בְּדָבָר אַחֵר — קָשֶׁה לְדָבָר אַחֵר. something else, a euphemism for a pig, it is harmful with regard to something else, a euphemism for leprosy.
רַב וּשְׁמוּאֵל דְּאָמְרִי תַּרְוַיְיהוּ: הַאי מַאן דְּעָבֵיד מִילְּתָא — לִישְׁהֵי פּוּרְתָּא וַהֲדַר לֵיקוּם — דְּאָמַר מָר: חֲמִשָּׁה דְּבָרִים קְרוֹבִין לְמִיתָה יוֹתֵר מִן הַחַיִּים, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן: אָכַל וְעָמַד, שָׁתָה וְעָמַד, יָשֵׁן וְעָמַד, הִקִּיז דָּם וְעָמַד, שִׁימֵּשׁ מִטָּתוֹ וְעָמַד. It was Rav and Shmuel who both said: With regard to one who performs the practice of bloodletting, let him wait a bit and then let him rise, as the Master said: There are five matters that render one closer to death than life, and they are these: If one ate and immediately rose, if one drank and rose, if one slept and immediately rose, if one let blood and rose, if one engaged in conjugal relations and rose.
אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל: פּוּרְסָא דִדְמָא — כֹּל תְּלָתִין יוֹמִין. וּבֵין הַפְּרָקִים — יְמַעֵט, וּבֵין הַפְּרָקִים יַחְזוֹר וִימַעֵט. Shmuel said: The interval for bloodletting is every thirty days. And during the middle periods of one’s life, he should decrease the frequency of bloodletting; and during the later periods, he should decrease its frequency again.
וְאָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל: פּוּרְסָא דִדְמָא — חַד בְּשַׁבְּתָא, אַרְבָּעָה, וּמַעֲלֵי שַׁבְּתָא, אֲבָל שֵׁנִי וַחֲמִישִׁי — לָא. דְּאָמַר מָר: מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ זְכוּת אָבוֹת יַקִּיז דָּם בְּשֵׁנִי וּבַחֲמִישִׁי, שֶׁבֵּית דִּין שֶׁל מַעְלָה וְשֶׁל מַטָּה שָׁוִין כְּאֶחָד. And Shmuel said: The times for bloodletting are the first day of the week, the fourth day of the week and Shabbat eve. However, on the second and the fifth days of the week, no, one should not let blood, as the Master said: Only one who has the merit of his ancestors and relies on it should let blood on the second and on the fifth days of the week, as the court on High, in the heavens, and the court below are equal. The courts in the cities convene on Mondays and Thursdays, as does the heavenly court. Letting blood on a day of judgment is dangerous. If one is judged unfavorably all his blood could flow out.
בִּתְלָתָא בְּשַׁבְּתָא מַאי טַעְמָא לָא? מִשּׁוּם דְּקָיְימָא לֵיהּ מַאְדִּים בְּזָוֵוי. מַעֲלֵי שַׁבְּתָא נָמֵי קָיְימָא בְּזָוֵוי! כֵּיוָן דְּדָשׁוּ בֵּיהּ רַבִּים — ״שׁוֹמֵר פְּתָאִים ה׳״. The Gemara explains: On the third day of the week, what is the reason that one does not let blood? It is because the planet Mars is dominant during the even hours. Since it is a planet of blood, and the even hours are a bad omen, that combination gives cause for concern. The Gemara asks: On Shabbat eve, Mars also dominates during the even hours. The Gemara answers: Since the multitudes have already become accustomed to letting blood on Shabbat eve, the verse: “The Lord protects the simple-hearted” (Psalms 116:6) applies in this case.
אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל: אַרְבַּע דְּהוּא אַרְבַּע, אַרְבַּע דְּהוּא אַרְבֵּיסַר, אַרְבַּע דְּהוּא עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבְּעָה, אַרְבַּע דְּלֵיכָּא אַרְבַּע בָּתְרֵיהּ — סַכַּנְתָּא. Similarly, Shmuel says: On the fourth day of the week that is the fourth day of the month; on the fourth day of the week that is the fourteenth of the month; on the fourth day of the week that is the twenty-fourth of the month; and on the fourth day of the week after which there are not four days remaining in the month it is dangerous to let blood.
