״צְרִיכָה אֲנִי״, בֵּין לֹא אָמְרָה ״צְרִיכָה אֲנִי״ — אֵין מְחַלְּלִין עָלֶיהָ אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת.
I need Shabbat to be desecrated, or whether she did not say: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, one does not desecrate Shabbat for her.
רַב אָשֵׁי מַתְנֵי הָכִי. מָר זוּטְרָא מַתְנֵי הָכִי: אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל: חַיָּה כׇּל זְמַן שֶׁהַקֶּבֶר פָּתוּחַ, בֵּין אָמְרָה ״צְרִיכָה אֲנִי״, וּבֵין אָמְרָה ״אֵין צְרִיכָה אֲנִי״ — מְחַלְּלִין עָלֶיהָ אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת. נִסְתַּם הַקֶּבֶר, אָמְרָה ״צְרִיכָה אֲנִי״ — מְחַלְּלִין עָלֶיהָ אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת. לֹא אָמְרָה ״צְרִיכָה אֲנִי״ — אֵין מְחַלְּלִין עָלֶיהָ אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת.
That is how Rav Ashi taught it. This is how Mar Zutra taught it: Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: With regard to a woman in childbirth, as long as the womb is open, whether she said: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, or whether she did not say: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, one desecrates Shabbat for her. Once the womb closed after birth, if she said: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, one desecrates Shabbat for her. If she did not say: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, and all the more so if she said: I do not need Shabbat to be desecrated, one does not desecrate Shabbat for her.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ רָבִינָא לְמָרִימָר: מָר זוּטְרָא מַתְנֵי לְקוּלָּא, וְרַב אָשֵׁי מַתְנֵי לְחוּמְרָא, הִלְכְתָא כְּמַאן? אֲמַר לֵיהּ: הֲלָכָה כְּמָר זוּטְרָא, סָפֵק נְפָשׁוֹת לְהָקֵל.
Ravina said to Mareimar: Since Mar Zutra teaches leniently, and Rav Ashi teaches stringently, in accordance with whose opinion is the halakha? Mareimar said to him: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Mar Zutra, based on the following principle: In cases of uncertainty concerning a life-threatening situation, the halakha is lenient.
מֵאֵימָתַי פְּתִיחַת הַקֶּבֶר? אָמַר אַבָּיֵי: מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁתֵּשֵׁב עַל הַמַּשְׁבֵּר. רַב הוּנָא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַב יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אָמַר: מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁהַדָּם שׁוֹתֵת וְיוֹרֵד, וְאָמְרִי לַהּ מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁחַבְרוֹתֶיהָ נוֹשְׂאוֹת אוֹתָהּ בַּאֲגַפֶּיהָ.
With regard to the matter of the open womb, the Gemara asks: From when is it considered that the opening of the womb has begun? Abaye says: It begins from when the woman sits on the travailing chair. Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: It begins from when the blood flows and descends; and others say when her friends need to carry her by her arms, as she can no longer walk on her own.
עַד מָתַי פְּתִיחַת הַקֶּבֶר? אָמַר אַבָּיֵי: שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים. רָבָא אָמַר מִשְּׁמֵיהּ דְּרַב יְהוּדָה: שִׁבְעָה, וְאָמְרִי לַהּ: שְׁלֹשִׁים.
The Gemara asks: Until when does the opening of the womb continue? Abaye said: It lasts three days. Rava said in the name of Rav Yehuda: It lasts seven days. And others say: It lasts thirty days.
אָמְרִי נְהַרְדָּעֵי: חַיָּה שְׁלֹשָׁה שִׁבְעָה וּשְׁלֹשִׁים. שְׁלֹשָׁה, בֵּין אָמְרָה ״צְרִיכָה אֲנִי״, וּבֵין אָמְרָה ״לֹא צְרִיכָה אֲנִי״ — מְחַלְּלִין עָלֶיהָ אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת. שִׁבְעָה, אָמְרָה ״צְרִיכָה אֲנִי״ — מְחַלְּלִין עָלֶיהָ אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת, אָמְרָה ״לֹא צְרִיכָה אֲנִי״ — אֵין מְחַלְּלִין עָלֶיהָ אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת. שְׁלֹשִׁים, אֲפִילּוּ אָמְרָה ״צְרִיכָה אֲנִי״ — אֵין מְחַלְּלִין עָלֶיהָ אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת, אֲבָל עוֹשִׂין עַל יְדֵי אַרְמַאי.
The Sages of Neharde’a say: For a woman in childbirth, there are halakhic distinctions between three, seven, and thirty days after she gives birth. The Gemara elaborates: During the first three days after birth, whether she said: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, or whether she did not say: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, one desecrates Shabbat for her. Between three and seven days after birth, if she said: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, one desecrates Shabbat for her. If she did not say: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, one does not desecrate Shabbat for her. Between seven and thirty days after birth, even if she said: I need Shabbat to be desecrated, one does not desecrate Shabbat for her; however, we perform all necessary prohibited labors by means of a gentile.
כִּדְרַב עוּלָּא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַב עִילַּאי, דְּאָמַר: כׇּל צׇרְכֵי חוֹלֶה נַעֲשִׂין עַל יְדֵי אַרְמַאי בְּשַׁבָּת, וְכִדְרַב הַמְנוּנָא, דְּאָמַר רַב הַמְנוּנָא: דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ סַכָּנָה — אוֹמֵר לְגוֹי וְעוֹשֶׂה.
This ruling is in accordance with the statement of Rav Ulla, son of Rav Ilai, who said: All needs of a sick person whose life is not in danger are performed by means of a gentile on Shabbat. And this ruling is in accordance with the opinion of Rav Hamnuna, as Rav Hamnuna says: With regard to a matter in which there is no danger, but only potential illness, one says to the gentile to perform the act, and the gentile performs the act.
אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל: לְחַיָּה שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם. לְמַאי הִלְכְתָא? אָמְרִי נְהַרְדָּעֵי: לִטְבִילָה.
Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: For a woman in childbirth, there is a halakha of thirty days. The Gemara asks: With regard to what halakha was this stated? The Sages of Neharde’a say: It was stated with regard to the halakha of immersion. A woman does not purify herself through ritual immersion within thirty days of giving birth because she is in a weakened state and susceptible to catching cold.
אָמַר רָבָא: לָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין בַּעְלָהּ עִמָּהּ, אֲבָל בַּעְלָהּ עִמָּהּ — בַּעְלָהּ מְחַמְּמָה. כִּי הָא דִּבְרַתֵּיה דְּרַב חִסְדָּא טְבַלָה בְּגוֹ תְּלָתִין יוֹמִין שֶׁלֹּא בִּפְנֵי בַּעְלָהּ וְאִצְטְנִיאַת, וְאַמְטְיוּהָא לְעַרְסַהּ בָּתְרֵיהּ דְּרָבָא לְפוּמְבְּדִיתָא.
Rava said: We say that the ruling that she does not immerse during that period applies only when her husband is not with her. However, if her husband is with her, her husband warms her by engaging in relations with her, and she is not susceptible to catching cold, as is illustrated in this incident involving the daughter of Rav Ḥisda, Rava’s wife. She immersed within thirty days of giving birth, not in the presence of her husband, and caught cold, and afterward they brought her funeral bier after Rava to Pumbedita.
אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל: עוֹשִׂין מְדוּרָה לְחַיָּה בְּשַׁבָּת בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים. סְבוּר מִינָּה לְחַיָּה — אִין, לַחוֹלֶה — לָא, בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים — אִין, בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה — לָא. וְלָא הִיא, לָא שְׁנָא חַיָּה וְלָא שְׁנָא חוֹלֶה, לָא שְׁנָא בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים וְלָא שְׁנָא בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה. מִדְּאִתְּמַר, אָמַר רַב חִיָּיא בַּר אָבִין אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל: הִקִּיז דָּם וְנִצְטַנֵּן — עוֹשִׂין לוֹ מְדוּרָה אֲפִילּוּ בִּתְקוּפַת תַּמּוּז.
Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: One builds a fire for a woman in childbirth on Shabbat during the rainy season. The Sages thought to infer from here the following: For a woman in childbirth, yes, one builds a fire; for sick people, no, he does not build a fire. In the rainy season, yes, one builds a fire; in the summer, no, he does not build a fire. And the Gemara concludes: That is not the case. There is no difference between a woman in childbirth and a sick person, and there is no difference between the rainy season and the summer. In all of these cases one may build a fire on Shabbat. This conclusion emerges from that which was stated: Rav Ḥiyya bar Avin said that Shmuel said: With regard to one who let blood and caught cold, one makes a fire for him even during the season of Tammuz, i.e., the summer. Failure to do so could result in serious illness.
שְׁמוּאֵל צַלַּחוּ לֵיהּ תַּכְתָּקָא דְשָׁאגָא, רַב יְהוּדָה צַלַּחוּ לֵיהּ פָּתוּרָא דְיוֹנָה, לְרַבָּה צַלַּחוּ לֵיהּ שַׁרְשִׁיפָא.
The Gemara relates that after Shmuel underwent bloodletting, they broke for him a wooden armchair made of teak [shaga] to build a fire. Similarly, for the sake of Rav Yehuda they broke a wooden table made of ebony [yavna], and for Rabba they broke a bench. They needed to build a fire due to the potential danger to Rabba. Since they could not find firewood, they kindled the fire with the furniture.
וַאֲמַר לֵיהּ אַבָּיֵי לְרַבָּה: וְהָא קָעָבַר מָר מִשּׁוּם ״בַּל תַּשְׁחִית״! אֲמַר לֵיהּ: ״בַּל תַּשְׁחִית״ דְּגוּפַאי עֲדִיף לִי.
And Abaye said to Rabba: In breaking the bench, didn’t the Master violate the prohibition, “Do not destroy” (Deuteronomy 20:19)? It is prohibited to destroy objects of value. Rabba said to him: Do not destroy also with regard to destruction of my body. Preventing illness and danger is preferable to me.
אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה אָמַר רַב: לְעוֹלָם יִמְכּוֹר אָדָם קוֹרוֹת בֵּיתוֹ וְיִקַּח מִנְעָלִים לְרַגְלָיו. הִקִּיז דָּם וְאֵין לוֹ מַה יֹּאכַל — יִמְכּוֹר מִנְעָלִים שֶׁבְּרַגְלָיו וְיַסְפִּיק מֵהֶן צׇרְכֵי סְעוּדָה.
With regard to the danger of bloodletting, the Gemara cites that which Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: One should always sell the beams of his house and purchase shoes for his feet with the proceeds, as shoes protect him from stepping on obstacles and from catching cold. If he let blood and has nothing to eat after the bloodletting, he should even sell the shoes on his feet, and from the proceeds provide the needs of a meal. After bloodletting, a meal is more crucial to one’s well-being than shoes are.
מַאי צׇרְכֵי סְעוּדָה? רַב אָמַר: בָּשָׂר, וּשְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר: יַיִן. רַב אָמַר: בָּשָׂר — נַפְשָׁא חֲלַף נַפְשָׁא. וּשְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר: יַיִן — סוּמָּקָא חֲלַף סוּמָּקָא.
The Gemara asks: What are these special needs of a meal? Rav said: It is referring to meat. And Shmuel said: It is referring to wine. The Gemara explains: Rav says: It is referring to meat because the soul replaces the soul, i.e., the meat replenishes the person’s strength. And Shmuel said: It is referring to wine because the red replaces the red, i.e., red wine substitutes for red blood.
A mnemonic for the names of the Sages cited in the following discussion is the word shenimsar; shin for Shmuel, nun for Rabbi Yoḥanan, mem for Rav Naḥman, samekh for Rav Yosef, reish for Rava.
שְׁמוּאֵל בְּיוֹמָא דַּעֲבַד מִילְּתָא, עָבְדִי לֵיהּ תַּבְשִׁילָא דִטְחָלֵי. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן שָׁתֵי עַד דְּנָפֵיק תִּיהְיָא מֵאוּנֵּיהּ. וְרַב נַחְמָן שָׁתֵי עַד דְּקָפֵי טְחָלֵיהּ. רַב יוֹסֵף שָׁתֵי עַד דְּנָפֵיק מֵרִיבְדָּא דְכוּסִילְתָּא. רָבָא מְהַדַּר אַחַמְרָא בַּר תְּלָתָא טַרְפֵי.
The Gemara relates the following about bloodletting and drinking wine. Shmuel, on the day on which he would perform the practice of bloodletting, they would prepare for him a dish of cooked spleen. Rabbi Yoḥanan would drink wine after bloodletting until the odor emerged from his ears. And Rav Naḥman would drink until his spleen floated in wine. Rav Yosef would drink until the wine would emerge from the bloodletting incision. Rava would search for wine that was sufficiently aged such that three leaves had already grown over three years on the vine from which the grapes were picked (Rashash).
אֲמַר לְהוּ רַב נַחְמָן בַּר יִצְחָק לְרַבָּנַן: בְּמָטוּתָא מִינַּיְיכוּ, בְּיוֹמָא דְהַקָּזָה אֱמַרוּ לְבֵיתַיְיכוּ: נַחְמָן אִקְּלַע לְגַבַּן.
Rav Naḥman bar Yitzhak said to the Sages: I beg of you, on the day that you undergo bloodletting, tell your households, your wives: Naḥman bar Yitzhak happened to come to visit us. Due to the visit of the important guest, the women will prepare a large meal. The husbands will eat well, recover from the lost blood, and avoid endangering themselves.
וְכוּלְּהוּ אִעָרוֹמֵי אֲסִירִי, בַּר מֵהַאי עׇרְמָה דִּשְׁרֵי: מַאן דְּעָבֵיד מִילְּתָא וְלָא אֶפְשָׁר לֵיהּ, לִישְׁקוֹל זוּזָא מָכָא וְלֵיזִיל לְשַׁב חַנְוָאתָא, עַד דְּטָעֵים שִׁיעוּר רְבִיעֲתָא. וְאִי לָא — לֵיכוֹל שַׁב תַּמְרֵי אוּכָּמָתָא, וְלֵישׁוּף מִישְׁחָא בְּצִידְעֵיהּ, וְנִיגְנֵי בְּשִׁמְשָׁא.
And Rav Naḥman bar Yitzhak said: All types of artifice that come at the expense of others are prohibited except for this artifice, which is permitted. One who performed the practice of bloodletting and it is not possible for him to purchase food due to lack of means, let him take a worn zuz coin and go to seven stores. In each store, he tastes the wine as one who seeks to buy wine would. After tasting, he hands the zuz to the storekeeper, who will not accept it because it is worn. He then proceeds to do the same in all the stores until he has tasted the measure of a quarter of a log of wine. And if doing so is not possible, let him eat seven black dates and smear oil on his temple and lie in the sun.
אַבְלֵט אַשְׁכְּחֵיהּ לִשְׁמוּאֵל דְּגָנֵי בְּשִׁמְשָׁא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ: חַכִּימָא דִיהוּדָאֵי, בִּישָׁא מִי הָוֵי טָבָא?! אֲמַר לֵיהּ: יוֹמָא דְהַקָּזָה הוּא.
The Gemara relates: The gentile scholar, Ablat, found Shmuel lying in the sun. Ablat said to Shmuel: Wise man of the Jews, a matter that is evil, can it become good? Are there any circumstances in which the heat of the sun, which is harmful, can be beneficial? Shmuel said to him: It happens on a day of bloodletting, for which the heat of the sun is beneficial.
וְלָא הִיא, אֶלָּא אִיכָּא יוֹמָא דִּמְעַלֵּי בֵּהּ שִׁמְשָׁא בְּכוּלַּהּ שַׁתָּא — יוֹמָא דְּנָפְלָה בֵּיהּ תְּקוּפַת תַּמּוּז. וְסָבַר: לָא אֱיגַלֵּי לֵיהּ.
The Gemara comments: And actually, that is not what occurred. Rather, there is a day on which the sun is beneficial more than the entire year, and that is the day on which the Tammuz solstice, the longest day of the year, occurs. And Shmuel thought: I will not reveal this remedy to him.
(הֵיקֵיל בְּרוּחַ טַעְמָא שָׁהָה — סִימָן) רַב וּשְׁמוּאֵל דְּאָמְרִי תַּרְוַיְיהוּ: כׇּל הַמַּקֵּיל בִּסְעוּדַת הַקָּזַת דָּם — מְקִילִּין לוֹ מְזוֹנוֹתָיו מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם, וְאוֹמְרִים: הוּא עַל חַיָּיו לֹא חָס, אֲנִי אָחוּס עָלָיו?!
Indifferent, in wind, taste, waited are a mnemonic for the following matters. It was Rav and Shmuel who both said: Anyone who is indifferent and not vigilant with regard to the meal eaten after bloodletting, they are indifferent with regard to providing his food from the Heavens. And they say in the name of Heaven: He took no pity on his life, will I take pity on him?
רַב וּשְׁמוּאֵל דְּאָמְרִי תַּרְוַיְיהוּ: הַאי מַאן דְּעָבֵיד מִילְּתָא — לָא לִיתִּיב הֵיכָא דִּכְרִיךְ זִיקָא, דִּילְמָא שָׁפֵי לֵיהּ אוּמָּנָא וּמוֹקֵים לֵיהּ אַרְבִיעֵתָא, וְאָתֵי זִיקָא וְשָׁאֵיף מִינֵּיהּ, וְאָתֵי לִידֵי סַכָּנָה.
Similarly, it was Rav and Shmuel who both said: One who performs the practice of bloodletting should not sit where the wind is blowing, due to the concern that perhaps the blood letter let too much blood from him and established the amount of remaining blood at a quarter of a log. And there is concern the wind will come and draw out a little more blood from him, and he will be endangered.
שְׁמוּאֵל הֲוָה רְגִיל דְּעָבֵיד מִילְּתָא בְּבֵיתָא דְּשַׁב לִבְנֵי וְאַרְחָא. יוֹמָא חֲדָא עֲבַד, וְאַרְגִּישׁ בְּנַפְשֵׁיהּ. בְּדַק וַחֲסַר חַד אַרְחָא.
The Gemara relates: Shmuel would customarily perform the practice of bloodletting in a house whose walls were seven and a half bricks thick. One day he performed bloodletting and felt himself weakened. He examined and discovered that one half-brick was lacking from the thickness of the walls. The resultant chill caused his weakness.
רַב וּשְׁמוּאֵל דְּאָמְרִי תַּרְוַיְיהוּ: הַאי מַאן דְּעָבֵיד מִילְּתָא — לִיטְעוֹם מִידֵּי וַהֲדַר לִיפּוֹק. דְּאִי לָא טָעֵים מִידֵּי, אִי פָּגַע בְּשָׁכְבָא — יָרְקִי אַפֵּיהּ. אִי פָּגַע בְּמַאן דְּקָטֵל נַפְשָׁא — מָיֵת. אִי פָּגַע
It was Rav and Shmuel who both said: One who performs the practice of bloodletting should taste something and then go outside, since if he does not taste anything, if he encounters a corpse, his face will turn green. If he encounters one who killed a person, he will die. If he encounters