חדא מינייהו בטולי מבטיל קא משמע לן אמר רב יוסף אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הלכה כרבי אליעזר בן יעקב אמר ליה אביי הלכה מכלל דפליגי אמר ליה מאי נפקא לך מינה אמר ליה גמרא גמור זמורתא תהא:
that one of the knots one voids, because he can enable the animal to go out, albeit with difficulty, after untying one knot, therefore, it teaches us that both are considered temporary knots, and it is permitted to tie them. Rav Yosef said that Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov. Abaye said to Rav Yosef: If you rule the halakha in accordance with his opinion, does that mean, by inference, that the Rabbis disagree, or perhaps is there no dispute and everyone accepts the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov? Rav Yosef said to him: What difference is there to you whether or not the Rabbis disagree? In either case, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov. Abaye answered Rav Yosef using a folk expression: Is it simply learn the lesson, let it be like a song?In other words, is it sufficient to simply parrot the halakhic ruling? Rather, it is necessary to examine the issue to understand it, even if it does not yield a practical halakhic difference.
מתני׳ קושרין דלי בפסקיא אבל לא בחבל רבי יהודה מתיר כלל אמר רבי יהודה כל קשר שאינו של קיימא אין חייבין עליו:
MISHNA: One may tie a bucket with a belt on Shabbat, as he will certainly not leave it tied to the bucket, and therefore it is not a permanent knot. But one may not tie a bucket with a rope. Rabbi Yehuda permits doing so. Rabbi Yehuda stated a principle: With regard to any knot that is not permanent, one is not liable for tying it.
גמ׳ חבל דמאי אי לימא חבל דעלמא רבי יהודה מתיר קשר של קיימא הוא אלא חבל דגרדי למימרא דרבנן סברי גזרינן חבל דגרדי אטו חבל דעלמא ורבי יהודה סבר לא גזרינן
GEMARA: We learned in the mishna that according to the first tanna, it is prohibited to tie a rope to a bucket on Shabbat, and Rabbi Yehuda permits doing so. The Gemara asks: A rope of what kind? If you say it is referring to a standard rope, does Rabbi Yehuda permit doing so? It is a permanent knot. Rather, it is referring to a weaver’s rope; since the weaver needs it for his work, he will untie it after Shabbat. The Gemara asks: Is that to say that the Rabbis hold that we issue a decree prohibiting a weaver’s rope due to a standard rope, and Rabbi Yehuda holds that we do not issue a decree?
ורמינהו חבל דלי שנפסק לא יהא קושרו אלא עונבו ורבי יהודה אומר כורך עליו פונדא או פסקיא ובלבד שלא יענבנו
The Gemara raises a contradiction from that which was taught in a baraita: With regard to the rope of a bucket that was severed on Shabbat, one may not tie it with a regular knot; rather, he may tie a bow. And Rabbi Yehuda says: One may wrap a hollow belt around it or a sash as long as he does not tie it into a bow.
קשיא דרבי יהודה אדרבי יהודה קשיא דרבנן אדרבנן
This is difficult, as there is a contradiction between one statement of Rabbi Yehuda and another statement of Rabbi Yehuda, as in the baraita he issued a decree prohibiting tying a bow due to tying a knot, and in the mishna he issued no decree. And this is also difficult, as there is a contradiction between one statement of the Rabbis and another statement of the Rabbis, as in the baraita they do not issue a decree and in the mishna they do issue a decree.
דרבנן אדרבנן לא קשיא חבל בחבל מיחלף עניבה בקשירה לא מיחלפא דרבי יהודה אדרבי יהודה לא קשיא התם לא משום דמיחלפא עניבה בקשירה אלא עניבה גופה קשירה היא
The Gemara responds: The contradiction between one statement of the Rabbis and the other statement of the Rabbis is not difficult, as they are of the opinion that a rope may be confused with another rope. Therefore, the Rabbis issued a decree prohibiting a weaver’s rope, because if it were permitted one might mistakenly come to tie a standard rope. However, a bow is not confused with a knot, and therefore they did not issue a decree prohibiting a bow. The contradiction between one statement of Rabbi Yehuda and the other statement of Rabbi Yehuda is not difficult, as there, where he prohibited tying a bow, it is not because a bow may be confused with a knot, but because, in his opinion, a bow itself is a full-fledged knot and is not prohibited due to a decree.
