Shabbat 124aשבת קכ״ד א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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124aקכ״ד א

ידו על כתף חבירו ויד חבירו על כתיפו ותולה ומפשיט

his hand on the shoulder of another, and the other’s hand on his shoulder, and suspends the lamb and flays its hide.

גלוסטרא דתנן נגר שיש בראשו גלוסטרא רבי יהושע אומר שומטה מן פתח זה ותולה בחבירו בשבת רבי טרפון אומר הרי הוא ככל הכלים ומיטלטל בחצר

The source for the thick end of a bolt is as we learned in a mishna: With regard to a bolt used in a door lock which has a thick end at the head of the bolt, Rabbi Yehoshua says: One may drag it from this doorway and hang it in another doorway on Shabbat, but he may not move it with his hands, because it was considered to be set-aside. Rabbi Tarfon says: It is like all the other utensils and may be moved in a courtyard.

מדוכה הא דאמרן אמר רבה ממאי דילמא לעולם אימא לך לאחר התרת כלים נשנו קנים טעמא מאי משום איעפושי בהאי פורתא לא מיעפש מקלות אפשר כרבי אלעזר

The case of a mortar is that which we said above. Rabba said: From what does that conclusion ensue? Perhaps, actually I could say to you that these mishnayot were taught after permission to move utensils on Shabbat was adopted, and nevertheless, the prohibitions can be understood. With regard to the rods for the showbread, what is the reason that they are used? They are used due to concern that the bread will decay. In that brief period until the conclusion of Shabbat it will not decay. With regard to poles, why may they not be used on Passover eve? It is prohibited because it is possible to flay the lamb in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar. Use of the pole is superfluous, and therefore it is set-aside.

גלוסטרא כדרבי ינאי דאמר רבי ינאי בחצר שאינה מעורבת עסקינן רבי יהושע סבר תוך הפתח כלפנים דמי וקמטלטל מנא דבתים בחצר ורבי טרפון סבר תוך הפתח כלחוץ דמי ומנא דחצר בחצר קא מטלטל

In the case of the thick end of the bolt in the door, why was it prohibited to move it by hand? It was prohibited in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yanai, as Rabbi Yanai says: We are dealing with a courtyard for which a joining of courtyards [eiruv] was not established. Rabbi Yehoshua holds that inside the doorway is considered to be like inside the house, and therefore, he is moving utensils of the houses in the courtyard. Since there is no joining of the courtyards, one may not move a vessel from the house to the courtyard. And Rabbi Tarfon holds that inside the doorway is considered to be like outside the house, and therefore, he is moving utensils of the courtyard in the courtyard, which is permitted.

מדוכה רבי נחמיה היא:

With regard to a mortar, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Neḥemya, who holds that a vessel may only be moved on Shabbat for the purpose of its designated use.

מתני׳ כל הכלים ניטלין לצורך ושלא לצורך רבי נחמיה אומר אין ניטלין אלא לצורך:

MISHNA: All vessels may be moved for a specific purpose and not for a specific purpose. Rabbi Neḥemya says: Vessels may only be moved for a specific purpose.

גמ׳ מאי לצורך ומאי שלא לצורך

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: For a specific purpose, and what is the meaning of: Not for a specific purpose?

אמר רבה לצורך דבר שמלאכתו להיתר לצורך גופו שלא לצורך דבר שמלאכתו להיתר לצורך מקומו ודבר שמלאכתו לאיסור לצורך גופו אין לצורך מקומו לא ואתא רבי נחמיה למימר ואפילו דבר שמלאכתו להיתר לצורך גופו אין לצורך מקומו לא אמר ליה רבא לצורך מקומו שלא לצורך קרית ליה

Rabba said: For a specific purpose means: Moving an object whose primary function is for a permitted use for the purpose of utilizing the object itself. Not for a specific purpose means: Moving an object whose primary function is for a permitted use for the purpose of utilizing its place. And an object whose primary function is for a prohibited use, for the purpose of utilizing the object itself, yes, it is permitted; for the purpose of utilizing its place, no, it is prohibited. And Rabbi Neḥemya came to say: And even an object whose primary function is for a permitted use, moving it for the purpose of utilizing the object itself, yes; for the purpose of utilizing its place, no. Rava said to him: Do you call for the purpose of utilizing its place, not for a specific purpose? It is for a purpose.

