Shabbat 124bשבת קכ״ד ב
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124bקכ״ד ב

אין מוציאין את הקטן ואת הלולב ואת ספר תורה לרשות הרבים ובית הלל מתירין

One may neither carry a child nor a lulav nor a Torah scroll out to the public domain on a Festival, and Beit Hillel permit doing so. Beit Hillel permit carrying objects from one domain to another on a Festival for purposes other than preparing food.

אימר דשמעת להו לבית שמאי הוצאה טלטול מי שמעת להו וטלטול גופיה לאו משום הוצאה היא

The Gemara rejects this: Say that you heard Beit Shammai prohibit carrying out an object from one domain to another; did you hear that they prohibited moving an object? The Gemara rejects that distinction: And isn’t the prohibition of moving itself a decree issued due to the prohibition of carrying out? One who prohibits carrying out certainly prohibits moving an object as well.

ואף רב סבר לה להא דרבא דאמר רב מר שלא יגנב זהו טלטול שלא לצורך ואסור טעמא שלא יגנב אבל לצורך גופו ולצורך מקומו מותר

The Gemara adds: And even Rav holds in accordance with this halakha of Rava, as Rav said: Moving a hoe so that it will not be stolen; that is an example of moving an object not for a specific purpose, and it is prohibited. The Gemara infers: The reason that it is prohibited is that it is moved so it will not be stolen; however, for the purpose of utilizing the object itself and for the purpose of utilizing its place, it is permitted.

איני והא רב כהנא איקלע לבי רב ואמר אייתו ליה שותא לכהנא ליתיב עליה לאו למימרא דדבר שמלאכתו לאיסור לצורך גופו אין לצורך מקומו לא

The Gemara asks: Is that so? Didn’t Rav Kahana happen to come to the house of Rav, and he said: Bring a net for Kahana so that he may sit on it? Is that not to say that with regard to an object whose primary function is prohibited, for the purpose of utilizing the object itself, yes, it is permitted to move it; and for the purpose of utilizing its place, no, it is prohibited?

הכי אמר להו שקולו שותא מקמי כהנא ואי בעית אימא התם מחמה לצל הוה

The Gemara answers that this is what he said to them: Remove the net from before Kahana. That is a case of moving for the purpose of utilizing its place. And if you wish, say instead: There, it was a case of moving the object from the sun to the shade, as it was in a place where it could have been damaged. One might have mistakenly concluded that this was the reason that they were moving the net. Rav specified that the net was being moved for the purpose of utilizing the object itself, not to indicate that moving it for the purpose of utilizing its place is prohibited, but to indicate that moving from the sun to the shade is prohibited.

רב מרי בר רחל הוה ליה ההיא בי סדיותא בשמשא אתא לקמיה דרבא אמר ליה מהו לטלטולינהו אמר ליה שרי אית לי אחרינא חזו לאורחין אית לי נמי לאורחים אמר ליה גלית אדעתיך דכרבה סבירא לך לכולי עלמא שרי לדידך אסיר

The Gemara relates that Rav Mari bar Raḥel, had felt cushions in the sun on Shabbat. Rav Mari came before Rava and said to him: What is the ruling with regard to carrying them? Rava said to him: It is permitted. Rav Mari said to Rava: I have others, and I do not need these cushions specifically. Rava said to him: Even so, these cushions are suitable for guests. Rav Mari said to him: I also have others for guests and therefore would be moving the cushions so that they would not be ruined in the sun. Rava said to him: You have revealed your opinion that you hold in accordance with the opinion of Rabba. For everyone else, it is permitted to move the cushions in this situation; however, for you, it is prohibited, as it is inappropriate to permit one to perform an action that he considers prohibited.

אמר רבי אבא אמר רבי חייא בר אשי אמר רב מכבדות של מילתא מותר לטלטלן בשבת אבל של תמרה לא

Rabbi Abba said that Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Ashi said that Rav said: With regard to brooms made of fine wool garments, it is permitted to move them on Shabbat because it is permitted to use them. However, brooms made of date-palm fronds, no, they may not be moved. It is prohibited to fill holes in the ground.

רבי אלעזר אומר אף של תמרה במאי עסקינן אילימא לצורך גופו ולצורך מקומו בהא לימא רב של תמרה לא והא רב כרבא סבירא ליה אלא מחמה לצל בהא לימא רבי אלעזר אף של תמרה לעולם מחמה לצל אימא וכן אמר רבי אלעזר:

Rabbi Elazar says: It is permitted to move even those made of date-palm fronds. The Gemara asks: With what are we dealing? If you say that this is referring to moving it for the purpose of utilizing the object itself and for the purpose of utilizing its place, would Rav say a broom made of date-palm fronds, no, it may not be moved? Doesn’t Rav hold in accordance with the opinion of Rava? Rather, this is referring to moving the broom from the sun to the shade, and that these brooms are in a place where they can be damaged. However, it is still puzzling: In this case, would Rabbi Elazar say that even brooms made from date-palm fronds may be moved? The Gemara answers: Actually, this is referring to moving them from the sun, where they will be damaged, to the shade. Emend this and say: And so too, Rabbi Elazar said, like Rav, that it is prohibited.

מתני׳ כל הכלים הניטלין בשבת שבריהן ניטלין עמהן ובלבד שיהו עושין מעין מלאכה

MISHNA: All vessels that may be moved on Shabbat, their shards may be moved along with them, as long as they are suited for some purpose.

שברי עריבה לכסות בהן את פי החבית שברי זכוכית לכסות בהן את פי הפך

Shards of a large bowl may be used to cover the mouth of a barrel. Shards of a glass vessel may be used to cover the mouth of a cruse.

רבי יהודה אומר בלבד שיהו עושין מעין מלאכתן שברי עריבה לצוק לתוכן מקפה ושל זכוכית לצוק לתוכן שמן:

Rabbi Yehuda says: As long as they are suited for a purpose similar to their original use. Shards of a large bowl must be suited to pour soup into them, and shards of a glass vessel must be suited to pour oil into them.

גמ׳ אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מחלוקת שנשברו מערב שבת דמר סבר מעין מלאכתן אין מעין מלאכה אחרת לא ומר סבר אפילו מעין מלאכה אחרת

GEMARA: Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: This dispute in the mishna is only with regard to a case where the vessels broke on Shabbat eve, as this Sage, Rabbi Yehuda, holds that if they are suited for a purpose similar to their original use, yes, it is permitted, and for some other use, no, it is prohibited. And this Sage, the Rabbis, hold: Even if they are suited for some other use, it is also permitted.

אבל נשברו בשבת דברי הכל מותרין הואיל ומוכנין על גבי אביהן מותר

But if the vessels broke on Shabbat, everyone agrees they are permitted. The reason for this is since they were designated for Shabbat use and consequently considered prepared at the onset of Shabbat due to their original vessels, it is permitted to move the shards as well.

מותיב רב זוטראי מסיקין בכלים ואין מסיקין בשברי כלים

Rav Zutrai raised an objection from a baraita: One may kindle a fire on a Festival with whole vessels, but one may not kindle a fire with shards of vessels.

דנשברו אימת אילימא דנשברו מערב יום טוב עצים בעלמא נינהו אלא לאו ביום טוב וקתני מסיקין בכלים ואין מסיקים בשברי כלים

The Gemara seeks to clarify: Vessels that were broken when? If you say that they were broken before the Festival, why is it prohibited to light a fire with them? They are pieces of ordinary wood. Isn’t this referring to a case where they broke on the Festival, and it is taught: One may kindle a fire on a Festival with whole vessels, but one may not kindle a fire with shards of vessels. The legal status of a vessel broken on a Festival, and all the more so one broken on Shabbat, is more stringent, not less.

אלא אי איתמר הכי איתמר אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מחלוקת שנשברו בשבת דמר סבר מוכן הוא ומר סבר נולד הוא אבל מערב שבת דברי הכל מותרין הואיל והוכנו למלאכה מבעוד יום

Rather, if it was stated, it was stated as follows. Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: This dispute in the mishna is only with regard to a case where the vessels broke on Shabbat, as this Sage, the Rabbis, holds it was prepared before Shabbat as part of the original vessel, and this Sage, Rabbi Yehuda, holds that it is an item that came into being on Shabbat. Since they were not shards before Shabbat, they are a new entity and are set-aside. However, if they were broken from before the onset of Shabbat everyone agrees that it is permitted to move them, since they were prepared to serve some function while it was still day, before the onset of Shabbat.

תני חדא מסיקין בכלים ואין מסיקין בשברי כלים ותניא אידך כשם שמסיקין בכלים כך מסיקין בשברי כלים ותניא אידך אין מסיקין לא בכלים ולא בשברי כלים

With regard to the halakhot of Festivals, it was taught in one baraita: One may kindle a fire with whole vessels, but one may not kindle a fire with shards of vessels. And it was taught in the other baraita: Just as one may kindle a fire with vessels, so too, one may kindle a fire with shards of vessels. And it was taught in yet another baraita: One may neither kindle a fire with vessels nor with shards of vessels.

הא רבי יהודה הא רבי שמעון הא רבי נחמיה

The Gemara resolves the apparent contradiction between the baraitot: This baraita, which distinguishes between vessels and broken vessels, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who holds that there is a prohibition of set-aside on a Festival. That baraita, which permits kindling with both vessels and shards, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, who holds that there is no prohibition of set-aside on a Festival. This third baraita, which prohibits kindling with both vessels and shards, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Neḥemya, who prohibits moving a vessel for any purpose other than its designated function.

אמר רב נחמן הני ליבני דאישתיור מבניינא שרי לטלטולינהו דחזו למיזגא עלייהו שרגינהו ודאי אקצינהו

Rav Naḥman said: With regard to these bricks that remained from the building after construction was completed, it is permitted to move them on Shabbat, because they are suited for one to sit on them. And if one arranged them in a pile, he certainly thereby set them aside from his consciousness, and it is prohibited to move them.

אמר רב נחמן אמר שמואל חרס קטנה מותר לטלטל בחצר אבל בכרמלית לא ורב נחמן דידיה אמר אפילו בכרמלית אבל ברשות הרבים לא ורבא אמר אפילו ברשות הרבים

Rav Naḥman said that Shmuel said: With regard to a small earthenware shard, it is permitted to move it on Shabbat in the courtyard, because there are vessels there that need to be covered; but in a karmelit, no, one may not move it, because typically there are no vessels there and there would be no use for the shard. And Rav Naḥman himself said: Even in a karmelit it is permitted, but in the public domain, no, it is prohibited. And Rava said: Even in the public domain, it is permitted.

ואזדא רבא לטעמיה דרבא הוה קאזיל בריתקא דמחוזא אתווסאי מסאניה טינא אתא שמעיה שקל חספא וקא מכפר ליה רמו ביה רבנן קלא אמר לא מיסתייא דלא גמירי מיגמר נמי מגמרי אילו בחצר הואי מי לא הוה חזיא לכסויי ביה מנא הכא נמי חזיא לדידי

And Rava follows his regular line of reasoning, as Rava was walking in the street of Meḥoza and his shoes became dirty with clay. His servant came, took a shard of earthenware from the street, and wiped the clay off. The Sages raised their voice at him to reprimand him. Rava said: Is it not enough for them that they did not learn, but they are also teaching others? If the shard was in a courtyard, wouldn’t it be suited to cover a vessel with it? Here too, the shard is also suited to me, and moving it should not be prohibited.

אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מגופת חבית שנכתתה מותר לטלטל בשבת תניא נמי הכי מגופה שנכתתה היא ושבריה מותר לטלטלה בשבת ולא יספות ממנה שבר לכסות בה את הכלי ולסמוך בה כרעי המטה ואם זרקה באשפה אסור

Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: With regard to the clay seal of a jug that was broken, it is permitted to move it on Shabbat. That was also taught in a baraita: With regard to the clay seal that was broken, it is permitted to move it, and its shards are permitted to be carried on Shabbat. And one may not break a shard from it to cover a vessel with it or to support the legs of a bed with it. And if one threw it into the garbage dump, it is prohibited to move it because he set it aside from his consciousness.

מתקיף לה רב פפא אלא מעתה זריק ליה לגלימיה הכי נמי דאסור אלא אמר רב פפא

Rav Pappa strongly objects to this: If that is so, if one throws his cloak into the garbage dump, would you also say that it is prohibited to move it because it is set-aside? Isn’t the cloak still fit for use, and its status is not dependent on his intention? Rather, Rav Pappa said: