Shabbat 148a:5-8שבת קמ״ח א:ה׳-ח׳
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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148aקמ״ח א

הלכה מחזירין את השבר רבה בר בר חנה איקלע לפומבדיתא לא על לפירקיה דרב יהודה שדריה לאדא דיילא אמר ליה זיל גרביה אזיל גרביה אתא אשכחיה דקא דריש אין מחזירין את השבר אמר ליה הכי אמר רב חנא בגדתאה אמר שמואל הלכה מחזירין את השבר אמר ליה הא חנא דידן והא שמואל דידן ולא שמיע לי ולאו בדינא גרבתיך:

The halakha is that one may reset a break on Shabbat, which was the ruling in Shmuel’s version of the mishna. The Gemara relates that Rabba bar bar Ḥana happened to come to Pumbedita and he did not enter Rav Yehuda’s lecture. Rav Yehuda sent for Adda, his attendant, and said to him: Go drag him to the lecture. He went and dragged him forcibly to the lecture (Rabbeinu Ḥananel). Rabba bar bar Ḥana came and found Rav Yehuda teaching that one may not reset a break on Shabbat. He said to him: This is what Rav Ḥana of Baghdad said that Shmuel said: The halakha is that one may reset a break on Shabbat. Rav Yehuda said to him: Ḥana is ours, a Babylonian scholar, and Shmuel is ours, and nevertheless, I did not yet hear this halakha; did I not rightfully drag you to the lecture?

מי שנפרקה ידו כו׳: רב אויא הוה יתיב קמיה דרב יוסף שניא ליה ידיה אמר ליה הכי מאי אסור והכי מאי אמר ליה אסור אדהכי איתפח ידיה

We learned in the mishna that one whose hand was dislocated may not treat it by vigorously moving it about in water. The Gemara relates that Rav Avya was once sitting before Rav Yosef and his hand became dislocated. Rav Avya then displayed a variety of hand positions and he said to him: What is the ruling with regard to this? Am I permitted to place my hand in this way, or is it a violation of the prohibition against healing on Shabbat? Rav Yosef said to him: It is prohibited. Rav Avya again asked: And what is the ruling if I position my hand in this way? Rav Yosef said to him: It is prohibited. In the meantime, his hand was restored to its proper location and was healed.

אמר ליה מאי תיבעי לך הא תנן מי שנפרקה ידו או רגלו לא יטרפם בצונן אבל רוחץ כדרכו ואם נתרפא נתרפא אמר ליה ולא תנן אין מחזירין את השבר ואמר רב חנא בגדתאה אמר שמואל הלכה מחזירין את השבר אמר ליה כולהו בחדא מחיתא מחיתנהו היכא דאיתמר איתמר היכא דלא איתמר לא איתמר:

Rav Yosef said to him: What is your dilemma? We learned in our mishna that one whose hand or foot was dislocated on Shabbat may not vigorously move it about in cold water; however, he may rinse it in the usual manner, and if it is healed, it is healed. Rav Avya said to him: That is no proof, as didn’t we learn in our mishna that one may not reset a break, and Rav Ḥana of Baghdad said that Shmuel said that the halakha is that one may indeed reset a broken bone. Therefore, perhaps a dislocated limb may also be treated on Shabbat. Rav Yosef said to him: Were all these woven together in a single weave? Where it was stated that an alternative version of the mishna exists, it was stated; where it was not stated, it was not stated. Therefore, the ruling of the mishna with regard to a dislocated limb must be observed.



הדרן עלך חבית

מתני׳ שואל אדם מחבירו כדי יין וכדי שמן ובלבד שלא יאמר לו הלויני וכן האשה מחבירתה ככרות ואם אינו מאמינו מניח טליתו אצלו ועושה עמו חשבון לאחר שבת וכן ערב פסח בירושלים שחל להיות בשבת מניח טליתו אצלו ונוטל את פסחו ועושה עמו חשבון לאחר יום טוב:

MISHNA: One may borrow jugs of wine and jugs of oil from another on Shabbat, as long as one does not say the following to him: Loan me. And similarly, a woman may borrow from another loaves of bread on Shabbat. And if the lender does not trust him that he will return them, the borrower may leave his cloak with him as collateral and make the proper calculation with him after Shabbat. And similarly, on the eve of Passover in Jerusalem, when it occurs on Shabbat, one who is procuring a Paschal lamb may leave his cloak with him, i.e., the person from whom he is purchasing it, and take the lamb to bring as his Paschal lamb, and then make the proper calculation with him after the Festival.

גמ׳ אמר ליה רבא בר רב חנן לאביי מאי שנא השאילני ומאי שנא הלויני אמר ליה השאילני לא אתי למיכתב הלויני אתי למיכתב

GEMARA: It was taught in the mishna that one is permitted to borrow jugs from another on Shabbat, but one may not use the phrase loan me. Rava bar Rav Ḥanan said to Abaye: What is different about the expression let me borrow, that makes it permitted? And what is different about the expression loan me that makes it prohibited? He said to him: If someone says let me borrow, the lender will not come to write down the loan because the expression indicates that the borrower intends to return the object in its current state within a short amount of time. On the other hand, the expression loan me indicates a more extended loan in which the object is not necessarily returned in exactly the same manner in which it was taken. Therefore, the lender will come to write down the terms of the loan.

והא כיון דבחול זימנין דבעי למימר ליה הלויני ואמר ליה השאילני ולא קפיד עילויה ואתי למיכתב בשבת נמי אתי למיכתב אמר ליה (בחול דלא שנא כי אמר ליה הלויני לא שנא כי אמר ליה השאילני לא קפדינן עילויה אתי למיכתב) בשבת כיון דהשאילני הוא דשרו ליה רבנן הלויני לא שרו ליה מינכרא מילתא ולא אתי למיכתב

Rava bar Rav Ḥanan challenged Abaye’s answer: But since on weekdays there are times one intends to say loan me and instead says let me borrow, and the lender is not particular about his imprecise terminology and he comes to write down the terms of the loan, on Shabbat he will also come to write. Abaye said to him: On a weekday, when there is no difference if one says loan me or let me borrow, lenders are not particular about his terminology, and the lender will therefore come to write down the terms of the loan. On Shabbat, since only the expression let me borrow was allowed by the Sages, while the expression loan me was not permitted, the matter is recognizable. Both of the parties must bear in mind which terminology is acceptable, and the lender will not come to write.

אמר ליה רבא בר רב חנן לאביי מכדי אמרו רבנן כל מילי דיום טוב כמה דאפשר לשנויי משנינן הני נשי דמליין חצבייהו מיא מאי טעמא לא משנין משום דלא אפשר היכי לעבדי דמליין בחצבא רבא לימלו בחצבא זוטא הא קא מפשו בהילוכא דמליין בחצבא זוטא לימלו בחצבא רבא קא מפשו במשוי

Rava bar Rav Ḥanan said to Abaye: Now, since the Sages said that with regard to all matters of a Festival, as much as we can change the way we do things from the manner in which we do them on weekdays, we change, these women who fill their pitchers with water, what is the reason they do not change the way they draw water from their normal weekday procedure? Abaye answers: Because it is not possible to change the procedure. How would they do it differently? If you say that those who normally fill a large pitcher should fill a small pitcher on a Festival, they would thereby add to their walking and expend extra effort. Conversely, if those who normally fill a small pitcher would fill a large pitcher on a Festival, they would thereby add to the weight of their load. Even though these methods are different from the norm, they would cause added exertion. Therefore, the Sages did not require that one draw water in an unusual fashion.