מִי דָּמֵי?! הָתָם — נַעֲשָׂה בָּסִיס לְדָבָר הַמּוּתָּר, הָכָא — נַעֲשָׂה בָּסִיס לְדָבָר הָאָסוּר! אֶלָּא הָכִי קָאָמְרִי לֵיהּ: אִם מַצִּילִין תִּיק שֶׁל סֵפֶר עִם הַסֵּפֶר, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּתוֹכוֹ מָעוֹת, לֹא נְטַלְטֵל עוֹר אַגַּב בָּשָׂר?! מִי דָּמֵי? הָתָם נַעֲשָׂה בָּסִיס לְדָבָר הָאָסוּר וּלְדָבָר הַמּוּתָּר, הָכָא — כּוּלּוֹ נַעֲשָׂה בָּסִיס לְדָבָר הָאָסוּר. אֶלָּא הָכִי קָאָמְרִי לֵיהּ: אִם מְבִיאִין תִּיק שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּתוֹכוֹ מָעוֹת מֵעָלְמָא לְהַצִּיל בּוֹ סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה, לֹא נְטַלְטֵל עוֹר אַגַּב בָּשָׂר?!
The Gemara asks: Are they comparable? There, with regard to the Torah scroll, the casing is a base for a permitted object, i.e., the scroll itself, which may be moved on Shabbat; whereas here, with regard to the hide of the Paschal lamb, the skin is a base for a prohibited object, i.e., the flesh of the sacrifice, which may not be moved until nightfall because it may not be eaten until night. Rather, this is what they said to him: If one may save the casing of the Torah scroll along with the scroll, even if there is money inside it, why then may one not move the hide together with the flesh? The Gemara asks: Are they comparable? There, with regard to the Torah scroll, the casing becomes a base for a prohibited object and a permitted object; whereas here, with regard to the hide, it is entirely a base for a prohibited object. Rather, this is what they said to him: If one may bring a casing that has money inside it from outside in order to save a Torah scroll in it, why may one not move the hide together with the flesh?
וְהִיא גוּפָהּ מְנָלַן? אִילֵּימָא דְּמִדְּהֵיכָא דְּאִית בֵּיהּ לָא שָׁדֵי לְהוּ, אֵיתוֹיֵי נָמֵי מַיְיתִינַן — מִי דָּמֵי?! הָתָם — אַדְּהָכִי וְהָכִי נָפְלָה דְּלֵיקָה, הָכָא — אַדְּהָכָא וְהָכִי לִישְׁדִּינְהוּ. אֶלָּא אָמַר מָר בַּר רַב אָשֵׁי: לְעוֹלָם כִּדְאָמְרִינַן מֵעִיקָּרָא. וּדְקָא קַשְׁיָא לָךְ: הָכָא טִלְטוּל וְהָכָא מְלָאכָה — כְּגוֹן דְּלָא קָבָעֵי לֵיהּ לְעוֹר.
The Gemara asks: And from where do we derive this halakha itself? As it is not stated in the mishna, from where do we derive that it is permitted on Shabbat to bring a casing containing money from the outside in order to save a Torah scroll? If you say that from the fact that in a situation where the casing has money in it one does not throw it away but brings it out with the casing, when the casing is outside and has money in it, one may also bring the money along with it; is it comparable? There, with regard to the Torah scroll’s casing with money inside, if one tarries in order to empty the money from the case, in the meantime the fire might catch the Torah scroll and burn it; whereas here, with regard to bringing in the casing, in the meantime he could have thrown it away. Rather, Mar bar Rav Ashi said: Actually, it is as we said initially. The Sages equated carrying the Torah casing with flaying the hide of the Paschal lamb. And as for what was difficult for you, that here, with regard to the Torah casing, moving alone is involved, whereas here, with regard to a Paschal lamb, a prohibited labor is involved, it can be explained as referring to a case where one does not need the hide of the Paschal lamb. Therefore, he is exempt.
וְהָא אַבָּיֵי וְרָבָא דְּאָמְרִי תַּרְוַיְיהוּ: מוֹדֶה רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בִּ״פְסִיק רֵישֵׁיהּ וְלָא יְמוּת״ — דְּשָׁקֵיל לֵיהּ בְּבַרְזֵי.
The Gemara asks: But Abaye and Rava both said: Rabbi Shimon concedes in cases categorized as cut off its head and will it not die, i.e., an action with an inevitable consequence. When an action has an inevitable consequence, even Rabbi Shimon, who normally exempts a person for performing an action with an unintended consequence, maintains the one is liable. Rather, we must say that one flays it strip by strip, and thereby he does not benefit from the hide. It therefore does not constitute the prohibited labor of stripping the hide.
