אֲבָל לֹא אֶת הַטֶּבֶל וְכוּ׳. פְּשִׁיטָא! לָא צְרִיכָא בְּטֶבֶל טָבוּל מִדְּרַבָּנַן, שֶׁזְּרָעוֹ בְּעָצִיץ שֶׁאֵינוֹ נָקוּב.
We learned in the mishna: However, one may not move untithed produce on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: It was only necessary to teach this halakha with regard to a case in which the produce is permitted by Torah law, but is considered untithed produce only by rabbinic law. What are the circumstances? It is referring to a case where the produce grew in an unperforated flowerpot. The legal status of produce that grows in an unperforated flowerpot is not like that of produce that grows in the ground.
וְלֹא מַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן וְכוּ׳. פְּשִׁיטָא! לָא צְרִיכָא, שֶׁהִקְדִּימוֹ בִּכְרִי, שֶׁנָּטַל מִמֶּנּוּ מַעֲשֵׂר וְלֹא נִטְּלָה מִמֶּנּוּ תְּרוּמָה גְּדוֹלָה. מַהוּ דְתֵימָא כְּדַאֲמַר לֵיהּ רַב פָּפָּא לְאַבָּיֵי, קָא מַשְׁמַע לַן כִּדְשַׁנִּי לֵיהּ אַבָּיֵי.
We learned in the mishna: Nor may one move first tithe from which teruma has not been taken. The Gemara asks: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: It was only necessary for the mishna to teach this halakha for a case in which the Levite preceded the priest after the kernels of grain were placed in a pile, where first tithe was taken and teruma gedola was not taken. Lest you say concerning this case, as Rav Pappa said to Abaye, here too, the produce should be exempt from the obligation to separate teruma gedola, the tanna of the mishna teaches us as Abaye responded to Rav Pappa: There is a difference between the case in which the grain was on the stalks and the case in which the grain was in a pile.
וְלֹא אֶת מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְכוּ׳. פְּשִׁיטָא! לָא צְרִיכָא דְּנִפְדּוּ וְלֹא נִפְדּוּ כְּהִלְכָתָן. מַעֲשֵׂר — שֶׁפְּדָאוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי אֲסִימוֹן, דְּרַחֲמָנָא אָמַר ״וְצַרְתָּ הַכֶּסֶף בְּיָדְךָ״, דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ צוּרָה. הֶקְדֵּשׁ — שֶׁחִילְּלוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקַע, דְּרַחֲמָנָא אָמַר ״וְנָתַן הַכֶּסֶף וְקָם לוֹ״.
We learned in the mishna: Nor may one move second tithe and consecrated items that were not redeemed. The Gemara asks: This is obvious. It was only necessary for the mishna to teach this halakha with regard to a case where they were redeemed but not redeemed properly. When the mishna lists the second tithe, it is referring to that which was redeemed with an unminted coin [asimon], i.e., a silver bullion that had not been engraved. And God, in the Torah, states in the case of second tithe: “And bind up [vetzarta] the money in your hand” (Deuteronomy 14:25). The Sages interpreted this as follows: Vetzarta is money that has a form [tzura] engraved upon it. When the mishna lists consecrated property, it is referring to that which was redeemed by exchanging it for land instead of money. And God, in the Torah, states with regard to this: He will give the money “and it will be assured to him” (Leviticus 27:19). Money and not land may be used in redeeming consecrated property.
וְלֹא אֶת הַלּוּף. תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: מְטַלְטְלִין אֶת הֶחָצָב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מַאֲכָל לִצְבָיִים, וְאֶת הַחַרְדָּל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מַאֲכָל לְיוֹנִים. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר: אַף מְטַלְטְלִין שִׁבְרֵי זְכוּכִית מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מַאֲכָל לְנַעֲמִיּוֹת.
We learned in the mishna: Nor may one move arum on Shabbat. The Sages taught in a Tosefta: One may move squill on Shabbat because it is food for deer and mustard because it is food for doves. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: One may even move glass shards because they are food for ostriches.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי נָתָן: אֶלָּא מֵעַתָּה חֲבִילֵי זְמוֹרוֹת יְטַלְטְלוּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מַאֲכָל לְפִילִין! וְרַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל: נַעֲמִיּוֹת — שְׁכִיחִי, פִּילִין — לָא שְׁכִיחִי.
Rabbi Natan said to Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel: If that is so, even bundles of grapevines one should be permitted to move because they are food for elephants. The Gemara answers that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel responded: Ostriches are common, whereas elephants are not common.
אָמַר אַמֵּימָר: וְהוּא דְּאִית לֵיהּ נַעֲמִיּוֹת. אָמַר רַב אָשֵׁי לְאַמֵּימָר: אֶלָּא דְּקָאֲמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי נָתָן לְרַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל חֲבִילֵי זְמוֹרוֹת יְטַלְטֵל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מַאֲכָל לְפִילִין, אִי אִית לֵיהּ פִּילִין — אַמַּאי לָא? אֶלָּא רָאוּי, הָכָא נָמֵי רָאוּי.
Ameimar said: And Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel permits moving glass shards only in a case where one has ostriches. Rav Ashi said to Ameimar: However, with regard to that which Rabbi Natan said to Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel: If that is so, even bundles of grapevines one should be permitted to move because they are food for elephants. If one has elephants, why would he not feed them? The relevant criterion to permit moving the animal food is not whether or not one owns an elephant, but rather whether or not the food is suitable as food for elephants. Here too, in the case of glass shards, the criterion is whether or not they are suitable as food for ostriches, not whether or not one owns an ostrich.
אָמַר אַבָּיֵי: רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן וְרַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל וְרַבִּי עֲקִיבָא כּוּלְּהוּ סְבִירָא לְהוּ כׇּל יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּנֵי מְלָכִים הֵם.
Abaye said: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, Rabbi Shimon, Rabbi Yishmael, and Rabbi Akiva all hold that all Jewish people are princes. There is nothing that is unsuitable for them due to its extravagance. How do we know that all of them hold this position?
רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל — הָא דַּאֲמַרַן.
Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel: From that which we said in the mishna, that it is permitted to move arum, this is because arum is food for ravens, and it is as if every Jew owns ravens.
רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן — דִּתְנַן: בְּנֵי מְלָכִים סָכִין עַל גַּבֵּי מַכּוֹתֵיהֶן שֶׁמֶן וֶורֶד, שֶׁכֵּן דַּרְכָּן שֶׁל בְּנֵי מְלָכִים לָסוּךְ בַּחוֹל. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר: כׇּל יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּנֵי מְלָכִים הֵם.
Rabbi Shimon: As we learned in a mishna: Princes may smear rose oil on their wounds on Shabbat, as it is the way of princes to smear it on during the week, even without the purpose of healing a wound. Rabbi Shimon says: All the Jewish people are princes, and it is permitted for them to smear themselves with rose oil on Shabbat.
רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל וְרַבִּי עֲקִיבָא — דְּתַנְיָא: הֲרֵי שֶׁהָיוּ נוֹשִׁין בּוֹ אֶלֶף מָנֶה וְלָבוּשׁ אִיצְטְלָא בַּת מֵאָה מָנֶה — מַפְשִׁיטִין אוֹתוֹ, וּמַלְבִּישִׁין אוֹתוֹ אִיצְטְלָא הָרְאוּיָה לוֹ. תָּנָא מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל וּמִשּׁוּם רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא: כׇּל יִשְׂרָאֵל רְאוּיִן לְאוֹתָהּ אִיצְטְלָא.
Rabbi Yishmael and Rabbi Akiva: From that which was taught in a baraita: One from whom his creditors were demanding repayment of a debt of a thousand times one hundred dinar [maneh] and he was wearing a cloak [itztela] worth one hundred times one hundred dinar, they strip him of that cloak and sell it, and dress him with a cloak worthy of him based on his wealth. It was taught in the name of Rabbi Yishmael, and it was taught in the name of Rabbi Akiva: All the Jewish people are worthy of that more expensive cloak, and it cannot be said that one is unworthy of it. Rather, the coat is treated like any other vital garment. The principle that one need not sell his vital garments to pay off a debt applies to it.
חֲבִילֵי קַשׁ וַחֲבִילֵי כּוּ׳. תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: חֲבִילֵי קַשׁ וַחֲבִילֵי עֵצִים וַחֲבִילֵי זְרָדִים, אִם הִתְקִינָן לְמַאֲכַל בְּהֵמָה — מְטַלְטְלִין אוֹתָן, וְאִם לָאו — אֵין מְטַלְטְלִין אוֹתָן. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר: חֲבִילִין הַנִּיטָּלִין בְּיָד אַחַת — מוּתָּר לְטַלְטְלָן, בִּשְׁתֵּי יָדַיִם — אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָן.
We learned in the mishna: With regard to bundles of straw, and bundles of wood, and bundles of twigs, if one prepared them on Shabbat eve for animal food, one may move them. If not, one may not move them. The Sages taught in a Tosefta: With regard to bundles of straw, and bundles of wood, and bundles of twigs, if one prepared them on Shabbat eve for animal food, one may move them. And if not, one may not move them. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Bundles that are taken in one hand, it is permitted to move them, as no exertion is involved. However, if they can only be taken in two hands, it is prohibited to move them.
חֲבִילֵי סִיאָה אֵזוֹב וְקוֹרָנִית, הִכְנִיסָן לְעֵצִים — אֵין מִסְתַּפֵּק מֵהֶן בְּשַׁבָּת, לְמַאֲכַל בְּהֵמָה — מִסְתַּפֵּק מֵהֶן בְּשַׁבָּת.
With regard to bundles of savory, hyssop, and thyme, fragrant plants suitable as food for people, if one brought them in for use as firewood, he may not supply himself from them on Shabbat for food. If he brought them in for use as food for animals, he too may supply himself from them on Shabbat.
