Shabbat 151bשבת קנ״א ב
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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151bקנ״א ב

שימתין קושרין את הלחי לא שיעלה אלא שלא יוסיף וכן קורה שנשברה סומכין אותה בספסל או בארוכות המטה לא שתעלה אלא שלא תוסיף:

to delay its decomposition. Similarly, one may tie the jaw of a corpse that is in the process of opening. One may not move it directly so that it will rise back to its original position, but so that it will not continue to open. And similarly, if one has a roof beam that has broken on Shabbat, one may support it with a bench or with long poles from a bed. One may not move it so that the beam will rise back to its original place, but so that it will not continue to fall.

גמ׳ והאמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מעשה בתלמידו של רבי מאיר שנכנס אחריו לבית המרחץ ביקש להדיח קרקע אמר לו אין מדיחין לסוך קרקע אמר לו אין סכין קרקע בקרקע מחלפא מת בקרקע לא מיחלף

GEMARA: The Gemara questions the mishna’s lenient ruling with regard to smearing oil on a corpse: But didn’t Rav Yehuda say that Shmuel said: There was an incident with a student of Rabbi Meir who followed him into the bathhouse on Shabbat. The student wanted to rinse the ground. Rabbi Meir said to him: One may not rinse on Shabbat. The student wanted to smear the ground with oil. Rabbi Meir said to him: One may not smear on Shabbat. This indicates that it is prohibited to rinse or smear anything that may not be moved on Shabbat. The Gemara responds: The ground in one place can be confused with the ground in another place, and the Sages therefore prohibited these activities even on a tiled floor, such as that of a bathhouse, due to a concern that one may come to do so on a dirt floor and smooth it out. However, a corpse cannot be confused with the ground, and it is therefore permitted to rinse a corpse and smear it with oil.

כל לאתויי מאי לאתויי הא דתנו רבנן מביאין כלי מיקר וכלי מתכות ומניחין על כריסו כדי שלא תפוח ופוקקין את נקביו כדי שלא תיכנס בהן הרוח

We learned in the mishna that one may attend to all the needs of the dead on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: What does the word all include in the mishna’s ruling that one may have thought is not included? The Gemara answers: It is meant to include that which the Sages taught: One may bring cold vessels and metal vessels and place them on the corpse’s stomach so that it does not swell. And one may seal up its orifices so that air will not enter them and cause swelling.

ואף שלמה אמר בחכמתו עד שלא ירתק חבל הכסף זה חוט השדרה ותרוץ גולת הזהב זה אמה ותשבר כד על המבוע זה הכרס ונרוץ הגלגל אל הבור זה פרש

And King Solomon also said in his wisdom with regard to old age and death: “Before the silver cord is snapped asunder, and the golden bowl is shattered, and the pitcher is broken at the fountain, and the wheel falls, shattered, into the pit” (Ecclesiastes 12:6), which the Gemara explains as follows: “Before the silver cord is snapped asunder”; this is a reference to the spinal cord. “And the golden bowl [gullat] is shattered”; this is a reference to the member, which is like a spring of water [gulla]. “And the pitcher is broken at the fountain”; this is a reference to the stomach, which looks like a pitcher that swells and ruptures. “And the wheel [galgal] falls, shattered, into the pit”; this is a reference to excrement [gelalim].

וכן הוא אומר וזריתי פרש על פניכם פרש חגיכם אמר רב הונא ואמרי לה אמר רב חגא אלו בני אדם שמניחין דברי תורה ועושין כל ימיהם כחגים אמר רבי לוי אמר רב פפי אמר רבי יהושע לאחר שלשה ימים כריסו נבקעת ונופלת לו על פניו ואומרת לו טול מה שנתת בי:

And similarly, it says in the verse: “And I will spread dung upon your faces, even the dung of your Festival offerings” (Malachi 2:3). Rav Huna said, and some say that it was Rav Ḥagga who said: This verse is referring to those people who neglect the words of the Torah and turn all of their days into Festivals. Rabbi Levi said that Rav Pappi said that Rabbi Yehoshua said: Three days after death, the stomach of the dead bursts and falls onto his face and says to him: Take what you have put inside me.

מתני׳ אין מעצמין את המת בשבת ולא בחול עם יציאת נפש והמעצים עם יציאת הנפש הרי זה שופך דמים:

MISHNA: One may not shut the eyes of the dead on Shabbat because the body is set-aside. And one may not shut the eyes even on a weekday while the soul departs. One must wait until the person has died. And one who shuts the eyes while the soul departs is a murderer because he has hastened the person’s death.

גמ׳ תנו רבנן המעצמו עם יציאת הנפש הרי זה שופך דמים משל לנר שכבה והולכת אדם מניח אצבעו עליה מיד כבתה תניא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר הרוצה שיתעצמו עיניו של מת נופח לו יין בחוטמו ונותן שמן בין ריסי עיניו ואוחז בשני גודלי רגליו והן מתעצמין מאליהן

GEMARA: The Sages taught: One who shuts a person’s eyes while the soul departs is a murderer. This is analogous to a lamp that is gradually becoming extinguished but could continue to burn a little longer. If a person places his finger on it, it is immediately extinguished. It was taught in a baraita that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: One who wants the eyes of a corpse to close should blow wine up its nose, and place oil between its eyelids, and grab hold of its two big toes, and its eyes will shut by themselves.

תניא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר תינוק בן יומו חי מחללין עליו את השבת דוד מלך ישראל מת אין מחללין עליו את השבת תינוק בן יומו חי מחללין עליו את השבת אמרה תורה חלל עליו שבת אחד כדי שישמור שבתות הרבה דוד מלך ישראל מת אין מחללין עליו כיון שמת אדם בטל מן המצות והיינו דאמר רבי יוחנן במתים חפשי כיון שמת אדם נעשה חפשי מן המצות

Incidental to the Gemara’s discussion of corpses, it cites that which was taught in a baraita: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: For a living day-old baby, one desecrates Shabbat to save his life. Yet for the deceased David, king of Israel, one does not desecrate Shabbat. For a day-old baby we desecrate Shabbat because the Torah says: Desecrate one Shabbat for him so that he can observe many Shabbatot. But for the deceased David, king of Israel, one does not desecrate Shabbat, as once a person dies he is idle from mitzvot. And this is what Rabbi Yoḥanan said with regard to the verse: “Set apart among the dead [bametim ḥofshi], like the slain that lie in the grave, whom You remember no more” (Psalms 88:6). Once a person dies, he becomes free [ḥofshi] from the mitzvot.

ותניא רבי שמעון בן אלעזר אומר תינוק בן יומו חי אין צריך לשומרו מן החולדה ומן העכברים אבל עוג מלך הבשן מת צריך לשומרו מן החולדה ומן העכברים שנאמר ומוראכם וחתכם יהיה כל זמן שאדם חי אימתו מוטלת על הבריות כיון שמת בטלה אימתו

And it was also taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: It is not necessary to protect a live day-old baby from a weasel or from mice, for they run away from the baby. But if Og, the king of Bashan, is dead, it is necessary to protect even him from a weasel or from mice, as it is stated: “And the fear of you and the dread of you [ḥittekhem] shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every bird of the heavens” (Genesis 9:2). The Gemara explains: As long as a person is alive [ḥai], he is feared by the animals. Once he dies, he is no longer feared.

אמר רב פפא נקיטינן אריה אבי תרי לא נפיל הא קא חזינן דנפיל ההוא כדרמי בר אבא דאמר רמי בר אבא אין חיה שולטת באדם עד שנדמה לו כבהמה שנאמר אדם ביקר בל ילין נמשל כבהמות נדמו אמר רבי חנינא אסור לישן בבית יחידי וכל הישן בבית יחידי אחזתו לילית

Rav Pappa said: We hold that a lion does not pounce upon two people. The Gemara challenges this: But how can that be? We see that it does pounce upon two people. The Gemara answers: That statement of Rav Pappa must be in accordance with that which Rami bar Abba said: An animal does not overpower a person until he appears to it as an animal, as it is stated: “But man does not abide in honor, he is like the beasts that perish” (Psalms 49:13). However, animals do not attack people who are human in their spiritual character. In a similar vein, Rabbi Ḥanina said: It is prohibited to sleep alone in a house, and anyone who sleeps alone in a house will be seized by the evil spirit Lilith.

ותניא רבי שמעון בן אלעזר אומר עשה עד שאתה מוצא ומצוי לך ועודך בידך ואף שלמה אמר בחכמתו וזכור את בוראיך בימי בחורותיך עד [אשר] (ש) לא יבאו ימי הרעה אלו ימי הזקנה והגיעו שנים אשר תאמר אין לי בהם חפץ אלו ימי המשיח שאין בהם לא זכות ולא חובה

It was also taught in a baraita with regard to the appreciation of life: Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: Perform mitzvot while you still find opportunities, and you have the financial means, and you are still under your own control. And King Solomon also said, in his wisdom: “And remember your Creator in the days of your youth, before the evil days come and the years arrive when you will say: I have no desire for them” (Ecclesiastes 12:1). Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar explains: “The evil days”; these are the days of old age. “And the years arrive when you will say: I have no desire for them”; these are the days of Messiah, in which there is neither merit nor liability.

ופליגא דשמואל דאמר שמואל אין בין העולם הזה לימות המשיח אלא שיעבוד מלכיות בלבד שנאמר כי לא יחדל אביון מקרב הארץ

The Gemara comments that this explanation disagrees with the view of Shmuel, for Shmuel said: There is no difference between this world and the days of Messiah except for subjugation to foreign kingdoms alone, from which we will be released in the Messianic era, as it is stated: “For the poor will never cease from the land, therefore I command you, saying: You shall surely open your hand to your brother, to your poor and your needy in your land.” (Deuteronomy 15:11). This indicates that the ways of the world, including the existence of wealthy and poor socioeconomic strata, will continue forever.

