוֹי שֶׁמְטַמֵּא בְּזִיבָה, שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא תִּינוֹק יִשְׂרָאֵל רָגִיל אֶצְלוֹ בְּמִשְׁכַּב זָכוּר. אִי הָכִי, לְרַבִּי מֵאִיר נָמֵי תְּשַׁסְרֵי הָוְיָין! אוֹכָלִין וְכֵלִים שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ בְּמַשְׁקִין בַּחֲדָא חָשֵׁיב לְהוּ.
The Gemara wonders: They issued a decree on their bread because of their oil. In what way is the prohibition on oil stronger than the prohibition on bread? Rather, say that they issued a decree prohibiting their bread and their oil due to their wine. And they issued a decree prohibiting their wine due to the fact that it leads to familiarity, and people will come to marry their daughters. And they issued a decree prohibiting their daughters due to something else, idolatry. And they further issued a decree on something else, idolatry, due to something else. The Gemara asks: What is the something else alluded to here? Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: They issued a decree on a gentile baby, according him the legal status that he transmits impurity as one with the legal status of a great zav, who experienced three emissions, even though he did not experience an emission. This was in order to distance Jewish children from gentile children so that a Jewish boy should not be accustomed to be with a gentile in homosexual relations. The Gemara asks: If so, according to Rabbi Meir it is difficult as well, as they are now nineteen decrees. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Meir counts the decrees of food items and vessels that became impure through contact with liquids as one. Consequently, according to Rabbi Meir, too, there are only eighteen decrees.
מַתְנִי׳ בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים: אֵין שׁוֹרִין דְּיוֹ וְסַמָּנִים וְכַרְשִׁינִין אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשּׁוֹרוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, וּבֵית הִלֵּל מַתִּירִין. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים: אֵין נוֹתְנִין אוּנִּין שֶׁל פִּשְׁתָּן לְתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּהְבִּילוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, וְלֹא אֶת הַצֶּמֶר לַיּוֹרָה אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּקְלוֹט הָעַיִן, וּבֵית הִלֵּל מַתִּירִין.
MISHNA: In this mishna there is a fundamental dispute between Beit Hillel and Beit Shammai: Must one begin refraining from actions prohibited on Shabbat on Shabbat eve? Or, may one initiate an action prior to Shabbat, even if he knows that it will continue on its own on Shabbat itself? These are the details of that dispute: Beit Shammai say: One may only soak dry ink in water and dry plants, which produce dyes, in water and vetch for animal food to soften them in water on Shabbat eve, adjacent to Shabbat, if there is clearly sufficient time for them to soak for their designated purpose while it is still day, before Shabbat begins, and their continued soaking on Shabbat will have no effect. And Beit Hillel permit doing so. Beit Shammai say: One may only place bundles of combed flax inside the oven on Shabbat eve if there is sufficient time so that they will be heated while it is still day. And one may only place wool into the dyer’s kettle if there is sufficient time for the wool to absorb the dye while it is still day. And Beit Hillel permit doing so.
בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים: אֵין פּוֹרְסִין מְצוּדוֹת חַיָּה וְעוֹפוֹת וְדָגִים אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּצּוֹדוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, וּבֵית הִלֵּל מַתִּירִין. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים: אֵין מוֹכְרִין לְגוֹי וְאֵין טוֹעֲנִין עִמּוֹ וְאֵין מַגְבִּיהִין עָלָיו אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לְמָקוֹם קָרוֹב, וּבֵית הִלֵּל מַתִּירִין. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים: אֵין נוֹתְנִין עוֹרוֹת לְעַבְּדָן, וְלֹא כֵּלִים לְכוֹבֵס גּוֹי אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם. וּבְכוּלָּן בֵּית הִלֵּל מַתִּירִין עִם
Beit Shammai say: One may spread traps for an animal and birds and fish only if there is sufficient time remaining in the day for them to be trapped in them while it is still day, and Beit Hillel permit doing so even if there is not sufficient time remaining in the day. Beit Shammai say: One may only sell an item to a gentile on Shabbat eve, and one may only load a burden on his donkey with him, and one may only lift a burden on him if there remains sufficient time for the gentile to arrive to a near place prior to Shabbat, and the Jew will play no role in the performance of a prohibited labor by the gentile on Shabbat. And Beit Hillel permit doing so. Beit Shammai say: One may not give skins to a gentile tanner, nor clothes to a gentile launderer, unless there is sufficient time for work on them to be completed while it is still day, before Shabbat begins. And in all of them Beit Hillel permit doing so with