רֹאשׁ חוֹדֶשׁ וְשֵׁנִי לוֹ — חוּלְשָׁא. שְׁלִישִׁי לוֹ — סַכָּנָה. מַעֲלֵי יוֹמָא טָבָא — חוּלְשָׁא. מַעֲלֵי יוֹמָא דַעֲצַרְתָּא — סַכַּנְתָּא. וּגְזַרוּ רַבָּנַן אַכּוּלְּהוּ מַעֲלֵי יוֹמָא טָבָא מִשּׁוּם יוֹמָא (טָבָא) דַעֲצַרְתָּא, דְּנָפֵיק בֵּיהּ זִיקָא וּשְׁמֵיהּ ״טָבוֹחַ״, דְּאִי לָא קַבִּלוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל תּוֹרָה — הֲוָה טָבַח לְהוּ לְבִשְׂרַיְיהוּ וְלִדְמַיְיהוּ. Bloodletting on the New Moon and on the second day of the month causes weakness; bloodletting on the third day of the month leads to danger. Bloodletting on the eve of a Festival causes weakness; bloodletting on the eve of the festival of Shavuot leads to danger. And the Sages issued a decree prohibiting bloodletting on the eve of every Festival due to the festival of Shavuot. On Shavuot, an evil spirit named Tibbuaḥ, from the Hebrew word meaning slaughter, emerges, as had the Jewish people not accepted the Torah on the festival of Shavuot, Tibbuaḥ would have slaughtered their flesh and their blood. Consequently, it remains a dangerous day.
אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל: אָכַל חִטָּה וְהִקִּיז דָּם — לֹא הִקִּיז אֶלָּא לְאוֹתָהּ חִטָּה. וְהָנֵי מִילֵּי לִרְפוּאָה, אֲבָל אַקּוֹלֵי — מֵיקֵיל. Shmuel said: If one ate wheat and afterward let blood, he only let that wheat. The bloodletting was ineffective as the wheat replaced any blood that was let. And this ineffectiveness applies only if he let blood to cure an illness; however, to relieve discomfort, bloodletting after eating wheat relieves one’s discomfort.
הַמַּקִּיז דָּם, שְׁתִיָּיה — לְאַלְתַּר. אֲכִילָה — עַד חֲצִי מִיל. One who lets blood should engage in drinking immediately; he should not engage in eating until the time that it takes to walk half a mil has elapsed.
אִיבַּעְיָא לְהוּ: שְׁתִיָּיה לְאַלְתַּר מְעַלֵּי, אֲבָל בָּתַר הָכִי קָשֵׁי, אוֹ דִילְמָא לָא קָשֵׁי וְלָא מְעַלֵּי? תֵּיקוּ. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: When they said that one should engage in drinking immediately, does that mean that drinking immediately is beneficial; however, thereafter, it is injurious? Or perhaps, thereafter it is neither injurious nor beneficial. No resolution is found for this dilemma, therefore it stands unresolved.
אִיבַּעְיָא לְהוּ: אֲכִילָה עַד חֲצִי מִיל הוּא דְּקָמְעַלֵּי, הָא בָּתַר הָכִי וּמִקַּמֵּי הָכִי — קָשֵׁי, אוֹ דִילְמָא לָא קָשֵׁי וְלָא מְעַלֵּי? תֵּיקוּ. Similarly, a dilemma was raised before the Sages: When they said one should not engage in eating until the time that it takes to walk half a mil has elapsed, does that mean that only at that time it is beneficial, however, after that time or before that time it is injurious? Or perhaps, before and after that time it is neither injurious nor beneficial. No resolution is found for this dilemma, therefore it too stands unresolved.
מַכְרִיז רַב: מֵאָה קַרֵי בְּזוּזָא, מֵאָה רֵישֵׁי בְּזוּזָא, מֵאָה שְׂפָמֵי וְלָא כְלוּם. אָמַר רַב יוֹסֵף: כִּי הֲוֵינַן בֵּי רַב הוּנָא, יוֹמָא דִּמְפַגְּרִי בֵּיהּ רַבָּנַן, אָמְרִי: הָאִידָּנָא יוֹמָא דִשְׂפָמֵי הוּא, וְלָא יָדַעְנָא מַאי קָאָמְרִי. Rav would announce: One hundred bloodlettings for a zuz; cutting the hair on one hundred heads for a zuz; grooming one hundred moustaches does not cost anything (ge’onim). Blood letters typically served as barbers as well and did not charge for grooming a moustache. If one hundred men happened to arrive one day to have their moustaches groomed, the barber would work all day without receiving any pay. Rav Yosef said: When we were students in Rav Huna’s school, on a day when the Sages were sluggish in their studies, they would say: Today is the day of the moustaches, and I did not know what they were saying. Now that I heard Rav’s statement, I understand that they meant that it was a day without purpose.
וְקוֹשְׁרִין הַטַּבּוּר. תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: קוֹשְׁרִין הַטַּבּוּר. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר: אַף חוֹתְכִין. וְטוֹמְנִין הַשִּׁלְיָא כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּחַם הַוָּלָד. אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל: בְּנוֹת מְלָכִים — טוֹמְנוֹת בִּסְפָלִים שֶׁל שֶׁמֶן, בְּנוֹת עֲשִׁירִים — בִּסְפוֹגִים שֶׁל צֶמֶר, בְּנוֹת עֲנִיִּים בְּמוֹכִין. We learned in the mishna: And one may tie the umbilical cord of a child born on Shabbat. The Sages taught similarly in the Tosefta and even added to it: One may tie the umbilical cord of a child born on Shabbat. Rabbi Yosei said: One may even cut the umbilical cord. And one may insulate the placenta as a healing remedy so as to warm the newborn. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: Princesses insulate the placenta in mugs of oil; the daughters of the wealthy do so in combed wool; the daughters of the poor in soft rags.
אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן אָמַר רַבָּה בַּר אֲבוּהּ אָמַר רַב: הֲלָכָה כְּרַבִּי יוֹסֵי. Rav Naḥman said that Rabba bar Avuh said that Rav said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei that it is even permitted to cut the umbilical cord on Shabbat.
וְאָמַר רַב נַחְמָן אָמַר רַבָּה בַּר אֲבוּהּ אָמַר רַב: מוֹדִים חֲכָמִים לְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּטַבּוּר שֶׁל שְׁנֵי תִינוֹקוֹת, שֶׁחוֹתְכִין. מַאי טַעְמָא? דִּמְנַתְּחִי אַהֲדָדֵי. And Rav Naḥman said that Rabba bar Avuh said that Rav said: The Rabbis concede to Rabbi Yosei with regard to the umbilical cord attached to twin babies that one may cut it on Shabbat. What is the reason for this? In that case, leaving the cord attached is dangerous. Since the attached twins will try to disengage from each other, they could potentially rip each other’s cords.
וְאָמַר רַב נַחְמָן אָמַר רַבָּה בַּר אֲבוּהּ אָמַר רַב: כׇּל הָאָמוּר בְּפָרָשַׁת תּוֹכָחָה עוֹשִׂין לְחַיָּה בְּשַׁבָּת. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וּמוֹלְדוֹתַיִךְ בְּיוֹם הוּלֶּדֶת אוֹתָךְ לֹא כׇרַּת שׇׁרֵּךְ וּבְמַיִם לֹא רֻחַצְתְּ לְמִשְׁעִי וְהׇמְלֵחַ לֹא הֻמְלַחַתְּ וְהׇחְתֵּל לֹא חֻתָּלְתְּ״. And Rav Naḥman said that Rabba bar Avuh said that Rav said: Everything stated in the passage of rebuke (Ezekiel 16) one may perform for a woman in childbirth on Shabbat. Since that chapter speaks of the dangerous birth of an abandoned child, for all other children, these issues should be addressed. As it is stated there: “And as for your birth, on the day you were born, your navel was not cut, and you were not washed in water for cleansing, and you were not salted, nor were you swaddled” (Ezekiel 16:4).
״וּמוֹלְדוֹתַיִךְ בְּיוֹם הוּלֶּדֶת״ — מִכָּאן שֶׁמְיַילְּדִים אֶת הַוָּלָד בְּשַׁבָּת. ״לֹא כׇרַּת שׇׁרֵּךְ״ — מִכָּאן שֶׁחוֹתְכִין הַטַּבּוּר בְּשַׁבָּת. ״וּבְמַיִם לֹא רֻחַצְתְּ לְמִשְׁעִי״ — מִכָּאן שֶׁרוֹחֲצִין הַוָּלָד בְּשַׁבָּת. ״וְהׇמְלֵחַ לֹא הֻמְלַחַתְּ״ — מִכָּאן שֶׁמּוֹלְחִין הַוָּלָד בְּשַׁבָּת. ״וְהׇחְתֵּל לֹא חֻתָּלְתְּ״ — מִכָּאן שֶׁמְּלַפְּפִין הַוָּלָד בְּשַׁבָּת. The Gemara explains: “And as for your birth, on the day you were born”; from here it is derived that one delivers the newborn on Shabbat. “Your navel was not cut”; from here it is derived that one cuts the umbilical cord on Shabbat. “And you were not washed in water for cleansing”; from here it is derived that one washes the newborn on Shabbat. “And you were not salted”; from here it is derived that one salts the newborn on Shabbat. “Nor were you swaddled”; from here it is derived that one swaddles the newborn on Shabbat.
הדרן עלך מפנין