Shabbat 147aשבת קמ״ז א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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147aקמ״ז א

המנער טליתו בשבת חייב חטאת ולא אמרן אלא בחדתי אבל בעתיקי לית לן בה ולא אמרן אלא באוכמי אבל בחיורי וסומקי לית לן בה והוא דקפיד עלייהו

One who shakes his cloak on Shabbat to remove dust that collected on it is liable to bring a sin-offering for violating the prohibition of laundering. The Gemara qualifies this ruling: We only stated this halakha with regard to new garments, but with regard to old garments, we have no problem with this behavior. And we only stated this with regard to black garments, but with regard to white or red garments, we have no problem, as shaking off the dust would not be prohibited. And this prohibition applies only when one is particular about keeping them clean, but if one does not insist on wearing clean garments, we have no problem with it, i.e., it is not prohibited to shake off the dust.

עולא איקלע לפומבדיתא חזא רבנן דקא מנפצי גלימייהו אמר קמחללין רבנן שבתא אמר להו רב יהודה נפוצי ליה באפיה אנן לא קפדינן מידי

The Gemara relates that Ulla happened to come to Pumbedita, and while there he saw rabbis shaking their cloaks to remove dust. He said: The Rabbis are desecrating Shabbat. Rav Yehuda said to the Rabbis whom Ulla criticized: You may continue to shake your cloaks in his presence. We are not at all particular about this, and it is therefore permitted for us to shake the dust from our cloaks.

אביי הוה קאי קמיה דרב יוסף אמר ליה הב לי כומתאי [חזא דאיכא] טלא עליה הוה קמחסם למיתבה ליה אמר ליה נפוץ שדי אנן לא קפדינן מידי

The Gemara also relates that Abaye was standing before Rav Yosef. Rav Yosef said to him: Give me my hat. Abaye saw that there was dew on it, and he hesitated to give it to him, because he feared violating a prohibition by shaking off the dew. Rav Yosef said to him: Shake off the dew and throw me the hat; we are not at all particular about the cleanliness of the hat, and it is therefore permitted to shake off the dew.

אמר רב יצחק בר יוסף אמר רבי יוחנן היוצא בטלית מקופלת מונחת לו על כתיפו בשבת חייב חטאת תניא נמי הכי סוחרי כסות היוצאים בטליתות מקופלות ומונחות על כתיפן בשבת חייבין חטאת ולא סוחרי כסות בלבד אמרו אלא כל אדם אלא שדרכן של מוכרין לצאת כך

Rav Yitzḥak bar Yosef said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One who goes out with a cloak folded and resting on his shoulder on Shabbat is liable to bring a sin-offering for carrying in the public domain. This ruling was also taught in a baraita: Clothing merchants who go outs with cloaks folded and resting on their shoulders on Shabbat are liable to bring a sin-offering. And they did not say this only with regard to clothing merchants; rather, any person is liable for this transgression, and they only stated the halakha in these terms because it is the usual manner for merchants to go out this way.

וחנוני היוצא במעות הצרורין לו בסדינו חייב חטאת ולא חנוני בלבד אמרו אלא כל אדם אלא שדרכו של חנוני לצאת כך והרטנין יוצאין בסודרין שעל כתיפן ולא רטנין בלבד אמרו אלא כל אדם אלא שדרכן של רטנין לצאת בכך

And likewise, a shopkeeper who goes out with coins bound in his cloak is liable to bring a sin-offering. And they did not say this only with regard to a shopkeeper; rather, any person is liable for this, and they only stated the halakha in these terms because it is the usual manner of a shopkeeper to go out this way. And runners, i.e., foot messengers, may go out on Shabbat with scarves on their shoulders, because this is how they typically wear them. And they did not say this only with regard to runners; rather, any person is permitted to do this, but it is simply the usual manner of runners to go out this way.

אמר רבי יהודה מעשה בהורקנוס בנו של רבי אליעזר בן הורקנוס שיצא בסודר שעל כתיפו בשבת אלא שנימא כרוכה לו באצבעו וכשבא הדבר לפני חכמים אמרו אפילו אין נימא כרוכה לו באצבעו דרש רב נחמן בר רב חסדא משמיה דרב חסדא הלכה אף על פי שאין נימא כרוכה לו באצבעותיו

Rabbi Yehuda said: There was an incident involving Hyrcanus, son of Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, who went outside with a scarf on his shoulder on Shabbat. However, a thread from the garment was tied around his finger so that the garment would not fall. When this matter came before the Sages, they said: It is permitted to go out in that manner even if a thread is not tied around one’s finger. And likewise, Rav Naḥman bar Rav Ḥisda taught in the name of Rav Ḥisda: The halakha is that one may go outside with a garment around one’s shoulders even if a thread from the garment is not tied around one’s finger.

עולא איקלע לבי אסי בר היני בעו מיניה מהו לעשות מרזב בשבת אמר להו הכי אמר רבי אלעי אסור לעשות מרזב בשבת מאי מרזב אמר רבי זירא כיסי בבלייתא

Ulla happened to come to the house of Asi bar Hini. The members of the household asked him: What is the halakha: Is it permitted to make a spout of one’s garment on Shabbat? Ulla said to them that this is what Rabbi Elai said: It is prohibited to make a spout on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: What is the spout referred to here? Rabbi Zeira said: It is referring to Babylonian pockets, which were formed by lifting up the bottom of the cloaks and tying them to their shoulders to make pocket-like folds in their garments.

רבי ירמיה הוה יתיב קמיה דרבי זירא אמר ליה הכי מאי אמר ליה אסור והכי מאי אמר ליה אסור אמר רב פפא נקוט האי כללא בידך כל אדעתא דלכנופי אסור כל דלהתנאות שרי כי הא דרב שישא בריה דרב אידי מתנאה בסדינו הוה

The Gemara relates that Rabbi Yirmeya was sitting before Rabbi Zeira and showed him a certain fold and said to him: What is the halakha with regard to this kind of fold on Shabbat? He said to him: It is prohibited to make it on Shabbat. He then showed him another fold and asked: And what is the halakha with regard to this? He said to him: It is prohibited. Rav Pappa said: Grasp this principle: Any fold made to gather one’s clothing from the ground is prohibited, and any fold that is merely to beautify oneself is permitted, as the precedent of Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, who was beautifying himself with his garment by folding it on his shoulders.

כי אתא רב דימי אמר פעם אחת יצא רבי לשדה והיו שני צידי טליתו מונחין על כתיפו אמר לפניו יהושע בן זירוז בן חמיו של רבי מאיר בזו לא חייב רבי מאיר חטאת אמר ליה דקדק רבי מאיר עד כאן שלשל רבי טליתו

When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said: On one occasion, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi went out into a field, and the two sides of his cloak were resting on his shoulders. Yehoshua ben Zeiruz, son of the father-in-law of Rabbi Meir, said before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: In a case like this, didn’t Rabbi Meir hold one liable to bring a sin-offering? Rabbi said to him: Was Rabbi Meir exacting to that extent, i.e., he considered wearing a garment in this fashion to be carrying on Shabbat? If so, it is preferable to avoid questionable practices; immediately Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi lowered his cloak from his shoulders.

כי אתא רבין אמר לא יהושע בן זירוז הוה אלא יהושע בן כפוסאי היה חתנו של רבי עקיבא אמר בזו לא חייב רבי עקיבא חטאת אמר לו דקדק רבי עקיבא עד כאן שלשל רבי טליתו כי אתא רב שמואל בר רב יהודה אמר נשאל איתמר:

When Ravin came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said: It was not Yehoshua ben Zeiruz; rather, it was Yehoshua ben Kefusai, Rabbi Akiva’s son-in-law, and he said: In a case like this, didn’t Rabbi Akiva hold one liable to bring a sin-offering? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: Was Rabbi Akiva exacting to that extent? If so, it is preferable to avoid questionable practices. Immediately, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi lowered his cloak from his shoulders. When Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yehuda came, he said: This is not what happened, as Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi himself did not wear his cloak folded up on his shoulders on Shabbat. Rather it was stated that Rabbi was asked, meaning that this question came before him, and he wanted to rule leniently, until he was informed that some of the greatest Sages of the generation ruled stringently.

מתני׳ הרוחץ במי מערה ובמי טבריא ונסתפג אפילו בעשר אלונטיאות לא יביאם בידו אבל עשרה בני אדם מסתפגין באלונטית אחת פניהם ידיהם ורגליהם ומביאין אותן בידן

MISHNA: One who bathes on Shabbat in a ritual bath formed by cave water or in the water of Tiberias and dried himself even with ten towels may not carry them in his hand, lest he forget that it is Shabbat and wring the water from them. However, ten people may use one towel to dry their faces, hands, and feet, and may carry them in their hands. Even though in this case the towel would be quite wet, it is permitted to handle the towel because there are several people present, and they will remind each other that it is prohibited to wring a towel on Shabbat.

סכין וממשמשין אבל לא מתעמלין ולא מתגררין אין יורדין לקורדימא ואין עושין אפיקטויזין ואין מעצבין את הקטן ואין מחזירין את השבר מי שנפרקה ידו ורגלו לא יטרפם בצונן אבל רוחץ הוא כדרכו ואם נתרפא נתרפא:

Apropos the waters of Tiberias, the mishna discusses the halakhot of bathing and medicine on Shabbat. One may smear oil on his body and gently rub his body with his hand; however, one may not exert himself with vigorous massage or by means of exercise in order to benefit from the therapeutic effects of sweating; and one may not scrape the oil off with a scraper. Additionally, one may not go into a swampy river [kurdima], on Shabbat. And one may not make a drug to induce vomiting, nor may one align a young infant’s bones to straighten them, nor may one reset a break in a bone. One whose hand or foot was dislocated may not move them about vigorously in cold water, which is the standard method of treatment; however, one may wash the limb in the typical manner, and if one is cured through this washing, he is cured.

גמ׳ קתני מי מערה דומיא דמי טבריא מה מי טבריא חמין אף מי מערה חמין הרוחץ דיעבד אין לכתחילה לא מכלל

GEMARA: The tanna of the mishna teaches the case of cave water that is similar to the case of water of Tiberias; just as the water of Tiberias is hot, so too the cave water is hot. The Gemara also infers from the formulation of the mishna: With regard to one who bathes, after the fact, yes, one may dry himself; however, one may not bathe ab initio, as had the mishna intended to permit bathing ab initio it would have said: One may bathe in cave water. This proves by inference