Shabbat 150aשבת ק״נ א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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150aק״נ א

מדוד והבא ואיכא דאמרי שאמרה מאד מאד הביא בלא מדה

Measure and bring a lot of money, has ceased. And some say that the meaning of the statement is that this nation said: Bring very, very much, without measure.

ורבו יתירה הוספת לי אמר רב יהודה אמר רב ירמיה בר אבא מלמד שרכב על ארי זכר וקשר תנין בראשו לקיים מה שנאמר וגם את חית השדה נתתי לו לעבדו:

The Gemara cites another verse pertaining to Nebuchadnezzar: “And surpassing greatness was added unto me” (Daniel 4:33), about which Rav Yehuda said that Rav Yirmeya bar Abba said: This teaches that Nebuchadnezzar rode atop a male lion and tied a serpent to its head, fulfilling what was said of him: “And the beasts of the field I have also given him to serve him” (Jeremiah 27:6).

מתני׳ לא ישכור אדם פועלים בשבת ולא יאמר אדם לחבירו לשכור לו פועלים אין מחשיכין על התחום לשכור לו פועלים ולהביא פירות אבל מחשיך הוא לשמור ומביא פירות בידו כלל אמר אבא שאול כל שאני זכאי באמירתו רשאי אני להחשיך עליו:

MISHNA: A person may not hire workers on Shabbat to work for him after Shabbat because even speaking about weekday matters is prohibited on Shabbat. Similarly, a person may not tell another on Shabbat to hire workers for him. One may not even wait for nightfall at the edge of the Shabbat boundary in order to leave the boundary immediately after Shabbat to hire workers for himself or to bring produce from his field. But he may wait for nightfall at the edge of the Shabbat boundary in order to guard his produce that is outside the Shabbat boundary, and he may then bring produce back in his hand, since he did not initially intend to wait at the edge of the boundary for this purpose. Abba Shaul stated a general principle: With regard to anything that I am permitted to discuss on Shabbat, I am permitted to wait for nightfall at the edge of the Shabbat boundary for its sake.

גמ׳ (פשיטא) מאי שנא הוא ומאי שנא חבירו אמר רב פפא חבר גוי מתקיף לה רב אשי אמירה לגוי שבות

GEMARA: The beginning of the mishna taught that one may not hire workers on Shabbat, and one may not tell another to hire workers for him. The Gemara finds this puzzling and states: This is obvious. What is the difference between him and another? Just as he is prohibited from hiring workers on Shabbat, others are also prohibited from doing so. Rav Pappa said: Another is referring to a gentile. Rav Ashi strongly objects to this: This is itself a prohibition, for telling a gentile to do something that is prohibited for a Jew on Shabbat violates a rabbinic prohibition.

אלא אמר רב אשי אפילו תימא חבירו ישראל הא קא משמע לן לא יאמר אדם לחבירו שכור לי פועלים אבל אומר אדם לחבירו הנראה שתעמוד עמי לערב ומתניתין מני כרבי יהושע בן קרחה דתניא לא יאמר אדם לחבירו הנראה שתעמוד עמי לערב רבי יהושע בן קרחה אומר אומר אדם לחבירו הנראה שתעמוד עמי לערב

Rather, Rav Ashi said: Even if you say that it is referring to another Jew, it can be said that the novel element of this ruling is not the statement itself but what can be derived from it. This is what it is teaching us: One may not say to another explicitly on Shabbat: Hire workers for me, but one may say to another: Does it seem that you will join me this evening? This is permitted even though both of them understand that the questioner intends to hire the other person to work for him. And in accordance with whose opinion is the mishna? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa; as it was taught in a baraita: A person may not say to another on Shabbat: Does it seem that you will join me this evening? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says: A person may say to another on Shabbat: Does it seem that you will join me this evening?

אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן הלכה כרבי יהושע בן קרחה ואמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן מאי טעמא דרבי יהושע בן קרחה דכתיב ממצוא חפצך ודבר דבר דיבור אסור הרהור מותר

Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa. And Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: What is the reason for Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa’s ruling? As it is written in the verse from which we derive the prohibition to speak on Shabbat about activities that one may not perform on that day: “And you shall honor it by not doing your ways, nor pursuing your business, nor speaking of it” (Isaiah 58:13). We derive from this verse that speaking is prohibited, but merely contemplating these matters is permitted.

רמי ליה רב אחא בר רב הונא לרבא מי אמר רבי יוחנן דיבור אסור הרהור מותר אלמא הרהור לאו כדיבור דמי והאמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן בכל מקום מותר להרהר חוץ מבית המרחץ ומבית הכסא שאני התם דבעינן והיה מחניך קדוש וליכא

Rav Aḥa bar Rav Huna raised a contradiction to Rava: Did Rabbi Yoḥanan really state as a general principle that speaking is prohibited, but contemplating is permitted? Consequently, we can derive from here that contemplation is not tantamount to speech. But Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: It is permitted to think about Torah in any place except for a bathhouse and a bathroom. This statement indicates that contemplation is tantamount to speech, as even thought is prohibited in these locations. The Gemara answers: It is different there, for with regard to Torah we need to fulfill the verse: “For the Lord your God walks in the midst of your camp to deliver you and to give your enemies before you; therefore, your camp shall be sacred so that He see no unseemly thing in you and turn away from you” (Deuteronomy 23:15); and the requirement to be sacred is not fulfilled if one thinks about Torah while in the bathhouse or bathroom.

הכא נמי כתיב ולא יראה בך ערות דבר ההוא מיבעי ליה לכדרב יהודה דאמר רב יהודה גוי ערום אסור לקרות קרית שמע כנגדו

The Gemara challenges this: But here, too, with regard to a bathhouse and a bathroom, it is written: “So that He see no unseemly thing [davar] in you” (Deuteronomy 23:15). We can infer that this prohibits speech [dibbur] but not contemplation. The Gemara answers: That verse is not referring to speech. It is needed for the ruling of Rav Yehuda, for Rav Yehuda said: Opposite a naked gentile, it is prohibited to recite Shema, as this is included in the prohibition of unseemly things mentioned above.

מאי איריא גוי אפילו ישראל נמי לא מיבעיא קאמר לא מיבעיא ישראל דאסור אבל גוי כיון דכתיב ביה אשר בשר חמורים בשרם אימא שפיר דמי קא משמע לן

The Gemara asks: Why did Rav Yehuda teach this prohibition particularly with regard to a gentile? Even in the presence of a naked Jew, reciting Shema is also prohibited. The Gemara answers: That ruling is stated employing the style of: There is no need. The Gemara explains: There is no need to state this halakha with regard to a Jew, as it is certainly prohibited to recite Shema in the presence of a naked Jew. However, with regard to a gentile, since it is written about him: “Whose flesh is as the flesh of donkeys” (Ezekiel 23:20), perhaps his flesh is not considered nakedness, and one may say that it seems well and permitted. Therefore, Rav Yehuda teaches us that it is also prohibited to recite Shema before a naked gentile.

אימא הכי נמי אמר קרא וערות אביהם לא ראו

The Gemara asks: Why not say that it is indeed so, that gentile flesh is not considered nakedness? The Gemara rejects this idea: The verse already said with regard to the sons of Noah: “And they walked backward and covered their father’s nakedness, and their faces were turned backward, and they did not see their father’s nakedness” (Genesis 9:23). The verse uses the term nakedness with regard to Noah, who was a gentile.

ודיבור מי אסיר והא רב חסדא ורב המנונא דאמרי תרוייהו חשבונות של מצוה מותר לחשבן בשבת ואמר רבי אלעזר פוסקים צדקה לעניים בשבת ואמר רבי יעקב בר אידי אמר רבי יוחנן מפקחין פיקוח נפש ופיקוח רבים בשבת והולכין לבתי כנסיות לפקח על עסקי רבים בשבת

The Gemara addresses the basis of the halakha mentioned above: And is it speaking about proscribed activities prohibited on Shabbat? But Rav Ḥisda and Rav Hamnuna both said: It is permitted to make calculations pertaining to a mitzva on Shabbat, and Rabbi Elazar said that this means that one may apportion charity for the poor on Shabbat. And Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One may attend to activities necessary for saving a life or for communal needs on Shabbat, and one may go to a synagogue to attend to communal affairs on Shabbat.

ואמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יוחנן הולכין לטרטיאות ולקרקסאות ולבסילקאות לפקח על עסקי רבים בשבת ותנא דבי מנשה משדכין על התינוקות ליארס בשבת ועל התינוק ללמדו ספר וללמדו אומנות אמר קרא ממצוא חפצך ודבר דבר חפציך אסורים חפצי שמים מותרין

And Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One may go to theaters [tarteiot], and circus performances [kirkesaot], and courthouses [basilkaot] to attend to communal affairs on Shabbat. And one of the Sages in the school of Menashe taught: One may make the necessary arrangements to pair off children so that they will be betrothed on Shabbat, and one may likewise make arrangements for a child by finding someone to teach him how to read books and to teach him a craft. If speaking about monetary matters is prohibited on Shabbat, how is it possible to participate in all these activities? The Gemara answers that although speaking about similar things is generally prohibited on Shabbat, it is permitted in these cases because the verse said: “Nor pursuing your business, nor speaking of it” (Isaiah 58:13), which indicates that your business matters are prohibited to speak of on Shabbat, but the business of Heaven, matters which have religious significance, is permitted to speak of.

אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל חשבונות של [מלך] ושל מה בכך מותר לחשבן בשבת תניא נמי הכי חשבונות שעברו ושעתידין להיות אסור לחשבן של מלך

Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: With regard to calculations of: What is it to you, [mallakh], calculations that are in no way relevant to the person making them, and of: What significance does it have [ma bekhakh], calculations that do not have any practical significance, it is permitted to make them on Shabbat. This was also taught in the Tosefta: Calculations with regard to matters that have passed or that will be in the future may not be calculated on Shabbat. However, with regard to calculations of: What is it to you,