וְקוֹטֵם בַּיָּד וְאוֹכֵל, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִקְטוֹם בִּכְלִי. וּמוֹלֵל וְאוֹכֵל, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִמְלוֹל בִּכְלִי הַרְבֵּה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים: מוֹלֵל בְּרָאשֵׁי אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו וְאוֹכֵל, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִמְלוֹל בְּיָדוֹ הַרְבֵּה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בַּחוֹל.
And one may pick them with his hand and eat, as long as he does not pick them with a vessel. And one may crush and remove the seeds with his hand and eat them, as long as he does not crush a lot with a vessel; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. And the Rabbis say: One may crush them only with the ends of his fingers, in an atypical manner, as long as he does not crush a lot with his hand in the manner that he does during the week.
וְכֵן בְּאַמִּיתָא וְכֵן בְּפֵיגָם וְכֵן בִּשְׁאָר מִינֵי תַּבְלִין. מַאי אַמִּיתָא? ״נִינְיָא״. סִיאָה? אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה: (סִיאָה) ״צִתְרִי״. אֵזוֹב — ״אַבְרָתָא״. קוֹרָנִית — ״קוֹרָנִיתָא״ שְׁמָהּ.
And that too is the halakha with regard to amita, and with regard to rue [peigam], and with regard to all the other types of spices. The Sages asked: What is amita? They answered: It is mint [ninya]. What is sia? Rav Yehuda says: Sia is savory. Ezov is hyssop. Koranit is called koranita, i.e., it is not known to us by any other name.
וְהָא הָהוּא דַּאֲמַר לְהוּ: מַאן בָּעֵי קוֹרָנִיתָא? וְאִישְׁתְּכַח חָשֵׁי! אֶלָּא: סִיאָה צִתְרִי, אֵזוֹב אַבְרָתָא, קוֹרָנִיתָא חָשֵׁי.
The Gemara asks: The one who came to sell and said to them: Who wants koranita? And he was found to be selling thyme. Therefore, we see that koranita is in fact a plant that is known to us. Rather, it should be explained: Sia is savory, ezov is hyssop, and koranita is thyme.
אִיתְּמַר: בָּשָׂר מָלִיחַ מוּתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת. בָּשָׂר תָּפֵל, רַב הוּנָא אָמַר: מוּתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ, רַב חִסְדָּא אָמַר: אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ.
It was stated: It is permitted to move salted meat on Shabbat, as it is fit for consumption. With regard to unsalted meat, Rav Huna said: It is permitted to move it. Rav Ḥisda said: It is prohibited to move it.
רַב הוּנָא אָמַר מוּתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ? וְהָא רַב הוּנָא תַּלְמִיד דְּרַב הֲוָה, וְרַב כְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה סְבִירָא לֵיהּ דְּאִית לֵיהּ מוּקְצֶה?!
The Gemara asks: Did Rav Huna say that it is permitted to move it? Wasn’t Rav Huna a student of Rav, and Rav holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who is of the opinion that there is a prohibition of set-aside for salted meat? How could Rav Huna disagree with the opinion of his teacher?
בְּמוּקְצֶה לַאֲכִילָה — סָבַר לַהּ כְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה, בְּמוּקְצֶה לְטַלְטֵל — סָבַר לַהּ כְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן.
The Gemara answers: With regard to a food item set aside from eating, Rav holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, that it may not be eaten. With regard to an item set aside from moving, he holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, who is not of the opinion that there is a prohibition of set-aside, and moving it is permitted.
רַב חִסְדָּא אָמַר אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ. וְהָא רַב יִצְחָק בַּר אַמֵּי אִיקְּלַע לְבֵי רַב חִסְדָּא, וַחֲזָא הָהוּא בַּר אֲווֹזָא דַּהֲווֹ קָא מְטַלְטְלוּ לֵיהּ מִשִּׁמְשָׁא לְטוּלָּא, וְאָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: חֶסְרוֹן כִּיס קָא חָזֵינַן הָכָא! שָׁאנֵי בַּר אֲווֹזָא, דַּחֲזֵי לְאוּמְצָא.
Rav Ḥisda said: It is prohibited to move unsalted meat on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: Didn’t Rav Yitzḥak bar Ami happen to come to Rav Ḥisda’s house, and he saw the meat of that duck? He saw that they were moving it from the sun to the shade so that it would not spoil. And Rav Ḥisda said to the members of his household: We see a case of monetary loss here. One must make certain that the meat does not stay in the sun and spoil. Apparently, Rav Ḥisda holds that it is permitted to move inedible meat. The Gemara answers: The meat of a duck is different, as it is fit to be eaten as raw meat.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: דָּג מָלִיחַ — מוּתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ, דָּג תָּפֵל — אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ. בָּשָׂר, בֵּין תָּפֵל וּבֵין מָלִיחַ — מוּתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ, וּסְתָמָא כְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן.
The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to salted fish, it is permitted to move it on Shabbat. With regard to unsalted fish, it is prohibited to move it. Meat, both unsalted meat and salted meat, it is permitted to carry it. And this unattributed baraita is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: מְטַלְטְלִין אֶת הָעֲצָמוֹת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מַאֲכָל לִכְלָבִים.
The Sages taught: One may move bones on Shabbat, because they are food for dogs.