אמר רבי אבא אמר רב חייא בר אשי אמר רב מביא אדם חבל מתוך ביתו וקושרו בפרה ובאיבוס איתיביה רבי אחא אריכא דהוא רבי אחא בר פפא לרבי אבא חבל שבאיבוס קושרו בפרה ושבפרה קושרו באיבוס ובלבד שלא יביא חבל מתוך ביתו ויקשור בפרה ובאיבוס התם חבל דעלמא הכא חבל דגרדי
Rabbi Abba said that Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi said that Rav said: A person may bring a rope from inside his house on Shabbat and tie one end of it to a cow and the other end to a trough. That is not considered a permanent knot, because he will certainly untie the rope. Rabbi Aḥa Arikha, who was nicknamed Rabbi Aḥa the Long, due to his height, who is also called Rabbi Aḥa bar Pappa, raised an objection to Rabbi Abba from the baraita: With regard to a rope that is tied to the trough, one may tie it to a cow, and a rope that is tied to the cow one may tie it to a trough, provided that one does not bring a rope from inside his house and tie it to the cow and to the trough. The Gemara answers: There, where they permitted it, it is referring to a weaver’s rope, which will certainly be untied.
אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל כלי קיואי מותר לטלטלן בשבת בעו מיניה מרב יהודה כובד העליון וכובד התחתון מהו אין ולאו ורפיא בידיה איתמר אמר רב נחמן אמר שמואל כלי קיואי מותר לטלטלן בשבת אפילו כובד העליון וכובד התחתון אבל לא את העמודים
Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: A weaver’s tools may be moved on Shabbat. They raised a dilemma before Rav Yehuda: What is the ruling with regard to the upper beam and the lower beam of the weaver’s loom? Does this leniency apply to them? Rav Yehuda did not provide a clear answer. He said: Yes and no, and the matter was uncertain to him. It was stated: Rav Naḥman said that Shmuel said: A weaver’s tools may be moved on Shabbat, even the upper beam and the lower beam, but not the posts.
אמר ליה רבא לרב נחמן מאי שנא עמודים דלא אילימא דקעביד גומות גומות ממילא קא הויין דתנן הטומן לפת וצנונות תחת הגפן אם מקצת עליו מגולין אינו חושש לא משום כלאים ולא משום שביעית ולא משום מעשר וניטלין בשבת
Rava said to Rav Naḥman: What is different about the posts that one may not carry them? If we say it is because one makes holes when removing the post from the ground, holes come into being on their own and that is not prohibited, as we learned in a mishna: With regard to one who stores a turnip or radish in the ground beneath a vine for safekeeping, if some of its leaves were exposed, making it possible to grab the turnip or the radish and pull it out of the ground, he need not be concerned, neither due to diverse kinds, i.e., that he violated the prohibition of planting food crops in a vineyard, as there was no intent to plant them, nor due to concern that he violated the prohibition against working the land during the Sabbatical Year, nor due to tithes, i.e., that it would be considered as if he picked it from the ground and would be obligated to tithe it, and they may be taken from the ground on Shabbat. Apparently, the Rabbis do not prohibit doing so due to concern that one will thereby create a hole.
בשדה לא אתי לאשוויי גומות הכא בבית אתי לאשוויי גומות בעא מיניה רבי יוחנן מרבי יהודה בר ליואי כלי קיואי כגון כובד העליון וכובד התחתון מהו לטלטלן בשבת אמר ליה אין מטלטלין מה טעם לפי שאין ניטלין:
Rav Naḥman answered him: The cases are not comparable. In a field one will not come to fill holes; however, here, where the holes are created in the house, the concern is that one may come to smooth out the holes. Therefore, the Rabbis prohibited it. Rabbi Yoḥanan raised a dilemma before Rabbi Yehuda bar Liva’ei: With regard to weaver’s tools, such as the upper beam and the lower beam of the loom, what is the ruling in terms of carrying them on Shabbat? Rabbi Yehuda said to him: One may not carry them. Rabbi Yoḥanan asked him: What is the reason for this? Rabbi Yehuda bar Liva’ei answered: Because they are not usually carried even during the week, as they are extremely heavy and are considered fixed in place. Therefore, the Sages prohibited carrying them on Shabbat.
מתני׳ מקפלין את הכלים אפילו ארבעה וחמשה פעמים ומציעין את המטות מלילי שבת לשבת אבל לא משבת למוצאי שבת רבי ישמעאל אומר מקפלין את הכלים ומציעין את המטות מיום הכיפורים לשבת וחלבי שבת קריבין ביום הכיפורים אבל לא של יום הכפורים בשבת רבי עקיבא אומר לא של שבת קריבין ביום הכיפורים ולא של יום הכיפורים קריבין בשבת:
MISHNA: One may fold the garments after removing them even four or five times, and one may make the beds from Shabbat evening in preparation for Shabbat day, but not from Shabbat in preparation for the conclusion of Shabbat, since one may not perform an action on Shabbat that is preparation for a weekday. Rabbi Yishmael says: One may fold the garments and make the beds from Yom Kippur in preparation for Shabbat if Yom Kippur occurs on Friday. And the fats of the offerings that were sacrificed on Shabbat are offered on Yom Kippur, but not those of Yom Kippur on Shabbat, because the sanctity of Shabbat is greater than the sanctity of Yom Kippur. Rabbi Akiva says: Neither are the fats of the offerings sacrificed on Shabbat offered on Yom Kippur, nor are those of Yom Kippur offered on Shabbat.
גמ׳ אמרי דבי רבי ינאי לא שנו אלא באדם אחד אבל בשני בני אדם לא ובאדם אחד נמי לא אמרן אלא בחדשים אבל בישנים לא וחדשים נמי לא אמרן אלא בלבנים אבל בצבועים לא ולא אמרן אלא שאין לו להחליף אבל יש לו להחליף לא
GEMARA: The Sages in the school of Rabbi Yanai said: They only taught that it is permitted when one person is folding the garments alone on Shabbat; however, when two people are folding the garments together, no, they may not do so, because when two people fold garments it is tantamount to repairing the garment. And with regard to when a single person is folding the garments, we only said it is permitted when he is folding a new garment, which is suitable to be worn even if it were not folded; however, with regard to old garments, no, he may not do so. And with regard to new garments, we only said that one may fold the garments when they are white; however, when they are colored, no, one may not do so. And with regard to white garments, we only said it is permitted to fold them on Shabbat when one does not have garments into which one could change; however, if one has other garments into which he could change, he may not fold them.
תנא של בית רבן גמליאל לא היו מקפלים כלי לבן שלהן מפני שהיה להן להחליף אמר רב הונא אם יש לו להחליף יחליף ואם אין לו להחליף ישלשל בבגדיו מתקיף לה רב ספרא והא מיתחזי כרמות רוחא כיון דכל יומא לא קעביד והאידנא הוא דקא עביד לא מיתחזי כרמות רוחא
And it was taught in the Tosefta: The members of Rabban Gamliel’s household did not even fold their white garments because they had others into which they could change. Rav Huna said: If one has new garments into which he could change on Shabbat, he will change into those garments; and if one does not have garments into which he could change, he lets his garments hang down before Shabbat to beautify himself in deference to Shabbat as it used to be the custom of wealthy people to wear their clothes loosely. Rav Safra strongly objects to this: Doesn’t this appear as haughtiness? The Gemara answers: Since every day he does not do so, and now in honor of Shabbat he is doing so, it does not appear as haughtiness. Rather it is apparent that he is acting in deference to Shabbat.
וכבדתו מעשות דרכיך וכבדתו שלא יהא מלבושך של שבת כמלבושך של חול וכי הא דרבי יוחנן קרי למאניה מכבדותי מעשות דרכיך שלא יהא הילוכך של שבת כהילוכך של חול ממצוא חפצך חפציך אסורין חפצי שמים מותרין ודבר דבר
On a related note, the Gemara cites what we learned with regard to the following passage: “If you keep your feet from breaking, from pursuing your affairs on My holy day, and you call Shabbat a delight, the Lord’s holy day honorable, and you honor it by not going your own way, from attending to your affairs and speaking idle words” (Isaiah 58:13). The Rabbis derived from the words “and you honor it” that your dress on Shabbat should not be like your dress during the week, as Rabbi Yoḥanan would refer to his clothing as my honor, indicating that appropriate clothing is a form of deference. The words “going your own way” mean that your walking on Shabbat should not be like your walking during the week. “From attending to your affairs” means it is prohibited to deal with your weekday affairs and to speak about them on Shabbat. However, affairs of Heaven, i.e., those pertaining to mitzvot, are permitted. “And speaking idle words”