אדעתא דרובא מדלקי
they kindle it with the majority of the those present at the banquet in mind. When the majority of those present are gentiles, it is permitted.
שמואל איקלע לבי אבין תורן אתא ההוא גוי אדליק שרגא אהדרינהו שמואל לאפיה כיון דחזא דאייתי שטר וקא קרי אמר אדעתא דנפשיה הוא דאדליק אהדרינהו איהו לאפיה גבי שרגא:
The Gemara relates that Shmuel happened to come to the house of Avin Toran. A certain gentile came and kindled a lamp. Shmuel turned his face back away from the lamp in order to avoid benefitting from the light. When Shmuel saw that the gentile brought a document and was reading it, he said: He kindled it with his own benefit in mind. He turned his face back toward the lamp.
הדרן עלך כל כתבי
מתני׳ כל הכלים ניטלין בשבת ודלתותיהן עמהן אף על פי שנתפרקו בשבת שאינן דומין לדלתות הבית לפי שאינן מן המוכן
MISHNA: All vessels may be moved on Shabbat, and their doors, which are part of these vessels, along with them, even if they were dismantled on Shabbat, as the doors of these vessels are unlike the doors of the house. It is prohibited to make use of the doors of a house on Shabbat, even if they were removed from the entrance, because they are not prepared from before Shabbat.
נוטל אדם קורנס לפצע בו את האגוזין קרדום לחתוך בו את הדבילה מגירה לגור בה את הגבינה מגריפה לגרוף בה את הגרוגרות
Likewise a person may move a mallet, which is generally used for labor prohibited on Shabbat, to crack nuts with it. Likewise, one may move an axe, a tool generally used to chop wood, to cut a cake of figs with it. So too, one may move a saw to cut cheese with it. Similarly, one may move a spade to scoop dried figs with it.
את הרחת ואת המלגז לתת עליו לקטן את הכוש ואת הכרכר לתחוב בו מחט של יד ליטול בו את הקוץ ושל סקאים לפתוח בו את הדלת
One may also move a winnowing shovel and a pitchfork, both of which are designated for use with crops in a barn, to place food on it for a child. One is likewise permitted to take a reed or a shuttle from a spindle, ordinarily used for weaving, in order to insert it into food like a fork. One is permitted to move an ordinary hand needle used for sewing clothes to extract a thorn with it, and one may move a sack maker’s needle to open the door with it.
גמ׳ כל הכלים ניטלין ואף על פי שנתפרקו בשבת ולא מיבעיא בחול
GEMARA: The mishna states: All vessels may be moved, and even if they were dismantled on Shabbat. Should we learn from here that there is only a question with regard to vessels which were dismantled on Shabbat, and that there is no need to mention vessels detached during the week, as it is certainly permitted to carry them on Shabbat?
אדרבה בשבת מוכנין על גבי אביהן בחול אין מוכנין על גבי אביהן
On the contrary, if they were dismantled on Shabbat it can be said that the parts of the vessel were prepared for use at the onset of Shabbat, due to their being attached to their original vessels from which they were removed. However, if they were detached during the week, at the onset of Shabbat they would not have been prepared for use, due to their being detached from their original vessels from which they were removed.
אמר אביי הכי קאמר כל הכלים ניטלין בשבת ודלתותיהן עמהן אף על פי שנתפרקו בחול ניטלין בשבת
Abaye said that this is what the mishna is saying: All vessels may be moved on Shabbat along with their doors. And even if they came apart during the week, they may be moved on Shabbat.
תנו רבנן דלת של שידה ושל תיבה ושל מגדל נוטלין אבל לא מחזירין ושל לול של תרנגולים לא נוטלין ולא מחזירין
The Sages taught: With regard to the door of a chest, or of a box, or of a closet, one may remove them from their hinges on Shabbat, but he may not restore them to their original places. And with regard to the door of a chicken coop, one may neither move it nor restore it to its place.
בשלמא של לול של תרנגולים קסבר כיון דמחברי בארעא יש בנין בקרקע יש סתירה בקרקע אלא של שידה ושל תיבה ושל מגדל מאי קסבר
Granted, in the case of a chicken coop the tanna holds: Since the coop is attached to the ground, there is a prohibition against building on the ground and there is a prohibition against dismantling on the ground. Consequently when one dismantles or restores the door he has performed the prohibited labor of building. However, in the case of the door of a chest, or a box, or a closet, what does he hold?
אי קסבר יש בנין בכלים יש סתירה בכלים ואי אין סתירה בכלים אין בנין בכלים
If the tanna holds that there is a prohibition against building with regard to vessels, then there is also a prohibition against dismantling with regard to vessels and it should be prohibited to remove the door. And if there is no prohibition against dismantling with regard to vessels and it is permitted to remove the door, then there should also be no prohibition against building with regard to vessels. Why, then, is it prohibited to restore a door to its original place?
אמר אביי לעולם קסבר יש בנין בכלים ויש סתירה בכלים ושניטלו קאמר
Abaye said: Actually, he holds that there is a prohibition against building with regard to vessels and there is also a prohibition against dismantling with regard to vessels. To resolve the difficulty, emend the text. Rather than saying: One may remove them, it is saying: The doors of a chest, or a box, or a closet that were already removed may not be restored.
אמר ליה רבא [שתי תשובות בדבר] חדא דניטלין קתני ועוד מאי אבל לא מחזירין אלא אמר רבא קסבר אין בנין בכלים ואין סתירה בכלים וגזירה שמא יתקע:
Rava said to him: There are two possible responses with which your statement can be rejected. One is that it is taught in the baraita: One may remove them, ab initio. And furthermore, what is the meaning of: But one may not restore them? According to your emendation, what is the meaning of the word, but, in this context? Rather, Rava said: The tanna holds that there is no prohibition against building with regard to vessels and there is no prohibition against dismantling with regard to vessels, and so why did the tanna rule one may not restore the door? It is due to a decree lest one fix it firmly in place in the manner of a full-fledged prohibited labor, completing the production process of a vessel.
נוטל אדם קורנס כו׳: אמר רב יהודה קורנס של אגוזין לפצע בו את האגוזין אבל של נפחין לא
The mishna states: A person may take a mallet on Shabbat in order to crack nuts with it. Rav Yehuda said: The type of hammer in this case is a hammer designated for nuts to crack nuts with it, but blacksmiths’ hammers, no, they may not be used.
קסבר דבר שמלאכתו לאיסור אפילו לצורך גופו אסור
That tanna holds that using an object whose primary function is for a prohibited use, even for the purpose of utilizing the object itself to perform a permitted action, is prohibited.
אמר ליה רבה אלא מעתה סיפא דקתני ואת הרחת ואת המלגז לתת עליו לקטן רחת ומלגז מי מייחדי ליה לקטן אלא אמר רבה קורנס של נפחין לפצע בו האגוזין
Rabba said to him: But if what you say is so, how do you reconcile this with the latter clause of the mishna in which it is taught: And a winnowing shovel or a pitchfork in order to place food for a child on it; are a winnowing shovel and a pitchfork designated for use by a child? Rather, Rabba said: The mishna should be interpreted as follows: One may use a blacksmiths’ hammer on Shabbat to crack nuts with it.
The tanna holds: