Shabbat 156a:13שבת קנ״ו א:יג
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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156aקנ״ו א

רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה הִיא. וְהָנֵי מִילֵּי הוּא דִּמְשַׁנֵּי. הֵיכִי מְשַׁנֵּי? אָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: עַל יָד עַל יָד.

It is the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda. And this leniency applies only in a case where one alters the way that he kneads. The Gemara asks: How does one alter the manner in which he kneads? Rav Ḥisda said: One does not knead the dough all at once but rather a little bit at a time.

וְשָׁוִין שֶׁבּוֹחֲשִׁין אֶת הַשַּׁתִּית בַּשַּׁבָּת וְשׁוֹתִים זֵיתוֹם הַמִּצְרִי. וְהָאָמְרַתְּ ״אֵין גּוֹבְלִין״! לָא קַשְׁיָא: הָא בְּעָבָה, הָא בְּרַכָּה. וְהָנֵי מִילֵּי הוּא דִּמְשַׁנֵּי.

It was also taught: And they agree that one may mix the shatit, roasted barley to which honey is added, on Shabbat, and drink Egyptian beer, as it is not considered to be for medicinal purposes. The Gemara asks: Didn’t you say: One may not knead? That contradicts the statement that they agree that it is permitted to stir the shatit. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, as there is a distinction between the cases. This dispute with regard to shatit is referring to mixing a thick mixture, which is similar to kneading. However, that statement where they agree that mixing is permitted is referring to a soft, thin mixture that cannot be kneaded. And all of these statements are referring to a case where one alters the way he kneads or stirs.

הֵיכִי מְשַׁנֵּי? אָמַר רַב יוֹסֵף: בַּחוֹל נוֹתֵן אֶת הַחוֹמֶץ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹתֵן אֶת הַשַּׁתִּית, בַּשַּׁבָּת נוֹתֵן אֶת הַשַּׁתִּית וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹתֵן אֶת הַחוֹמֶץ. לֵוִי בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַב הוּנָא בַּר חִיָּיא אַשְׁכְּחֵיהּ לְגַבָּלָא דְּבֵי נְשֵׁיהּ דְּקָא גָבֵיל וְסָפֵי לֵיהּ לְתוֹרֵיהּ. בְּטַשׁ בֵּיהּ. אֲתָא אֲבוּהּ אַשְׁכְּחֵיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ: הָכִי אָמַר אֲבוּהּ דְּאִמָּךְ מִשְּׁמֵיהּ דְּרַב, וּמַנּוּ — רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בַּר אַבָּא: גּוֹבְלִין וְלֹא מַסְפִּין, וּדְלָא לָקֵיט בְּלִישָּׁנֵיהּ — מַלְקִיטִין לֵיהּ. וְהָנֵי מִילֵּי הוּא דִּמְשַׁנֵּי.

The Gemara asks: How does one alter the manner in which he performs these actions? Rav Yosef said: On a weekday one first places the vinegar in a vessel and then places the shatit. On Shabbat one first places the shatit and then places the vinegar. The Gemara relates that Levi, son of Rav Huna bar Ḥiyya, found the one who kneads in his parents’ home kneading bran on Shabbat and feeding it to his ox. He kicked him so that he would stop. When his father came and found him, he said to him: This is what your mother’s father said in the name of Rav. The Gemara interjects: And who is his mother’s father? It is Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba, who said: One may knead but not feed animals, and a calf that does not take the food with its tongue may be fed on Shabbat. And this applies only when one alters the manner in which he does so.

הֵיכִי מְשַׁנֵּי? אָמַר רַב יֵימַר בַּר שֶׁלֶמְיָא מִשְּׁמֵיהּ דְּאַבָּיֵי: שְׁתִי וָעֵרֶב. וְהָא לָא מִעָרַב שַׁפִּיר? אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה: מְנַעֲרוֹ לִכְלִי.

The Gemara asks: How does one alter the manner in which he does so? Rav Yeimar bar Shelamya said in the name of Abaye: One moves the ladle or stirring utensil in the directions of warp and woof. The Gemara asks: Isn’t it the case that it will not mix well, so what is the point of stirring it that way? Rav Yehuda said: It means that one pours it into another vessel and in the process it is mixed.

כְּתִיב אַפִּינְקָסֵיהּ דִּזְעֵירִי: אֲמַרִית קֳדָם רַבִּי, וּמַנּוּ — רַבִּי חִיָּיא: מַהוּ לְגַבֵּל? אָמַר: אָסוּר. מַהוּ לְפָרֵק? אָמַר: מוּתָּר. אָמַר רַב [מְנַשְּׁיָא]: חַד קַמֵּי חַד, תְּרֵי קַמֵּי תְּרֵי — שַׁפִּיר דָּמֵי. תְּלָתָא קַמֵּי תְּרֵי — אֲסִיר. רַב יוֹסֵף אָמַר: קַב וַאֲפִילּוּ קַבַּיִים. עוּלָּא אָמַר: כּוֹר וַאֲפִילּוּ כּוֹרַיִים.

It was written in Ze’eiri’s notebook: I said before my rabbi, and the Gemara asks: And who is his rabbi? It is Rabbi Ḥiyya. And Ze’eiri said before him: What is the ruling? Is it permitted to knead on Shabbat? He said: It is prohibited. What is the ruling with regard to emptying food from a vessel before one animal to place it before another animal? He said: It is permitted. Rav Menashya said: Placing one trough before one animal or two troughs before two animals, one may well do so. Placing three troughs before two animals is prohibited, because it is considered to be superfluous labor as he is bringing the animals more food than they need. Rav Yosef said: It is permitted to add a kav of additional food or even two kav. Ulla said: One may add a kor or even two kor and there is no need for concern.

כְּתִיב אַפִּינְקָסֵיהּ דְּלֵוִי: אֲמַרִית קֳדָם רַבִּי, וּמַנּוּ — רַבֵּינוּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ, עַל דַּהֲווֹ גָּבְלִין שְׁתִיתָא בְּבָבֶל, וַהֲוָה צָוַח רַבִּי (וּמַנּוּ? — רַבֵּינוּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ, עַל דַּהֲווֹ גָּבְלִין שַׁתִּיתָא), וְלֵית דְּשָׁמַע לֵיהּ, וְלֵית חֵילָא בִּידֵיהּ לְמֵיסַר מִדְּרַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה.

It was written in Levi’s notebook: I said before my rabbi, and the Gemara asks: And who is his rabbi? It is our holy Rabbi, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Levi spoke about the fact that people would knead shatit in Babylonia, and my rabbi, and who is it, our holy Rabbi, cried in protest over the fact that people would knead shatit. And there was no one who listened to him, and he did not have the power to prohibit it due to the people’s reliance on the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, who permitted doing so.

כְּתִיב אַפִּינְקָסֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי: הַאי מַאן דִּבְחַד בְּשַׁבָּא, יְהֵי גְּבַר וְלָא חֲדָא בֵּיהּ.

After citing relevant halakhot written in the notebooks of various Sages, the Gemara relates that it was written in Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s notebook: One who was born on the first day of the week, Sunday, will be a person and there will not be one in him.

מַאי [״וְלָא חֲדָא בֵּיהּ״]? אִילֵּימָא: וְלָא חַד לְטֵיבוּ, וְהָאָמַר רַב אָשֵׁי: אֲנָא בְּחַד בְּשַׁבָּא הֲוַאי! אֶלָּא לָאו חֲדָא לְבִישׁוּ, וְהָאָמַר רַב אָשֵׁי: אֲנָא וְדִימִי בַּר קָקוֹזְתָּא הֲוֵינַן בְּחַד בְּשַׁבָּא, אֲנָא מֶלֶךְ, וְהוּא הֲוָה רֵישׁ גַּנָּבֵי! אֶלָּא: אִי כּוּלֵּיהּ לְטֵיבוּ, אִי כּוּלֵּיהּ לְבִישׁוּ. מַאי טַעְמָא? דְּאִיבְּרוֹ בֵּיהּ אוֹר וָחוֹשֶׁךְ.

The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase: There will not be one in him? If you say that there is not one quality for the best, that cannot be, as Rav Ashi said: I was born on the first day of the week, and one cannot say that there was nothing good about him. Rather, it must mean that there is not one quality for the worst. Didn’t Rav Ashi say: I and Dimi bar Kakuzta were both born on the first day of the week. I became a king, the head of a yeshiva, and he became the head of a gang of thieves, clearly a negative quality. Rather, one born on a Sunday is either completely for the best or completely for the worst. What is the reason for this? It is because both light and darkness were created on the first day of Creation.

הַאי מַאן דְּבִתְרֵי בְּשַׁבָּא יְהֵי גְּבַר רַגְזָן. מַאי טַעְמָא? מִשּׁוּם דְּאִיפְּלִיגוּ בֵּיהּ מַיָּא. הַאי מַאן דְּבִתְלָתָא בְּשַׁבָּא — יְהֵי גְּבַר עַתִּיר וְזַנַּאי יְהֵא. מַאי טַעְמָא? מִשּׁוּם דְּאִיבְּרוֹ בֵּיהּ עֲשָׂבִים. הַאי מַאן דִּבְאַרְבְּעָה בְּשַׁבָּא — יְהֵי גְּבַר חַכִּים וְנָהִיר. מַאי טַעְמָא? מִשּׁוּם דְּאִיתְּלוֹ בֵּיהּ מְאוֹרוֹת.

One who was born on the second day of the week, Monday, will be a short-tempered person. What is the reason for this? It is because on that day, the second day of Creation, the upper and lower waters were divided. Therefore, it is a day of contentiousness.
One who was born on the third day of the week will be a rich man and a promiscuous person. What is the reason for this? It is because on that day, the third day, vegetation was created. It grows abundantly but is also mixed together without boundaries between the grass and the plants.
One who was born on the fourth day of the week will be a wise and enlightened person. What is the reason for this? It is because the heavenly lights were hung in the heavens on that day, and wisdom is likened to light.

הַאי מַאן דִּבְחַמְשָׁה בְּשַׁבָּא — יְהֵי גְּבַר גּוֹמֵל חֲסָדִים. מַאי טַעְמָא? מִשּׁוּם דְּאִיבְּרוֹ בֵּיהּ דָּגִים וְעוֹפוֹת. הַאי מַאן דִּבְמַעֲלֵי שַׁבְּתָא — יְהֵי גְּבַר חַזְרָן. אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק: חַזְרָן בְּמִצְוֹת. הַאי מַאן דִּבְשַׁבְּתָא יְהֵי — בְּשַׁבְּתָא יְמוּת, עַל דְּאַחִילוּ עֲלוֹהִי יוֹמָא רַבָּא דְּשַׁבְּתָא. אָמַר רָבָא בַּר רַב שֵׁילָא: וְקַדִּישָׁא רַבָּא יִתְקְרֵי.

One who was born on the fifth day of the week will be a person who performs acts of kindness. What is the reason for this? It is because on that day the fish and fowl were created, and they do not receive their sustenance by performing work for people. They are sustained by the kindness of God alone.
One who was born on the sixth day of the week will be a seeker. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said that this means that he will be one who seeks out mitzvot, as most of the activity on Friday involves preparation for Shabbat.
One who was born on Shabbat will die on Shabbat, because they desecrated the great day of Shabbat on his behalf. Rava bar Rav Sheila said: And he will be called a person of great sanctity because he was born on the sacred day of Shabbat.

אֲמַר לְהוּ רַבִּי חֲנִינָא, פּוּקוּ אֱמַרוּ לֵיהּ לְבַר לֵיוַאי: לֹא מַזַּל יוֹם גּוֹרֵם אֶלָּא מַזַּל שָׁעָה גּוֹרֵם. הַאי מַאן דִּבְחַמָּה — יְהֵי גְּבַר זִיוְתָן, יְהֵי אָכֵיל מִדִּילֵיהּ וְשָׁתֵי מִדִּילֵיהּ, וְרָזוֹהִי גַּלְיִין, אִם גָּנֵיב — לָא מַצְלַח. הַאי מַאן דִּבְכוֹכָב נוֹגַהּ — יְהֵי גְּבַר עַתִּיר וְזַנַּאי יְהֵי. מַאי טַעְמָא? מִשּׁוּם דְּאִיתְיְלִיד בֵּיהּ נוּרָא. הַאי מַאן דִּבְכוֹכָב — יְהֵי גְּבַר נָהִיר וְחַכִּים, מִשּׁוּם דְּסָפְרָא דְחַמָּה הוּא. הַאי מַאן דְּבִלְבָנָה — יְהֵי גְּבַר סָבֵיל מַרְעִין, בָּנֵי וְסָתַר, סָתַר וּבָנֵי, אָכֵיל דְּלָא דִּילֵיהּ וְשָׁתֵי דְּלָא דִּילֵיהּ וְרָזוֹהִי כַּסְיִין אִם גָּנֵב — מַצְלַח. הַאי מַאן דִּבְשַׁבְּתַאי — יְהֵי גְּבַר מַחְשְׁבָתֵיהּ בָּטְלִין. וְאִית דְּאָמְרִי: כׇּל דִּמְחַשְּׁבִין עֲלֵיהּ בָּטְלִין. הַאי מַאן דִּבְצֶדֶק — יְהֵי גְּבַר צִדְקָן. אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק: וְצַדְקָן בְּמִצְוֹת. הַאי מַאן דִּבְמַאְדִּים — יְהֵי גְּבַר אָשֵׁיד דְּמָא. אָמַר רַב אָשֵׁי: אִי אוּמָּנָא, אִי גַּנָּבָא, אִי טַבָּחָא, אִי מָהוֹלָא. אָמַר רַבָּה: אֲנָא בְּמַאְדִּים הֲוַאי. אָמַר אַבָּיֵי: מָר נָמֵי עָנֵישׁ וְקָטֵיל.

Rabbi Ḥanina said to his students who heard all this: Go and tell the son of Leiva’i, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: It is not the constellation of the day of the week that determines a person’s nature; rather, it is the constellation of the hour that determines his nature.
One who was born under the influence of the sun will be a radiant person; he will eat from his own resources and drink from his own resources, and his secrets will be exposed. If he steals he will not succeed, because he will be like the sun that shines and is revealed to all.
One who was born under the influence of Venus will be a rich and promiscuous person. What is the reason for this? Because fire was born during the hour of Venus, he will be subject the fire of the evil inclination, which burns perpetually.
One who was born under the influence of Mercury will be an enlightened and expert man, because Mercury is the sun’s scribe, as it is closest to the sun.
One who was born under the influence of the moon will be a man who suffers pains, who builds and destroys, and destroys and builds. He will be a man who eats not from his own resources and drinks not from his own resources, and whose secrets are hidden. If he steals he will succeed, as he is like the moon that constantly changes form, whose light is not its own, and who is at times exposed and at times hidden.
One who was born under the influence of Saturn will be a man whose thoughts are for naught. And some say that everything that others think about him and plan to do to him is for naught.
One who was born under the influence of Jupiter [tzedek] will be a just person [tzadkan]. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: And just in this context means just in the performance of mitzvot.
One who was born under the influence of Mars will be one who spills blood. Rav Ashi said: He will be either a blood letter, or a thief, or a slaughterer of animals, or a circumciser. Rabba said: I was born under the influence of Mars and I do not perform any of those activities. Abaye said: My Master also punishes and kills as a judge.

אִיתְּמַר, רַבִּי חֲנִינָא אוֹמֵר: מַזָּל מַחְכִּים, מַזָּל מַעֲשִׁיר, וְיֵשׁ מַזָּל לְיִשְׂרָאֵל. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר: אֵין מַזָּל לְיִשְׂרָאֵל. וְאַזְדָּא רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן לְטַעְמֵיהּ, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן: מִנַּיִין שֶׁאֵין מַזָּל לְיִשְׂרָאֵל? שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״כֹּה אָמַר ה׳ אֶל דֶּרֶךְ הַגּוֹיִם אַל תִּלְמָדוּ וּמֵאוֹתוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם אַל תֵּחָתּוּ כִּי יֵחַתּוּ הַגּוֹיִם מֵהֵמָּה״ — הֵם יֵחַתּוּ, וְלֹא יִשְׂרָאֵל.

It was stated that Rabbi Ḥanina says: A constellation makes one wise and a constellation makes one wealthy, and there is a constellation for the Jewish people that influences them. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: There is no constellation for the Jewish people that influences them. The Jewish people are not subject to the influence of astrology. And Rabbi Yoḥanan follows his own reasoning, as Rabbi Yoḥanan said: From where is it derived that there is no constellation for the Jewish people? As it is stated: “Thus said the Lord: Learn not the way of the nations, and be not dismayed at the signs of heaven; for the nations are dismayed at them” (Jeremiah 10:2). The nations will be dismayed by them, but not the Jewish people.

וְאַף רַב סָבַר אֵין מַזָּל לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, דְּאָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה אָמַר רַב: מִנַּיִין שֶׁאֵין מַזָּל לְיִשְׂרָאֵל? — שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וַיּוֹצֵא אוֹתוֹ הַחוּצָה״, אָמַר אַבְרָהָם לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא: רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, ״בֶן בֵּיתִי יוֹרֵשׁ אוֹתִי״, אָמַר לוֹ: לָאו — ״כִּי אִם אֲשֶׁר יֵצֵא מִמֵּעֶיךָ״.

And Rav also holds that there is no constellation for the Jewish people, as Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: From where is it derived that there is no constellation for the Jewish people? As it is stated with regard to Abraham: “And He brought him outside, and said: Look now toward heaven, and count the stars, if you are able to count them; and He said unto him: So shall your offspring be” (Genesis 15:5). The Sages derived from this that Abraham said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, “Behold, You have given me no offspring, and one born in my house is to be my heir” (Genesis 15:3). The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: No. “And, behold, the word of the Lord came to him, saying: This man shall not be your heir; rather, one that will come forth from your own innards shall be your heir” (Genesis 15:4).

אָמַר לְפָנָיו: רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם נִסְתַּכַּלְתִּי בְּאִיצְטַגְנִינוּת שֶׁלִּי, וְאֵינִי רָאוּי לְהוֹלִיד בֵּן. אָמַר לוֹ: צֵא מֵאִיצְטַגְנִינוּת שֶׁלְּךָ, שֶׁאֵין מַזָּל לְיִשְׂרָאֵל. מַאי דַּעְתָּיךְ?

Abraham said before Him: Master of the Universe, I looked at my astrological map, and according to the configuration of my constellations I am not fit to have a son. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: Emerge from your astrology, as the verse states: “And He brought him outside,” as there is no constellation for Israel. What is your thinking?