שָׁאנֵי בֵּית הַכִּסֵּא דִּמְאִיס.
the bathroom is different, as it is disgusting. Once a place is called a bathroom it is disgusting and no longer fit for prayer. However, until he actually bathes in a bathhouse it remains fit for prayer.
אֵין שָׁם שְׁאֵילַת שָׁלוֹם. מְסַיַּיע לֵיהּ לְרַב הַמְנוּנָא מִשְּׁמֵיהּ דְּעוּלָּא דְּאָמַר: אָסוּר לְאָדָם שֶׁיִּתֵּן שָׁלוֹם לַחֲבֵירוֹ בְּבֵית הַמֶּרְחָץ, מִשּׁוּם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר ״וַיִּקְרָא לוֹ ה׳ שָׁלוֹם״.
It was taught in the Tosefta: There is no greeting [shalom] others permitted in the bathhouse. The Gemara comments that this statement supports the opinion of Rav Hamnuna in the name of Ulla, who said: It is forbidden for a person to greet [shalom] his friend in the bathhouse because Shalom is one of the names of God, as it is stated: “And Gideon built there an altar for God and he called Him Lord Shalom” (Judges 6:24). Therefore, it is prohibited to utter the word shalom in a dishonorable place.
אֶלָּא מֵעַתָּה ״הֵימָנוּתָא״ נָמֵי אָסוּר לְמֵימַר בְּבֵית הַכִּסֵּא, דִּכְתִיב: ״הָאֵל הַנֶּאֱמָן״. וְכִי תֵּימָא הָכִי נָמֵי, וְהָאָמַר רָבָא בַּר מַחְסֵיָא, אָמַר רַב חָמָא בַּר גּוּרְיָא, אָמַר רַב: שָׁרֵי לְמֵימַר ״הֵימָנוּתָא״ בְּבֵית הַכִּסֵּא! הָתָם שֵׁם גּוּפֵיהּ לָא אִיקְּרִי הָכִי, דִּמְתַרְגְּמִינַן ״אֱלָהָא מְהֵימְנָא״, הָכָא שֵׁם גּוּפֵיהּ אִיקְּרִי ״שָׁלוֹם״ דִּכְתִיב ״וַיִּקְרָא לוֹ ה׳ שָׁלוֹם״.
The Gemara asks: But if so, words connoting faithfulness are also forbidden to say in the bathroom, as it is written “The faithful God who keeps the covenant and the kindness” (Deuteronomy 7:9). And if you say that it is indeed so, that it is forbidden to use the language of faithfulness in the bathroom, didn’t Rava bar Meḥasseya say that Rav Ḥama bar Gurya said that Rav said: It is permitted to say faithfulness in the bathroom? The Gemara answers: There is a difference between the terms: There, the name of God itself is not called in that way, as we translate it as “the faithful God.” However, here, the name of God Himself is called Shalom, as it is written: “And he called Him Lord Shalom.” It is not an adjective, but a holy name in and of itself.
וְאָמַר רָבָא בַּר מַחְסֵיָא אָמַר רַב חָמָא בַּר גּוּרְיָא אָמַר רַב: הַנּוֹתֵן מַתָּנָה לַחֲבֵירוֹ, צָרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעוֹ. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״לָדַעַת כִּי אֲנִי ה׳ מְקַדִּשְׁכֶם״. תַּנְיָא נָמֵי הָכִי: ״לָדַעַת כִּי אֲנִי ה׳ מְקַדִּשְׁכֶם״, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְמֹשֶׁה: מַתָּנָה טוֹבָה יֵשׁ לִי בְּבֵית גְּנָזַי וְשַׁבָּת שְׁמָהּ, וַאֲנִי מְבַקֵּשׁ לִיתְּנָהּ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, לֵךְ וְהוֹדִיעָם. מִכָּאן אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל: הַנּוֹתֵן פַּת לְתִינוֹק, צָרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעַ לְאִמּוֹ. מַאי עָבֵיד לֵיהּ? אָמַר אַבָּיֵי: שָׁאֵיף לֵיהּ מִשְׁחָא, וּמָלֵי לֵיהּ כּוּחְלָא. וְהָאִידָּנָא דְּחָיְישִׁינַן לִכְשָׁפִים מַאי? אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא: שָׁאֵיף לֵיהּ מֵאוֹתוֹ הַמִּין.