אלא אמר רבא לצורך דבר שמלאכתו להיתר בין לצורך גופו בין לצורך מקומו שלא לצורך ואפילו מחמה לצל ודבר שמלאכתו לאיסור לצורך גופו ולצורך מקומו אין מחמה לצל לא ואתא רבי נחמיה למימר ואפילו דבר שמלאכתו להיתר לצורך גופו ולצורך מקומו אין מחמה לצל לא

Rather, Rava said: For a specific purpose means: Moving an object whose primary function is for a permitted use both for the purpose of utilizing the object itself and for the purpose of utilizing its place. Not for a specific purpose means: Moving it even from the sun to the shade. And an object whose primary function is for a prohibited use, both for the purpose of utilizing the object itself and for the purpose of utilizing its place, yes, it is permitted; moving it from the sun to the shade, no, it is prohibited. And Rabbi Neḥemya came to say: Even an object whose primary function is for a permitted use, moving it for the purpose of utilizing the object itself and for the purpose of utilizing its place, yes, it is permitted; moving it from the sun to the shade, no, it is prohibited.

יתיב רב ספרא ורב אחא בר הונא ורב הונא בר חנינא ויתבי וקאמרי לרבה אליבא דרבי נחמיה הני קערות היכי מטלטלינן אמר להו רב ספרא מידי דהוה אגרף של רעי

It is told that Rav Safra and Rav Aḥa bar Huna and Rav Huna bar Ḥanina sat together and they sat and they said: According to Rabba’s explanation in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Neḥemya that it is prohibited to move an object whose primary function is for a permitted use for the purpose of utilizing its place, these empty bowls, how do we carry them? Rav Safra said to them: You may move them, just as is the case of a chamber pot containing waste that may be moved because it is disgusting.

אמר ליה אביי לרבה למר אליבא דרבי נחמיה הני קערות היכי מטלטלינן להו אמר ליה רב ספרא חברין תרגמה מידי דהוה אגרף של רעי

Abaye said this same matter to Rabba: According to the Master’s explanation in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Neḥemya, these empty bowls, how do we carry them? He said to him: Our colleague Rav Safra interpreted it: Just as is the case of a chamber pot.

איתיביה אביי מדוכה אם יש בה שום מטלטלין אותה ואם לאו אין מטלטלין אותה הכא במאי עסקינן מחמה לצל איתיביה ושוין שאם קצב עליו בשר שאסור לטלטלו הכא נמי מחמה לצל

Abaye raised an objection to Rava’s opinion from that which was taught: With regard to a mortar, if it has garlic in it, one may move it on Shabbat, and if not, one may not move it on Shabbat. According to Rava’s opinion that all utensils may be moved, why is it prohibited to move the mortar? Rava responded: With what we are dealing here? We are dealing with a case of moving the mortar from the sun to the shade, which Rava prohibited. Abaye raised an objection to Rava’s opinion from that which was taught: Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel agree that if one cut meat on it for the purpose of the Festival that it is then prohibited to move it because there is no further need for it on the Festival. According to Rava’s opinion, all utensils may be moved. He answered him: Here, too, we are dealing with a case of moving the mortar from the sun to the shade.

והא דתנן אין סומכין את הקדירה בבקעת וכן בדלת והא בקעת דביום טוב דבר שמלאכתו להיתר הוא אלמא דבר שמלאכתו להיתר בין לצורך גופו בין לצורך מקומו אסור התם מאי טעמא כיון דבשבת דבר שמלאכתו לאיסור הוא גזירה יום טוב אטו שבת

And Abaye raised another objection with regard to that which we learned in a mishna: One may not prop a pot with a piece of wood, and so too, one may not prop a door on a piece of wood. Isn’t a piece of wood on a Festival an object whose primary function is for a permitted use, since it is permitted to move it to light an oven? Apparently, there is an opinion that moving an object whose primary function is for a permitted use, both for the purpose of utilizing the object itself and for the purpose of utilizing its place is prohibited, and according to Rabba, even Rabbi Neḥemya does not hold that this is so. Rava answers: There, what is the reason for the prohibition? It is because on Shabbat it is an object whose primary function is for a prohibited use. Since the wood is set aside from use on Shabbat, the Sages issued a decree prohibiting moving it on a Festival, due to Shabbat.

וכי תימא שבת גופיה תישתרי דהא דבר שמלאכתו לאיסור לצורך גופו ולצורך מקומו שרי הני מילי היכא דאיכא תורת כלי עליו היכא דליכא תורת כלי עליו לא

And if you say: Moving the wood should be permitted on Shabbat itself because an object whose primary function is for a prohibited use is permitted both for the purpose of utilizing the object itself and for the purpose of utilizing its place, that assertion is rejected. This ruling, which permits moving an object whose primary use is prohibited, applies only in a case where the status of a vessel applies to it;in a case where the status of a vessel does not apply to it, no, it is prohibited.

ומי גזרינן והתנן משילין פירות דרך ארובה ביום טוב אבל לא בשבת

The Gemara asks: And do we issue decrees prohibiting actions on Festivals due to the fact that they are prohibited on Shabbat? Didn’t we learn in a mishna: One may drop fruits from the roof through a skylight on a Festival, but not on Shabbat. Apparently, the Sages do not prohibit on a Festival all of the actions that are prohibited on Shabbat.

ומי לא גזרינן והתנן אין בין יום טוב לשבת אלא אוכל נפש בלבד

The Gemara asks on the contrary: And do we not issue decrees on a Festival due to Shabbat? Didn’t we learn in a mishna: The only difference between a Festival and Shabbat is with regard to the preparation of food alone. In all other matters the Sages established that the halakhot of Shabbat and Festivals are the same.

אמר רב יוסף לא קשיא הא רבי אליעזר הא רבי יהושע דתניא אותו ואת בנו שנפלו לבור רבי אליעזר אומר מעלה את הראשון על מנת לשוחטו ושוחטו והשני עושה לו פרנסה במקומו בשביל שלא ימות רבי יהושע אומר מעלה את הראשון על מנת לשוחטו ואינו שוחטו ומערים ומעלה את השני רצה זה שוחט רצה זה שוחט

Rav Yosef says: This is not difficult. This mishna, which rules that it is prohibited, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer; that mishna, which rules that it is permitted, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua. As it was taught in a baraita: It is prohibited to slaughter a mother animal and its offspring on the same day, as it is stated: “You shall not slaughter it and its offspring both in one day” (Leviticus 22:28). With regard to it and its offspring that fell into a pit on a Festival, Rabbi Eliezer says: One may raise the first in order to slaughter it, and then slaughter it; and with regard to the second one, one may provide it sustenance in its place in the pit so that it will not die. Rabbi Yehoshua says: One may raise the first in order to slaughter it, and then reconsider and not slaughter it, and then employ artifice and say that he reconsidered and wants to slaughter the other, and raise the second. If he so desires, he slaughters this one; if he so desires, he slaughters that one. Apparently, Rabbi Yehoshua permits certain actions on a Festival due to financial considerations, and does not issue decrees in those cases.

ממאי דילמא עד כאן לא קאמר רבי אליעזר התם אלא דאפשר לפרנסה אבל היכא דלא אפשר לפרנסה לא

The Gemara rejects this: From what does that conclusion ensue? Perhaps Rabbi Eliezer only stated that he may not raise the second animal there, in a case where it is possible to save the animal by feeding it in the pit; however, in a case where it is impossible to save it by feeding it in the pit, no, he would permit raising the animal.

אי נמי עד כאן לא קאמר רבי יהושע התם דאפשר בהערמה אבל היכא דלא אפשר בהערמה לא

Alternatively, Rabbi Yehoshua only said that he may raise the second animal in a case where it is possible to employ artifice; however, in a case where it is not possible to employ artifice, no, he would not permit doing so.

אלא אמר רב פפא לא קשיא הא בית שמאי הא בית הלל דתנן בית שמאי אומרים

Rather Rav Pappa said: This is not difficult. This mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai, and that mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel. As we learned in a mishna that Beit Shammai say: