חֲדָא מִינַּיְיהוּ בַּטּוֹלֵי מְבַטֵּיל, קָא מַשְׁמַע לַן. אָמַר רַב יוֹסֵף אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל: הֲלָכָה כְּרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב. אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַבָּיֵי: הֲלָכָה, מִכְּלָל דִּפְלִיגִי. אֲמַר לֵיהּ: מַאי נָפְקָא לָךְ מִינַּהּ? אֲמַר לֵיהּ: גְּמָרָא גְּמוֹר זְמוֹרְתָּא תְּהֵא?!
that one of the knots one voids, because he can enable the animal to go out, albeit with difficulty, after untying one knot, therefore, it teaches us that both are considered temporary knots, and it is permitted to tie them. Rav Yosef said that Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov. Abaye said to Rav Yosef: If you rule the halakha in accordance with his opinion, does that mean, by inference, that the Rabbis disagree, or perhaps is there no dispute and everyone accepts the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov? Rav Yosef said to him: What difference is there to you whether or not the Rabbis disagree? In either case, the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov. Abaye answered Rav Yosef using a folk expression: Is it simply learn the lesson, let it be like a song? In other words, is it sufficient to simply parrot the halakhic ruling? Rather, it is necessary to examine the issue to understand it, even if it does not yield a practical halakhic difference.
מַתְנִי׳ קוֹשְׁרִין דְּלִי בְּפָסִקְיָא, אֲבָל לֹא בְּחֶבֶל. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה מַתִּיר. כְּלָל אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה: כׇּל קֶשֶׁר שֶׁאֵינוֹ שֶׁל קַיָּימָא — אֵין חַיָּיבִין עָלָיו.
MISHNA: One may tie a bucket with a belt on Shabbat, as he will certainly not leave it tied to the bucket, and therefore it is not a permanent knot. But one may not tie a bucket with a rope. Rabbi Yehuda permits doing so. Rabbi Yehuda stated a principle: With regard to any knot that is not permanent, one is not liable for tying it.
גְּמָ׳ חֶבֶל דְּמַאי? אִי לֵימָא חֶבֶל דְּעָלְמָא, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה מַתִּיר? קֶשֶׁר שֶׁל קַיָּימָא הוּא! אֶלָּא חֶבֶל דְּגַרְדִּי. לְמֵימְרָא דְּרַבָּנַן סָבְרִי גָּזְרִינַן חֶבֶל דְּגַרְדִּי אַטּוּ חֶבֶל דְּעָלְמָא, וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה סָבַר לָא גָּזְרִינַן?
GEMARA: We learned in the mishna that according to the first tanna, it is prohibited to tie a rope to a bucket on Shabbat, and Rabbi Yehuda permits doing so. The Gemara asks: A rope of what kind? If you say it is referring to a standard rope, does Rabbi Yehuda permit doing so? It is a permanent knot. Rather, it is referring to a weaver’s rope; since the weaver needs it for his work, he will untie it after Shabbat. The Gemara asks: Is that to say that the Rabbis hold that we issue a decree prohibiting a weaver’s rope due to a standard rope, and Rabbi Yehuda holds that we do not issue a decree?
וּרְמִינְהוּ: חֶבֶל דְּלִי שֶׁנִּפְסַק לֹא יְהֵא קוֹשְׁרוֹ אֶלָּא עוֹנְבוֹ. וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: כּוֹרֵךְ עָלָיו פּוּנְדָּא אוֹ פָּסִקְיָא, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יַעַנְבֶנּוּ.
The Gemara raises a contradiction from that which was taught in a baraita: With regard to the rope of a bucket that was severed on Shabbat, one may not tie it with a regular knot; rather, he may tie a bow. And Rabbi Yehuda says: One may wrap a hollow belt around it or a sash as long as he does not tie it into a bow.
קַשְׁיָא דְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה אַדְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה, קַשְׁיָא דְּרַבָּנַן אַדְּרַבָּנַן.
This is difficult, as there is a contradiction between one statement of Rabbi Yehuda and another statement of Rabbi Yehuda, as in the baraita he issued a decree prohibiting tying a bow due to tying a knot, and in the mishna he issued no decree. And this is also difficult, as there is a contradiction between one statement of the Rabbis and another statement of the Rabbis, as in the baraita they do not issue a decree and in the mishna they do issue a decree.
דְּרַבָּנַן אַדְּרַבָּנַן לָא קַשְׁיָא: חֶבֶל בְּחֶבֶל — מִיחַלַּף. עֲנִיבָה בִּקְשִׁירָה — לָא מִיחַלְּפָא. דְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה אַדְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה לָא קַשְׁיָא: הָתָם — לָא מִשּׁוּם דְּמִיחַלְּפָא עֲנִיבָה בִּקְשִׁירָה, אֶלָּא עֲנִיבָה גּוּפָהּ קְשִׁירָה הִיא.
The Gemara responds: The contradiction between one statement of the Rabbis and the other statement of the Rabbis is not difficult, as they are of the opinion that a rope may be confused with another rope. Therefore, the Rabbis issued a decree prohibiting a weaver’s rope, because if it were permitted one might mistakenly come to tie a standard rope. However, a bow is not confused with a knot, and therefore they did not issue a decree prohibiting a bow. The contradiction between one statement of Rabbi Yehuda and the other statement of Rabbi Yehuda is not difficult, as there, where he prohibited tying a bow, it is not because a bow may be confused with a knot, but because, in his opinion, a bow itself is a full-fledged knot and is not prohibited due to a decree.
אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא אָמַר רַב חִיָּיא בַּר אָשֵׁי אָמַר רַב: מֵבִיא אָדָם חֶבֶל מִתּוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ, וְקוֹשְׁרוֹ בַּפָּרָה וּבָאֵיבוּס אֵיתִיבֵיהּ רַבִּי אַחָא אֲרִיכָא דְּהוּא רַבִּי אַחָא בַּר פָּפָּא לְרַבִּי אַבָּא: חֶבֶל שֶׁבָּאֵיבוּס — קוֹשְׁרוֹ בַּפָּרָה, וְשֶׁבַּפָּרָה — קוֹשְׁרוֹ בָּאֵיבוּס, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יָבִיא חֶבֶל מִתּוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ וְיִקְשׁוֹר בַּפָּרָה וּבָאֵיבוּס! הָתָם — חֶבֶל דְּעָלְמָא הָכָא חֶבֶל דְּגַרְדִּי.
Rabbi Abba said that Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi said that Rav said: A person may bring a rope from inside his house on Shabbat and tie one end of it to a cow and the other end to a trough. That is not considered a permanent knot, because he will certainly untie the rope. Rabbi Aḥa Arikha, who was nicknamed Rabbi Aḥa the Long, due to his height, who is also called Rabbi Aḥa bar Pappa, raised an objection to Rabbi Abba from the baraita: With regard to a rope that is tied to the trough, one may tie it to a cow, and a rope that is tied to the cow one may tie it to a trough, provided that one does not bring a rope from inside his house and tie it to the cow and to the trough. The Gemara answers: There, where they permitted it, it is referring to a weaver’s rope, which will certainly be untied.
אָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל: כְּלֵי קִיוָּאֵי מוּתָּר לְטַלְטְלָן בְּשַׁבָּת. בְּעוֹ מִינֵּיהּ מֵרַב יְהוּדָה: כּוֹבֶד הָעֶלְיוֹן וְכוֹבֶד הַתַּחְתּוֹן מַהוּ? אִין וְלָאו וְרַפְיָא בִּידֵיהּ. אִיתְּמַר אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל: כְּלֵי קִיוָּאֵי מוּתָּר לְטַלְטְלָן בְּשַׁבָּת, אֲפִילּוּ כּוֹבֶד הָעֶלְיוֹן וְכוֹבֶד הַתַּחְתּוֹן, אֲבָל לֹא אֶת הָעַמּוּדִים.
Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: A weaver’s tools may be moved on Shabbat. They raised a dilemma before Rav Yehuda: What is the ruling with regard to the upper beam and the lower beam of the weaver’s loom? Does this leniency apply to them? Rav Yehuda did not provide a clear answer. He said: Yes and no, and the matter was uncertain to him. It was stated: Rav Naḥman said that Shmuel said: A weaver’s tools may be moved on Shabbat, even the upper beam and the lower beam, but not the posts.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ רָבָא לְרַב נַחְמָן: מַאי שְׁנָא עַמּוּדִים דְּלָא? אִילֵּימָא דְּקָעָבֵיד גּוּמּוֹת, גּוּמּוֹת מִמֵּילָא קָא הָוְיָין, דִּתְנַן: הַטּוֹמֵן לֶפֶת וּצְנוֹנוֹת תַּחַת הַגֶּפֶן, אִם מִקְצָת עָלָיו מְגוּלִּין — אֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ לֹא מִשּׁוּם כִּלְאַיִם, וְלֹא מִשּׁוּם שְׁבִיעִית, וְלֹא מִשּׁוּם מַעֲשֵׂר, וְנִיטָּלִין בְּשַׁבָּת.
Rava said to Rav Naḥman: What is different about the posts that one may not carry them? If we say it is because one makes holes when removing the post from the ground, holes come into being on their own and that is not prohibited, as we learned in a mishna: With regard to one who stores a turnip or radish in the ground beneath a vine for safekeeping, if some of its leaves were exposed, making it possible to grab the turnip or the radish and pull it out of the ground, he need not be concerned, neither due to diverse kinds, i.e., that he violated the prohibition of planting food crops in a vineyard, as there was no intent to plant them, nor due to concern that he violated the prohibition against working the land during the Sabbatical Year, nor due to tithes, i.e., that it would be considered as if he picked it from the ground and would be obligated to tithe it, and they may be taken from the ground on Shabbat. Apparently, the Rabbis do not prohibit doing so due to concern that one will thereby create a hole.
בְּשָׂדֶה — לָא אָתֵי לְאַשְׁווֹיֵי גּוּמּוֹת, הָכָא בְּבַיִת — אָתֵי לְאַשְׁווֹיֵי גּוּמּוֹת. בְּעָא מִינֵּיהּ רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן מֵרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר לֵיוַאי: כְּלֵי קִיוָּאֵי, כְּגוֹן כּוֹבֶד הָעֶלְיוֹן וְכוֹבֶד הַתַּחְתּוֹן, מַהוּ לְטַלְטְלָן בְּשַׁבָּת? אֲמַר לֵיהּ: אֵין מְטַלְטְלִין. מַה טַּעַם? לְפִי שֶׁאֵין נִיטָּלִין.
Rav Naḥman answered him: The cases are not comparable. In a field one will not come to fill holes; however, here, where the holes are created in the house, the concern is that one may come to smooth out the holes. Therefore, the Rabbis prohibited it. Rabbi Yoḥanan raised a dilemma before Rabbi Yehuda bar Liva’ei: With regard to weaver’s tools, such as the upper beam and the lower beam of the loom, what is the ruling in terms of carrying them on Shabbat? Rabbi Yehuda said to him: One may not carry them. Rabbi Yoḥanan asked him: What is the reason for this? Rabbi Yehuda bar Liva’ei answered: Because they are not usually carried even during the week, as they are extremely heavy and are considered fixed in place. Therefore, the Sages prohibited carrying them on Shabbat.
מַתְנִי׳ מְקַפְּלִין אֶת הַכֵּלִים אֲפִילּוּ אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה פְּעָמִים, וּמַצִּיעִין אֶת הַמִּטּוֹת מִלֵּילֵי שַׁבָּת לְשַׁבָּת, אֲבָל לֹא מִשַּׁבָּת לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר: מְקַפְּלִין אֶת הַכֵּלִים, וּמַצִּיעִין אֶת הַמִּטּוֹת מִיּוֹם הַכִּיפּוּרִים לְשַׁבָּת. וְחֶלְבֵי שַׁבָּת קְרֵיבִין בְּיוֹם הַכִּיפּוּרִים, אֲבָל לֹא שֶׁל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים בְּשַׁבָּת. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר: לֹא שֶׁל שַׁבָּת קְרֵיבִין בְּיוֹם הַכִּיפּוּרִים, וְלֹא שֶׁל יוֹם הַכִּיפּוּרִים קְרֵיבִין בְּשַׁבָּת.
MISHNA: One may fold the garments after removing them even four or five times, and one may make the beds from Shabbat evening in preparation for Shabbat day, but not from Shabbat in preparation for the conclusion of Shabbat, since one may not perform an action on Shabbat that is preparation for a weekday. Rabbi Yishmael says: One may fold the garments and make the beds from Yom Kippur in preparation for Shabbat if Yom Kippur occurs on Friday. And the fats of the offerings that were sacrificed on Shabbat are offered on Yom Kippur, but not those of Yom Kippur on Shabbat, because the sanctity of Shabbat is greater than the sanctity of Yom Kippur. Rabbi Akiva says: Neither are the fats of the offerings sacrificed on Shabbat offered on Yom Kippur, nor are those of Yom Kippur offered on Shabbat.
גְּמָ׳ אָמְרִי דְּבֵי רַבִּי יַנַּאי: לֹא שָׁנוּ אֶלָּא בְּאָדָם אֶחָד, אֲבָל בִּשְׁנֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם — לֹא. וּבְאָדָם אֶחָד נָמֵי לָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא בַּחֲדָשִׁים, אֲבָל בִּישָׁנִים — לָא. וָחֳדָשִׁים נָמֵי לָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא בִּלְבָנִים, אֲבָל בִּצְבוּעִים — לָא. וְלָא אֲמַרַן אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין לוֹ לְהַחֲלִיף, אֲבָל יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהַחֲלִיף — לָא.
GEMARA: The Sages in the school of Rabbi Yanai said: They only taught that it is permitted when one person is folding the garments alone on Shabbat; however, when two people are folding the garments together, no, they may not do so, because when two people fold garments it is tantamount to repairing the garment. And with regard to when a single person is folding the garments, we only said it is permitted when he is folding a new garment, which is suitable to be worn even if it were not folded; however, with regard to old garments, no, he may not do so. And with regard to new garments, we only said that one may fold the garments when they are white; however, when they are colored, no, one may not do so. And with regard to white garments, we only said it is permitted to fold them on Shabbat when one does not have garments into which one could change; however, if one has other garments into which he could change, he may not fold them.
תָּנָא: שֶׁל בֵּית רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל לֹא הָיוּ מְקַפְּלִים כְּלֵי לָבָן שֶׁלָּהֶן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָיָה לָהֶן לְהַחֲלִיף. אָמַר רַב הוּנָא: אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהַחֲלִיף — יַחֲלִיף, וְאִם אֵין לוֹ לְהַחֲלִיף — יְשַׁלְשֵׁל בִּבְגָדָיו. מַתְקִיף לַהּ רַב סָפְרָא: וְהָא מִיתְחֲזֵי כְּרָמוּת רוּחָא. כֵּיוָן דְּכׇל יוֹמָא לָא קָעָבֵיד, וְהָאִידָּנָא הוּא דְּקָא עָבֵיד — לָא מִיתְחֲזֵי כְּרָמוּת רוּחָא.
And it was taught in the Tosefta: The members of Rabban Gamliel’s household did not even fold their white garments because they had others into which they could change. Rav Huna said: If one has new garments into which he could change on Shabbat, he will change into those garments; and if one does not have garments into which he could change, he lets his garments hang down before Shabbat to beautify himself in deference to Shabbat as it used to be the custom of wealthy people to wear their clothes loosely. Rav Safra strongly objects to this: Doesn’t this appear as haughtiness? The Gemara answers: Since every day he does not do so, and now in honor of Shabbat he is doing so, it does not appear as haughtiness. Rather it is apparent that he is acting in deference to Shabbat.
״וְכִבַּדְתּוֹ מֵעֲשׂוֹת דְּרָכֶיךָ״. ״וְכִבַּדְתּוֹ״ — שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא מַלְבּוּשְׁךָ שֶׁל שַׁבָּת כְּמַלְבּוּשְׁךָ שֶׁל חוֹל, וְכִי הָא דְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן קָרֵי לְמָאנֵיהּ ״מְכַבְּדוֹתַי״. ״מֵעֲשׂוֹת דְּרָכֶיךָ״ — שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא הִילּוּכְךָ שֶׁל שַׁבָּת כְּהִילּוּכְךָ שֶׁל חוֹל. ״מִמְּצוֹא חֶפְצְךָ״ — חֲפָצֶיךָ אֲסוּרִין, חֶפְצֵי שָׁמַיִם מוּתָּרִין. ״וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר״ —
On a related note, the Gemara cites what we learned with regard to the following passage: “If you keep your feet from breaking, from pursuing your affairs on My holy day, and you call Shabbat a delight, the Lord’s holy day honorable, and you honor it by not going your own way, from attending to your affairs and speaking idle words” (Isaiah 58:13). The Rabbis derived from the words “and you honor it” that your dress on Shabbat should not be like your dress during the week, as Rabbi Yoḥanan would refer to his clothing as my honor, indicating that appropriate clothing is a form of deference. The words “going your own way” mean that your walking on Shabbat should not be like your walking during the week. “From attending to your affairs” means it is prohibited to deal with your weekday affairs and to speak about them on Shabbat. However, affairs of Heaven, i.e., those pertaining to mitzvot, are permitted. “And speaking idle words”