Incidental to the halakhic statement in his name, the Gemara also cites another statement that Rava bar Meḥasseya said that Rav Ḥama bar Gurya said that Rav said: One who gives a gift to another must inform him that he is giving it to him. As it is stated: “Only keep My Shabbatot for it is a sign between Me and you for your generations to know that I am God Who sanctifies you” (Exodus 31:13). When the Holy One, Blessed be He, gave Shabbat to Israel, He told Moses to inform them about it. That was also taught in a baraita: The verse states: “For I am God Who sanctifies you,” meaning that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: I have a good gift in My treasure house and Shabbat is its name, and I seek to give it to Israel. Go inform them about it. From here Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: One who gives a gift of bread to a child needs to inform his mother that he gave it to him. The Gemara asks: What does he do to the child, so that his mother will know that he gave him a gift? Abaye said: He should smear him with oil or place blue shadow around his eye in an obvious manner. When the mother of the child notices and asks him about it, he will tell her that so-and-so gave him a piece of bread. The Gemara asks: And now that we are concerned about witchcraft involving oil or eye shadow, what should one who gives a gift do? Rav Pappa said: He should smear him with food of the same type that he gave him to eat.
אִינִי וְהָאָמַר רַב חָמָא (בַּר) [בְּרַבִּי] חֲנִינָא: הַנּוֹתֵן מַתָּנָה לַחֲבֵירוֹ אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״וּמֹשֶׁה לֹא יָדַע כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פָּנָיו בְּדַבְּרוֹ אִתּוֹ״! — לָא קַשְׁיָא: הָא בְּמִילְּתָא דַּעֲבִידָא לְאִגַּלּוֹיֵי, הָא בְּמִילְּתָא דְּלָא עֲבִידָא לְאִגַּלּוֹיֵי. וְהָא שַׁבָּת, דַּעֲבִידָא לִגַלּוֹיֵי? — מַתַּן שְׂכָרָהּ לָא עָבֵיד לִגַלּוֹיֵי.
With regard to the halakha itself, the Gemara asks: Is that so? Didn’t Rav Ḥama bar Ḥanina say: One who gives a gift to his friend need not inform him, as God made Moses’ face glow, and nevertheless it is stated with regard to Moses: “And Moses did not know that the skin of his face shone when He spoke with him” (Exodus 34:29)? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. When Rav Ḥama bar Ḥanina said that he need not inform him, he was referring to a matter that is likely to be revealed. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said that he needs to inform him, he was referring to a matter that is not likely to be revealed. The Gemara asked: If so, isn’t Shabbat likely to be revealed, as it will be necessary to inform them of Shabbat together with the other mitzvot? Why was Moses asked to inform them about Shabbat separately? The Gemara answers: The giving of its reward is not likely to be revealed, and it was necessary to inform them about so extraordinary a gift.
רַב חִסְדָּא הֲוָה נָקֵיט בִּידֵיהּ תַּרְתֵּי מַתְּנָתָא דְתוֹרָא, אָמַר: כׇּל מַאן דְּאָתֵי וְאָמַר לִי שְׁמַעְתָּתָא חַדְתָּא מִשְּׁמֵיהּ דְּרַב יָהֵיבְנָא לֵיהּ נִיהֲלֵיהּ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ רָבָא בַּר מַחְסֵיָא, הָכִי אָמַר רַב: הַנּוֹתֵן מַתָּנָה לַחֲבֵירוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעוֹ. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״לָדַעַת כִּי אֲנִי ה׳ מְקַדִּשְׁכֶם״. יַהֲבַהּ נִיהֲלֵיהּ. אֲמַר חֲבִיבִין עֲלָךְ שְׁמַעְתָּתָא דְּרַב כּוּלֵּי הַאי? אֲמַר לֵיהּ: אִין. אֲמַר לֵיהּ: הַיְינוּ דְּאָמַר רַב: מֵילָתָא אַלָּבֵישַׁיְיהוּ יַקִּירָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ: אֲמַר רַב הָכִי?! בָּתְרָיְיתָא עֲדִיפָא לִי מִקַּמָּיְיתָא, וְאִי הֲוָה נָקֵיטְנָא אַחֲרִיתִי, יָהֵיבְנָא לָךְ.
The Gemara relates that Rav Ḥisda would take in his hand two gifts of the priesthood separated from an ox. He said: Anyone who comes and tells me a new halakha in the name of Rav, I will give these gifts to him. Rava bar Meḥasseya said to him, Rav said as follows: One who gives a gift to his friend needs to inform him, as it stated: “To know that I am God Who sanctifies you.” He gave the gift to Rava bar Meḥasseya. Rava bar Meḥasseya said to Rav Ḥisda: Are the halakhot of Rav so beloved to you? Rav Ḥisda said to him: Yes. Rava bar Meḥasseya said to him, this is what Rav said: Fine wool is precious to those who wear it (Rav Ya’akov Emden), meaning only a person who is used to delicate items can appreciate their quality. Rav Ḥisda said to him excitedly: Did Rav say that? The latter statement is preferable to me more than the first. And if I were holding another gift I would give it to you.
וְאָמַר רָבָא בַּר מַחְסֵיָא אָמַר רַב חָמָא בַּר גּוּרְיָא אָמַר רַב: לְעוֹלָם אַל יְשַׁנֶּה אָדָם בְּנוֹ בֵּין הַבָּנִים, שֶׁבִּשְׁבִיל מִשְׁקַל שְׁנֵי סְלָעִים מֵילָת שֶׁנָּתַן יַעֲקֹב לְיוֹסֵף יוֹתֵר מִשְּׁאָר בָּנָיו, נִתְקַנְּאוּ בּוֹ אֶחָיו וְנִתְגַּלְגֵּל הַדָּבָר וְיָרְדוּ אֲבוֹתֵינוּ לְמִצְרַיִם.
And Rava bar Meḥasseya said that Rav Ḥama bar Gurya said that Rav said: A person should never distinguish one of his sons from among the other sons by giving him preferential treatment. As, due to the weight of two sela of fine wool [meilat] that Jacob gave to Joseph, beyond what he gave the rest of his sons, in making him the striped coat, his brothers became jealous of him and the matter unfolded and our forefathers descended to Egypt.
וְאָמַר רָבָא בַּר מַחְסֵיָא אָמַר רַב חָמָא בַּר גּוּרְיָא אָמַר רַב: לְעוֹלָם יְחַזֵּר אָדָם וְיֵשֵׁב בְּעִיר שֶׁיְּשִׁיבָתָהּ קְרוֹבָה, שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ שֶׁיְּשִׁיבָתָהּ קְרוֹבָה עֲוֹנוֹתֶיהָ מוּעָטִין. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: ״הִנֵּה נָא הָעִיר הַזֹּאת קְרוֹבָה לָנוּס שָׁמָּה וְהִיא מִצְעָר״. מַאי ״קְרוֹבָה״? אִילֵימָא קְרוֹבָה דְּמִיקָּרְבָא וְזוּטָא — וְהָא קָא חָזוּ לַהּ! אֶלָּא מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁיְּשִׁיבָתָהּ קְרוֹבָה, עֲוֹנוֹתֶיהָ מוּצְעָרִין. אָמַר רַבִּי אָבִין: מַאי קְרָא? — דִּכְתִיב: ״אִמָּלְטָה נָּא שָׁמָּה״. ״נָא״ בְּגִימַטְרִיָּא — חַמְשִׁין וְחַד הָוֵי, וְשֶׁל סְדוֹם חֲמִישִּׁים וּשְׁתַּיִם. וְשַׁלְוָתָהּ
And Rava bar Meḥasseya said that Rav Ḥama bar Gurya said Rav said: A person should always seek and dwell in a city whose settling took place in the recent past, meaning that it was recently established, as due to the fact that its settling is recent its sins are few, as its residents have not yet had the opportunity to commit many sins there. As it is stated that Lot said to the angel: “Behold, here is this city that is close to run away to and it is small” (Genesis 19:20). What is the meaning of the word close? If you say: That it is close in distance and truly small, why did he need to say that to the angel? Didn’t they see it? Rather, the meaning of the word close must be because its settling was close, that it had been recently settled, and therefore its sins were few. Rabbi Avin said: What is the verse that teaches us that Zoar was newer than the other cities? As it is written: “I will escape there please [na]” (Genesis 19:20); the numerological value of nun alef, the letters of the word na, is fifty-one, while Sodom was fifty-two years old. And Sodom’s tranquil period