תניא רבי אלעזר הקפר אומר לעולם יבקש אדם רחמים על מדה זו שאם הוא לא בא בא בנו ואם בנו לא בא בן בנו בא שנאמר כי בגלל הדבר הזה תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל גלגל הוא שחוזר בעולם אמר רב יוסף נקיטינן האי צורבא מרבנן לא מיעני והא קא חזינן דמיעני אם איתא דמיעני אהדורי אפתחא לא מיהדר

It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Elazar HaKappar says: A person should always request divine mercy with regard to this condition of poverty, for if he does not come to a state of poverty, his son will, and if his son does not come to such a state his grandson will, as it is stated: “You shall surely give him and your heart shall not be grieved when you give to him, for due to this thing [biglal hadavar hazeh] the Lord your God will bless you in all your work and in all that you put your hand toward” (Deuteronomy 15:10). With regard to this verse, the tanna from the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Due to [biglal] this thing means that it is a wheel [galgal] that turns in the world, upon which people continuously rise and fall. Rav Yosef said: We hold that a Torah scholar will not become poor. The Gemara challenges this statement: But we see that they do become poor. The Gemara answers: Even so, if there is a Torah scholar who becomes poor, he will still never have to go around asking for charity at people’s doors.

אמר לה רבי חייא לדביתהו כי אתי עניא אקדימי ליה ריפתא כי היכי דלקדמו לבניך אמרה ליה מילט קא לייטת להו אמר לה קרא קא כתיב כי בגלל הדבר הזה ותנא דבי רבי ישמעאל גלגל הוא שחוזר בעולם תניא רבי גמליאל ברבי אומר ונתן לך רחמים ורחמך והרבך כל המרחם על הבריות מרחמין עליו מן השמים וכל שאינו מרחם על הבריות אין מרחמין עליו מן השמים

In a similar vein, the Gemara relates that Rabbi Ḥiyya said to his wife: When a poor person comes to the house, be quick to give him bread so that they will be quick to give bread to your children. She said to him: Are you cursing them, your children? He said to her: It is a verse that is written, as it says: “Due to this thing,” and the Sages expounded that it is a wheel that continuously turns in the world. Similarly, it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Gamliel, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, says: The verse that states: “And He will show you mercy and have compassion on you and multiply you” (Deuteronomy 13:18) teaches us that anyone who has compassion for God’s creatures will receive compassion from Heaven, and anyone who does not have compassion for God’s creatures will not receive compassion from Heaven.

עד אשר לא תחשך השמש והאור זו פדחת והחוטם והירח זו נשמה והכוכבים אלו הלסתות ושבו העבים אחר הגשם זו מאור עיניו של אדם שהולך אחר הבכי אמר שמואל האי דמעתא עד ארבעין שנין הדרא מכאן ואילך לא הדרא

The Gemara returns to verses from Ecclesiastes that relate to death and old age. It is written: “Before the sun and the light and the moon and the stars are darkened, and the clouds return after the rain” (Ecclesiastes 12:2). The Sages taught: “The sun and the light”; this is referring to the forehead and the nose which stick out from a person’s face. “And the moon”; this is referring to the soul, which shines within a person. “And the stars”; these are the cheeks. “And the clouds return after the rain”; this is the light of a person’s eyes, which goes and dwindles after one cries as if it were covered by clouds. Shmuel said: With regard to the tear that a person cries, until one reaches the age of forty years, one’s vision returns and is not harmed. From here on, once a person reaches the age of forty, it does not return, and every time a person cries his vision is weakened.

ואמר רב נחמן האי כוחלא עד ארבעין שנין מרווח מכאן ואילך אפילו מליא כאביסנא דגירדאי אוקומי מוקים ארווחי לא מרווח מאי קא משמע לן דכמה דאלים מכוחלא טפי מעלי

And similarly, Rav Naḥman said: With regard to medicinal eye shadow, until one reaches the age of forty years, it enhances his eyesight. From here and on, even if one fills it as thick as a weaver’s pin [avisana degirda’ei], it will maintain his eyesight but it will not enhance it. The Gemara asks about this: What is he teaching us with the example of a weaver’s pin? The Gemara answers: Generally speaking, the more eye shadow one applies, the more beneficial it is.

רבי חנינא שכיבא ליה ברתיה לא הוה קא בכי עלה אמרה ליה דביתהו תרנגולתא אפיקת מביתך אמר לה תרתי תכלא ועיורא סבר לה כי הא דאמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי יוסי בן קצרתה שש דמעות הן שלש יפות ושלש רעות של עשן ושל בכי

The Gemara relates a story: When Rabbi Ḥanina’s daughter died, he did not cry over her. His wife said to him: Have you merely let a chicken out of your house, that you do not show any signs of sorrow? He said to her: If I cry, I will suffer twice, from bereavement and from blindness. The Gemara explains: He held in accordance with the statement that Rabbi Yoḥanan said in the name of Rabbi Yosei ben Ketzarta: There are six types of tears, three of which are good for the eyes and three of which are bad. Tears that come from smoke, and from crying out of sorrow,