וּלְהֵיכָן מַצִּילִין אוֹתָן וְכוּ׳. הֵיכִי דָּמֵי מְפוּלָּשׁ, הֵיכִי דָּמֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְפוּלָּשׁ? אָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא: שָׁלֹשׁ מְחִיצּוֹת וּשְׁנֵי לְחָיַיִן — זֶהוּ מָבוֹי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְפוּלָּשׁ. שָׁלֹשׁ מְחִיצּוֹת וְלֶחִי אֶחָד — זֶהוּ מָבוֹי הַמְפוּלָּשׁ. וְתַרְוַיְיהוּ אַלִּיבָּא דְּרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, דִּתְנַן: הֶכְשֵׁר מָבוֹי — בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים: לֶחִי וְקוֹרָה, וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים: אוֹ לֶחִי אוֹ קוֹרָה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר: שְׁנֵי לְחָיַיִם.
We learned in the mishna: And to where may one rescue them? Into an alley that is closed, which, if it is surrounded on three sides, is considered to be a private domain by Torah law. Ben Beteira says: Even into an open alley. The Gemara asks: What are the circumstances of an alley that is open, and what are the circumstances of an alley that is not open? Rav Ḥisda said: An alley that has three walls and two posts at its entrance is an alley that is not open; one that has three walls and one post is an alley that is open. And they both, the first tanna and ben Beteira, disagree in the mishna in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, as we learned in a mishna: For preparation of an alley to permit carrying within it on Shabbat, Beit Shammai say the alley must have a post on the side of the entrance and a beam over the entrance. And Beit Hillel say: Either a post or a beam is sufficient. Rabbi Eliezer says: In order to permit carrying, two posts are required.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַבָּה: שָׁלֹשׁ מְחִיצּוֹת וְלֶחִי אֶחָד ״מְפוּלָּשׁ״ קָרֵית לֵיהּ? וְעוֹד, לְרַבָּנַן נַצִּיל לְתוֹכוֹ אוֹכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין! אֶלָּא אָמַר רַבָּה: שְׁתֵּי מְחִיצּוֹת וּשְׁנֵי לְחָיַיִן — זֶהוּ מָבוֹי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְפוּלָּשׁ. שְׁתֵּי מְחִיצּוֹת וְלֶחִי אֶחָד — זֶהוּ מָבוֹי הַמְפוּלָּשׁ.
Rabba said to him: Did you call an alley that has three walls and one post open? Even if Rabbi Eliezer does not permit carrying there, it is still not considered to be open but closed. And furthermore, according to the Rabbis, if this is so, let us rescue food and drinks by carrying them there as well. Since the Sages only permitted carrying in an alley that is not open, and because, according to all opinions, it is permitted to carry in a closed alley, one should also be allowed to save food and water, and not only a Torah scroll, by carrying them there. Rather, Rabba said: An alley that has two walls and two posts at both entrances to the alley is an alley that is not open. If it has two walls and one post, it is an alley that is open.
וְתַרְוַיְיהוּ אַלִּיבָּא דְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה. דְּתַנְיָא, יָתֵר עַל כֵּן אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה: מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ שְׁנֵי בָתִּים בִּשְׁנֵי צִדֵּי רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים — עוֹשֶׂה לֶחִי מִיכָּן וְלֶחִי מִיכָּן, אוֹ קוֹרָה מִיכָּן וְקוֹרָה מִיכָּן, וְנוֹשֵׂא וְנוֹתֵן בָּאֶמְצַע. אָמְרוּ לוֹ: אֵין מְעָרְבִין רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים בְּכָךְ.
And both of them hold in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. As it was taught in a baraita: Furthermore, Rabbi Yehuda said: One who has two houses opposite each other on two sides of the public domain, if he chooses, he may create a private domain for himself in the area of the public domain. He may place a ten-handbreadth high post from here, perpendicular to the public domain. This creates a symbolic wall which, in the halakhot of alleyways, has the legal status of a wall. And he may place an additional post from here, on the other side, and that has the same legal status as if he closed the public domain on all of its sides. Or, he can implement a different solution appropriate for alleyways by placing a beam extending from here, from one end of one house, to the end of the house opposite it. This creates a symbolic partition across the width of the street. And he may place a beam extending from here, from the other side of the house. According to Rabbi Yehuda, in that way, one is permitted to carry objects and place them in the area between the symbolic partitions, as he would in a private domain. The Rabbis said to him: One may not establish an eiruv in the public domain in that way.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַבָּיֵי: לְדִידָךְ נָמֵי, לְרַבָּנַן נַצִּיל לְתוֹכוֹ אוֹכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין?
Abaye said to Rabba: According to your opinion too, according to the opinion of the Rabbis cited in the mishna who agree with Rabbi Yehuda and permit carrying in an alley that is closed, let us also save food and drinks by carrying them there.