Shabbat 124aשבת קכ״ד א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
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124aקכ״ד א

יָדוֹ עַל כֶּתֶף חֲבֵירוֹ וְיַד חֲבֵירוֹ עַל כְּתֵיפוֹ, וְתוֹלֶה וּמַפְשִׁיט.

his hand on the shoulder of another, and the other’s hand on his shoulder, and suspends the lamb and flays its hide.

גְּלוֹסְטְרָא — דִּתְנַן: נֶגֶר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ גְּלוֹסְטְרָא, רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר: שׁוֹמְטָהּ מִן פֶּתַח זֶה וְתוֹלָהּ בַּחֲבֵירוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת. רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן אוֹמֵר: הֲרֵי הוּא כְּכׇל הַכֵּלִים וּמִיטַּלְטֵל בֶּחָצֵר.

The source for the thick end of a bolt is as we learned in a mishna: With regard to a bolt used in a door lock which has a thick end at the head of the bolt, Rabbi Yehoshua says: One may drag it from this doorway and hang it in another doorway on Shabbat, but he may not move it with his hands, because it was considered to be set-aside. Rabbi Tarfon says: It is like all the other utensils and may be moved in a courtyard.

מְדוֹכָה — הָא דַּאֲמַרַן. אָמַר רַבָּה: מִמַּאי, דִּילְמָא לְעוֹלָם אֵימָא לְךָ לְאַחַר הַתָּרַת כֵּלִים נִשְׁנוּ: קָנִים טַעְמָא מַאי — מִשּׁוּם אִיעַפּוֹשֵׁי, בְּהַאי פּוּרְתָּא לָא מִיעַפַּשׁ. מַקְלוֹת, אֶפְשָׁר כְּרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר.

The case of a mortar is that which we said above. Rabba said: From what does that conclusion ensue? Perhaps, actually I could say to you that these mishnayot were taught after permission to move utensils on Shabbat was adopted, and nevertheless, the prohibitions can be understood. With regard to the rods for the showbread, what is the reason that they are used? They are used due to concern that the bread will decay. In that brief period until the conclusion of Shabbat it will not decay. With regard to poles, why may they not be used on Passover eve? It is prohibited because it is possible to flay the lamb in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar. Use of the pole is superfluous, and therefore it is set-aside.

גְּלוֹסְטְרָא — כִּדְרַבִּי יַנַּאי, דַּאֲמַר רַבִּי יַנַּאי: בְּחָצֵר שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְעוֹרֶבֶת עָסְקִינַן, רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ סָבַר: תּוֹךְ הַפֶּתַח כְּלִפְנִים דָּמֵי וְקָמְטַלְטֵל מָנָא דְבָתִּים בְּחָצֵר. וְרַבִּי טַרְפוֹן סָבַר: תּוֹךְ הַפֶּתַח כְּלַחוּץ דָּמֵי, וּמָנָא דְחָצֵר בְּחָצֵר קָא מְטַלְטֵל.

In the case of the thick end of the bolt in the door, why was it prohibited to move it by hand? It was prohibited in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yanai, as Rabbi Yanai says: We are dealing with a courtyard for which a joining of courtyards [eiruv] was not established. Rabbi Yehoshua holds that inside the doorway is considered to be like inside the house, and therefore, he is moving utensils of the houses in the courtyard. Since there is no joining of the courtyards, one may not move a vessel from the house to the courtyard. And Rabbi Tarfon holds that inside the doorway is considered to be like outside the house, and therefore, he is moving utensils of the courtyard in the courtyard, which is permitted.

מְדוֹכָה — רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה הִיא.

With regard to a mortar, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Neḥemya, who holds that a vessel may only be moved on Shabbat for the purpose of its designated use.

מַתְנִי׳ כׇּל הַכֵּלִים נִיטָּלִין לְצוֹרֶךְ וְשֶׁלֹּא לְצוֹרֶךְ. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אוֹמֵר: אֵין נִיטָּלִין אֶלָּא לְצוֹרֶךְ.

MISHNA: All vessels may be moved for a specific purpose and not for a specific purpose. Rabbi Neḥemya says: Vessels may only be moved for a specific purpose.

גְּמָ׳ מַאי ״לְצוֹרֶךְ״ וּמַאי ״שֶׁלֹּא לְצוֹרֶךְ״?

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: For a specific purpose, and what is the meaning of: Not for a specific purpose?

אָמַר רַבָּה: ״לְצוֹרֶךְ״ — דָּבָר שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְהֶיתֵּר לְצוֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ. ״שֶׁלֹּא לְצוֹרֶךְ״ — דָּבָר שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְהֶיתֵּר לְצוֹרֶךְ מְקוֹמוֹ, וְדָבָר שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִיסּוּר, לְצוֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ — אִין, לְצוֹרֶךְ מְקוֹמוֹ — לָא. וַאֲתָא רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה לְמֵימַר וַאֲפִילּוּ דָּבָר שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְהֶיתֵּר, לְצוֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ — אִין, לְצוֹרֶךְ מְקוֹמוֹ — לָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ רָבָא: לְצוֹרֶךְ מְקוֹמוֹ, ״שֶׁלֹּא לְצוֹרֶךְ״ קָרֵית לֵיהּ?!

Rabba said: For a specific purpose means: Moving an object whose primary function is for a permitted use for the purpose of utilizing the object itself. Not for a specific purpose means: Moving an object whose primary function is for a permitted use for the purpose of utilizing its place. And an object whose primary function is for a prohibited use, for the purpose of utilizing the object itself, yes, it is permitted; for the purpose of utilizing its place, no, it is prohibited. And Rabbi Neḥemya came to say: And even an object whose primary function is for a permitted use, moving it for the purpose of utilizing the object itself, yes; for the purpose of utilizing its place, no. Rava said to him: Do you call for the purpose of utilizing its place, not for a specific purpose? It is for a purpose.

אֶלָּא אָמַר רָבָא: ״לְצוֹרֶךְ״ — דָּבָר שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְהֶיתֵּר, בֵּין לְצוֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ בֵּין לְצוֹרֶךְ מְקוֹמוֹ. ״שֶׁלֹּא לְצוֹרֶךְ״ — וַאֲפִילּוּ מֵחַמָּה לַצֵּל. וְדָבָר שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִיסּוּר, לְצוֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ וּלְצוֹרֶךְ מְקוֹמוֹ — אִין, מֵחַמָּה לַצֵּל — לָא. וַאֲתָא רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה לְמֵימַר: וַאֲפִילּוּ דָּבָר שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְהֶיתֵּר, לְצוֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ וּלְצוֹרֶךְ מְקוֹמוֹ — אִין, מֵחַמָּה לַצֵּל — לָא.

Rather, Rava said: For a specific purpose means: Moving an object whose primary function is for a permitted use both for the purpose of utilizing the object itself and for the purpose of utilizing its place. Not for a specific purpose means: Moving it even from the sun to the shade. And an object whose primary function is for a prohibited use, both for the purpose of utilizing the object itself and for the purpose of utilizing its place, yes, it is permitted; moving it from the sun to the shade, no, it is prohibited. And Rabbi Neḥemya came to say: Even an object whose primary function is for a permitted use, moving it for the purpose of utilizing the object itself and for the purpose of utilizing its place, yes, it is permitted; moving it from the sun to the shade, no, it is prohibited.

יָתֵיב רַב סָפְרָא וְרַב אַחָא בַּר הוּנָא וְרַב הוּנָא בַּר חֲנִינָא, וְיָתְבִי וְקָאָמְרִי: לְרַבָּה אַלִּיבָּא דְּרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה הָנֵי קְעָרוֹת הֵיכִי מְטַלְטְלִינַן? אֲמַר לְהוּ רַב סָפְרָא: מִידֵּי דְּהָוֵה אַגְּרָף שֶׁל רְעִי.

It is told that Rav Safra and Rav Aḥa bar Huna and Rav Huna bar Ḥanina sat together and they sat and they said: According to Rabba’s explanation in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Neḥemya that it is prohibited to move an object whose primary function is for a permitted use for the purpose of utilizing its place, these empty bowls, how do we carry them? Rav Safra said to them: You may move them, just as is the case of a chamber pot containing waste that may be moved because it is disgusting.

אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַבָּיֵי לְרַבָּה, לְמָר אַלִּיבָּא דְּרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה, הָנֵי קְעָרוֹת הֵיכִי מְטַלְטְלִינַן לְהוּ? אֲמַר לֵיהּ: רַב סָפְרָא חַבְרִין תַּרְגְּמַהּ: מִידֵּי דְּהָוֵה אַגְּרָף שֶׁל רְעִי.

Abaye said this same matter to Rabba: According to the Master’s explanation in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Neḥemya, these empty bowls, how do we carry them? He said to him: Our colleague Rav Safra interpreted it: Just as is the case of a chamber pot.

אֵיתִיבֵיהּ אַבָּיֵי: מְדוֹכָה, אִם יֵשׁ בָּהּ שׁוּם — מְטַלְטְלִין אוֹתָהּ, וְאִם לָאו — אֵין מְטַלְטְלִין אוֹתָהּ. הָכָא בְּמַאי עָסְקִינַן — מֵחַמָּה לַצֵּל. אֵיתִיבֵיהּ: וְשָׁוִין שֶׁאִם קִצֵּב עָלָיו בָּשָׂר שֶׁאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ! הָכָא נָמֵי מֵחַמָּה לַצֵּל.

Abaye raised an objection to Rava’s opinion from that which was taught: With regard to a mortar, if it has garlic in it, one may move it on Shabbat, and if not, one may not move it on Shabbat. According to Rava’s opinion that all utensils may be moved, why is it prohibited to move the mortar? Rava responded: With what we are dealing here? We are dealing with a case of moving the mortar from the sun to the shade, which Rava prohibited. Abaye raised an objection to Rava’s opinion from that which was taught: Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel agree that if one cut meat on it for the purpose of the Festival that it is then prohibited to move it because there is no further need for it on the Festival. According to Rava’s opinion, all utensils may be moved. He answered him: Here, too, we are dealing with a case of moving the mortar from the sun to the shade.

וְהָא דִּתְנַן: אֵין סוֹמְכִין אֶת הַקְּדֵירָה בִּבְקַעַת וְכֵן בַּדֶּלֶת. וְהָא בְּקַעַת דִּבְיוֹם טוֹב דָּבָר שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְהֶיתֵּר הוּא, אַלְמָא דָּבָר שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְהֶיתֵּר בֵּין לְצוֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ בֵּין לְצוֹרֶךְ מְקוֹמוֹ — אָסוּר! הָתָם מַאי טַעְמָא — כֵּיוָן דִּבְשַׁבָּת דָּבָר שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִיסּוּר הוּא, גְּזֵירָה יוֹם טוֹב אַטּוּ שַׁבָּת.

And Abaye raised another objection with regard to that which we learned in a mishna: One may not prop a pot with a piece of wood, and so too, one may not prop a door on a piece of wood. Isn’t a piece of wood on a Festival an object whose primary function is for a permitted use, since it is permitted to move it to light an oven? Apparently, there is an opinion that moving an object whose primary function is for a permitted use, both for the purpose of utilizing the object itself and for the purpose of utilizing its place is prohibited, and according to Rabba, even Rabbi Neḥemya does not hold that this is so. Rava answers: There, what is the reason for the prohibition? It is because on Shabbat it is an object whose primary function is for a prohibited use. Since the wood is set aside from use on Shabbat, the Sages issued a decree prohibiting moving it on a Festival, due to Shabbat.

וְכִי תֵּימָא: שַׁבָּת גּוּפֵיהּ תִּישְׁתְּרֵי, דְּהָא דָּבָר שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ לְאִיסּוּר, לְצוֹרֶךְ גּוּפוֹ וּלְצוֹרֶךְ מְקוֹמוֹ שְׁרֵי — הָנֵי מִילֵּי הֵיכָא דְּאִיכָּא תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עָלָיו, הֵיכָא דְּלֵיכָּא תּוֹרַת כְּלִי עָלָיו — לָא.

And if you say: Moving the wood should be permitted on Shabbat itself because an object whose primary function is for a prohibited use is permitted both for the purpose of utilizing the object itself and for the purpose of utilizing its place, that assertion is rejected. This ruling, which permits moving an object whose primary use is prohibited, applies only in a case where the status of a vessel applies to it; in a case where the status of a vessel does not apply to it, no, it is prohibited.

וּמִי גָּזְרִינַן? וְהָתְנַן: מַשִּׁילִין פֵּירוֹת דֶּרֶךְ אֲרוּבָּה בְּיוֹם טוֹב, אֲבָל לֹא בְּשַׁבָּת!

The Gemara asks: And do we issue decrees prohibiting actions on Festivals due to the fact that they are prohibited on Shabbat? Didn’t we learn in a mishna: One may drop fruits from the roof through a skylight on a Festival, but not on Shabbat. Apparently, the Sages do not prohibit on a Festival all of the actions that are prohibited on Shabbat.

וּמִי לָא גָּזְרִינַן? וְהָתְנַן: אֵין בֵּין יוֹם טוֹב לַשַּׁבָּת אֶלָּא אוֹכֶל נֶפֶשׁ בִּלְבָד!

The Gemara asks on the contrary: And do we not issue decrees on a Festival due to Shabbat? Didn’t we learn in a mishna: The only difference between a Festival and Shabbat is with regard to the preparation of food alone. In all other matters the Sages established that the halakhot of Shabbat and Festivals are the same.

אָמַר רַב יוֹסֵף, לָא קַשְׁיָא: הָא — רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, הָא — רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ. דְּתַנְיָא: ״אוֹתוֹ וְאֶת בְּנוֹ״ שֶׁנָּפְלוּ לְבוֹר, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר: מַעֲלֶה אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹן עַל מְנָת לְשׁוֹחְטוֹ, וְשׁוֹחֲטוֹ. וְהַשֵּׁנִי — עוֹשֶׂה לוֹ פַּרְנָסָה בִּמְקוֹמוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁלֹּא יָמוּת. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר: מַעֲלֶה אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹן עַל מְנָת לְשׁוֹחְטוֹ, וְאֵינוֹ שׁוֹחֲטוֹ, וּמַעֲרִים וּמַעֲלֶה אֶת הַשֵּׁנִי, רָצָה — זֶה שׁוֹחֵט, רָצָה — זֶה שׁוֹחֵט.

Rav Yosef says: This is not difficult. This mishna, which rules that it is prohibited, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer; that mishna, which rules that it is permitted, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua. As it was taught in a baraita: It is prohibited to slaughter a mother animal and its offspring on the same day, as it is stated: “You shall not slaughter it and its offspring both in one day” (Leviticus 22:28). With regard to it and its offspring that fell into a pit on a Festival, Rabbi Eliezer says: One may raise the first in order to slaughter it, and then slaughter it; and with regard to the second one, one may provide it sustenance in its place in the pit so that it will not die. Rabbi Yehoshua says: One may raise the first in order to slaughter it, and then reconsider and not slaughter it, and then employ artifice and say that he reconsidered and wants to slaughter the other, and raise the second. If he so desires, he slaughters this one; if he so desires, he slaughters that one. Apparently, Rabbi Yehoshua permits certain actions on a Festival due to financial considerations, and does not issue decrees in those cases.

מִמַּאי? דִּילְמָא עַד כָּאן לָא קָאָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר הָתָם אֶלָּא דְּאֶפְשָׁר בְּפַרְנָסָה, אֲבָל הֵיכָא דְּלָא אֶפְשָׁר בְּפַרְנָסָה לָא.

The Gemara rejects this: From what does that conclusion ensue? Perhaps Rabbi Eliezer only stated that he may not raise the second animal there, in a case where it is possible to save the animal by feeding it in the pit; however, in a case where it is impossible to save it by feeding it in the pit, no, he would permit raising the animal.

אִי נָמֵי, עַד כָּאן לָא קָאָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ הָתָם דְּאֶפְשָׁר בְּהַעֲרָמָה, אֲבָל הֵיכָא דְּלָא אֶפְשָׁר בְּהַעֲרָמָה — לָא!

Alternatively, Rabbi Yehoshua only said that he may raise the second animal in a case where it is possible to employ artifice; however, in a case where it is not possible to employ artifice, no, he would not permit doing so.

אֶלָּא אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא: לָא קַשְׁיָא, הָא — בֵּית שַׁמַּאי, הָא — בֵּית הִלֵּל. דִּתְנַן, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים:

Rather Rav Pappa said: This is not difficult. This mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai, and that mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel. As we learned in a mishna that Beit Shammai say: