Shabbat 156a:13שבת קנ״ו א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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156aקנ״ו א

רבי יוסי ברבי יהודה היא והני מילי הוא דמשני היכי משני אמר רב חסדא על יד על יד ושוין שבוחשין את השתית בשבת ושותים זיתום המצרי

It is the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda. And this leniency applies only in a case where one alters the way that he kneads. The Gemara asks: How does one alter the manner in which he kneads? Rav Ḥisda said: One does not knead the dough all at once but rather a little bit at a time. It was also taught: And they agree that one may mix the shatit, roasted barley to which honey is added, on Shabbat, and drink Egyptian beer, as it is not considered to be for medicinal purposes.

והאמרת אין גובלין לא קשיא הא בעבה הא ברכה והני מילי הוא דמשני

The Gemara asks: Didn’t you say: One may not knead? That contradicts the statement that they agree that it is permitted to stir the shatit. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, as there is a distinction between the cases. This dispute with regard to shatit is referring to mixing a thick mixture, which is similar to kneading. However, that statement where they agree that mixing is permitted is referring to a soft, thin mixture that cannot be kneaded. And all of these statements are referring to a case where one alters the way he kneads or stirs.

היכי משני אמר רב יוסף בחול נותן את החומץ ואחר כך נותן את השתית בשבת נותן את השתית ואחר כך נותן את החומץ לוי בריה דרב הונא בר חייא אשכחיה לגבלא דבי נשיה דקא גביל וספי ליה לתוריה בטש ביה אתא אבוה אשכחיה אמר ליה הכי אמר אבוה דאמך משמיה דרב ומנו רבי ירמיה בר אבא גובלין ולא מספין ודלא לקיט בלישניה מהלקיטין ליה והני מילי הוא דמשני

The Gemara asks: How does one alter the manner in which he performs these actions? Rav Yosef said: On a weekday one first places the vinegar in a vessel and then places the shatit. On Shabbat one first places the shatit and then places the vinegar. The Gemara relates that Levi, son of Rav Huna bar Ḥiyya, found the one who kneads in his parents’ home kneading bran on Shabbat and feeding it to his ox. He kicked him so that he would stop. When his father came and found him, he said to him: This is what your mother’s father said in the name of Rav. The Gemara interjects: And who is his mother’s father? It is Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba, who said: One may knead but not feed animals, and a calf that does not take the food with its tongue may be fed on Shabbat. And this applies only when one alters the manner in which he does so.

היכי משני אמר רב יימר בר שלמיא משמיה דאביי שתי וערב והא לא מערב שפיר אמר רב יהודה מנערו לכלי

The Gemara asks: How does one alter the manner in which he does so? Rav Yeimar bar Shelamya said in the name of Abaye: One moves the ladle or stirring utensil in the directions of warp and woof. The Gemara asks: Isn’t it the case that it will not mix well, so what is the point of stirring it that way? Rav Yehuda said: It means that one pours it into another vessel and in the process it is mixed.

כתיב אפינקסיה דזעירי אמרית קדם רבי ומנו רבי חייא מהו לגבל אמר אסור מהו לפרק אמר מותר אמר רב [מנשיא] חד קמי חד תרי קמי תרי שפיר דמי תלתא קמי תרי אסור רב יוסף אמר קב ואפילו קביים עולא אמר כור ואפילו כוריים

It was written in Ze’eiri’s notebook: I said before my rabbi, and the Gemara asks: And who is his rabbi? It is Rabbi Ḥiyya. And Ze’eiri said before him: What is the ruling? Is it permitted to knead on Shabbat? He said: It is prohibited. What is the ruling with regard to emptying food from a vessel before one animal to place it before another animal? He said: It is permitted. Rav Menashya said: Placing one trough before one animal or two troughs before two animals, one may well do so. Placing three troughs before two animals is prohibited, because it is considered to be superfluous labor as he is bringing the animals more food than they need. Rav Yosef said: It is permitted to add a kav of additional food or even two kav. Ulla said: One may add a kor or even two kor and there is no need for concern.

כתיב אפינקסיה דלוי אמרית קדם רבי ומנו רבינו הקדוש על דהוו גבלין שתיתא בבבל והוה צוח רבי ומנו רבינו הקדוש על דהוו גבלין שתיתא ולית דשמיע ליה ולית חילא בידיה למיסר מדרבי יוסי ברבי יהודה

It was written in Levi’s notebook: I said before my rabbi, and the Gemara asks: And who is his rabbi? It is our holy Rabbi, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Levi spoke about the fact that people would knead shatit in Babylonia, and my rabbi, and who is it, our holy Rabbi, cried in protest over the fact that people would knead shatit. And there was no one who listened to him, and he did not have the power to prohibit it due to the people’s reliance on the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, who permitted doing so.

כתיב אפינקסיה דרבי יהושע בן לוי האי מאן דבחד בשבא יהי גבר ולא חדא ביה

After citing relevant halakhot written in the notebooks of various Sages, the Gemara relates that it was written in Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s notebook: One who was born on the first day of the week, Sunday, will be a person and there will not be one in him.

מאי [ולא חדא ביה] אילימא ולא חד לטיבו והאמר רב אשי אנא בחד בשבא הואי אלא לאו חדא לבישו והאמר רב אשי אנא ודימי בר קקוזתא הוויין בחד בשבא אנא מלך והוא הוה ריש גנבי אלא אי כולי לטיבו אי כולי לבישו מאי טעמא דאיברו ביה אור וחושך

The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase: There will not be one in him? If you say that there is not one quality for the best, that cannot be, as Rav Ashi said: I was born on the first day of the week, and one cannot say that there was nothing good about him. Rather, it must mean that there is not one quality for the worst. Didn’t Rav Ashi say: I and Dimi bar Kakuzta were both born on the first day of the week. I became a king, the head of a yeshiva, and he became the head of a gang of thieves, clearly a negative quality. Rather, one born on a Sunday is either completely for the best or completely for the worst. What is the reason for this? It is because both light and darkness were created on the first day of Creation.

האי מאן דבתרי בשבא יהי גבר רגזן מאי טעמא משום דאיפליגו ביה מיא האי מאן דבתלתא בשבא יהי גבר עתיר וזנאי יהא מאי טעמא משום דאיברו ביה עשבים האי מאן דבארבעה בשבא יהי גבר חכים ונהיר מאי טעמא משום דאיתלו ביה מאורות

One who was born on the second day of the week, Monday, will be a short-tempered person. What is the reason for this? It is because on that day, the second day of Creation, the upper and lower waters were divided. Therefore, it is a day of contentiousness.
One who was born on the third day of the week will be a rich man and a promiscuous person. What is the reason for this? It is because on that day, the third day, vegetation was created. It grows abundantly but is also mixed together without boundaries between the grass and the plants.
One who was born on the fourth day of the week will be a wise and enlightened person. What is the reason for this? It is because the heavenly lights were hung in the heavens on that day, and wisdom is likened to light.

האי מאן דבחמשה בשבא יהי גבר גומל חסדים מאי טעמא משום דאיברו ביה דגים ועופות האי מאן דבמעלי שבתא יהי גבר חזרן אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק חזרן במצות האי מאן דבשבתא יהי בשבתא ימות על דאחילו עלוהי יומא רבא דשבתא אמר רבא בר רב שילא וקדישא רבא יתקרי

One who was born on the fifth day of the week will be a person who performs acts of kindness. What is the reason for this? It is because on that day the fish and fowl were created, and they do not receive their sustenance by performing work for people. They are sustained by the kindness of God alone.
One who was born on the sixth day of the week will be a seeker. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said that this means that he will be one who seeks out mitzvot, as most of the activity on Friday involves preparation for Shabbat.
One who was born on Shabbat will die on Shabbat, because they desecrated the great day of Shabbat on his behalf. Rava bar Rav Sheila said: And he will be called a person of great sanctity because he was born on the sacred day of Shabbat.

אמר להו רבי חנינא פוקו אמרו ליה לבר ליואי לא מזל יום גורם אלא מזל שעה גורם האי מאן דבחמה יהי גבר זיותן יהי אכיל מדיליה ושתי מדיליה ורזוהי גליין אם גניב לא מצלח האי מאן דבכוכב נוגה יהי גבר עתיר וזנאי יהי מאי טעמא משום דאיתיליד ביה נורא האי מאן דבכוכב יהי גבר נהיר וחכים משום דספרא דחמה הוא האי מאן דבלבנה יהי גבר סביל מרעין בנאי וסתיר סתיר ובנאי אכיל דלא דיליה ושתי דלא דיליה ורזוהי כסיין אם גנב מצלח האי מאן דבשבתאי יהי גבר מחשבתיה בטלין ואית דאמרי כל דמחשבין עליה בטלין האי מאן דבצדק יהי גבר צדקן אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק וצדקן במצות האי מאן דבמאדים יהי גבר אשיד דמא אמר רב אשי אי אומנא אי גנבא אי טבחא אי מוהלא אמר רבה אנא במאדים הואי אמר אביי מר נמי עניש וקטיל

Rabbi Ḥanina said to his students who heard all this: Go and tell the son of Leiva’i, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: It is not the constellation of the day of the week that determines a person’s nature; rather, it is the constellation of the hour that determines his nature.
One who was born under the influence of the sun will be a radiant person; he will eat from his own resources and drink from his own resources, and his secrets will be exposed. If he steals he will not succeed, because he will be like the sun that shines and is revealed to all.
One who was born under the influence of Venus will be a rich and promiscuous person. What is the reason for this? Because fire was born during the hour of Venus, he will be subject the fire of the evil inclination, which burns perpetually.
One who was born under the influence of Mercury will be an enlightened and expert man, because Mercury is the sun’s scribe, as it is closest to the sun.
One who was born under the influence of the moon will be a man who suffers pains, who builds and destroys, and destroys and builds. He will be a man who eats not from his own resources and drinks not from his own resources, and whose secrets are hidden. If he steals he will succeed, as he is like the moon that constantly changes form, whose light is not its own, and who is at times exposed and at times hidden.
One who was born under the influence of Saturn will be a man whose thoughts are for naught. And some say that everything that others think about him and plan to do to him is for naught.
One who was born under the influence of Jupiter [tzedek] will be a just person [tzadkan]. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: And just in this context means just in the performance of mitzvot.
One who was born under the influence of Mars will be one who spills blood. Rav Ashi said: He will be either a blood letter, or a thief, or a slaughterer of animals, or a circumciser. Rabba said: I was born under the influence of Mars and I do not perform any of those activities. Abaye said: My Master also punishes and kills as a judge.

איתמר רבי חנינא אומר מזל מחכים מזל מעשיר ויש מזל לישראל רבי יוחנן אמר אין מזל לישראל ואזדא רבי יוחנן לטעמיה דאמר רבי יוחנן מניין שאין מזל לישראל שנאמר כה אמר ה׳ אל דרך הגוים אל תלמדו ומאותות השמים אל תחתו כי יחתו הגוים מהמה הם יחתו ולא ישראל

It was stated that Rabbi Ḥanina says: A constellation makes one wise and a constellation makes one wealthy, and there is a constellation for the Jewish people that influences them. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: There is no constellation for the Jewish people that influences them. The Jewish people are not subject to the influence of astrology. And Rabbi Yoḥanan follows his own reasoning, as Rabbi Yoḥanan said: From where is it derived that there is no constellation for the Jewish people? As it is stated: “Thus said the Lord: Learn not the way of the nations, and be not dismayed at the signs of heaven; for the nations are dismayed at them” (Jeremiah 10:2). The nations will be dismayed by them, but not the Jewish people.

ואף רב סבר אין מזל לישראל דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב מניין שאין מזל לישראל שנאמר ויוצא אותו החוצה אמר אברהם לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא רבונו של עולם בן ביתי יורש אותי אמר לו לאו כי אם אשר יצא ממעיך

And Rav also holds that there is no constellation for the Jewish people, as Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: From where is it derived that there is no constellation for the Jewish people? As it is stated with regard to Abraham: “And He brought him outside, and said: Look now toward heaven, and count the stars, if you are able to count them; and He said unto him: So shall your offspring be” (Genesis 15:5). The Sages derived from this that Abraham said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, “Behold, You have given me no offspring, and one born in my house is to be my heir” (Genesis 15:3). The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: No. “And, behold, the word of the Lord came to him, saying: This man shall not be your heir; rather, one that will come forth from your own innards shall be your heir” (Genesis 15:4).

אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם נסתכלתי באיצטגנינות שלי ואיני ראוי להוליד בן אמר ליה צא מאיצטגנינות שלך שאין מזל לישראל מאי דעתיך

Abraham said before Him: Master of the Universe, I looked at my astrological map, and according to the configuration of my constellations I am not fit to have a son. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: Emerge from your astrology, as the verse states: “And He brought him outside,” as there is no constellation for Israel. What is your thinking?