Shabbat 105a:4שבת ק״ה א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
Toggle Reader Menu Display Settings
105aק״ה א

ועלו בידו שתים חייב והתנן פטור לא קשיא הא דבעי זיוני הא דלא בעי זיוני:

and managed to write two letters, he is liable. The Gemara asks: Didn’t we learn in the mishna that one is exempt in that case? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult: That case where we learned that he is exempt is referring to a case where the letters require crowns. This is referring to a case where they do not require crowns, and he is liable. If the letters already had their requisite ornamentation and an individual separated them, it is as if he wrote two letters.

כתב אות אחת נוטריקון רבי יהושע בן בתירה מחייב וחכמים פוטרין: אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי יוסי בן זימרא מנין ללשון נוטריקון מן התורה שנאמר כי אב המון גוים נתתיך אב נתתיך לאומות בחור נתתיך באומות המון חביב נתתיך באומות מלך נתתיך לאומות ותיק נתתיך באומות נאמן נתתיך לאומות

We learned in the mishna If one wrote one letter as an abbreviation [notarikon] representing an entire word, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Beteira deems him liable to bring a sin-offering, and the Rabbis deem him exempt. Rabbi Yoḥanan said in the name of Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra: From where is it derived that the language of abbreviation is employed in the Torah? As it is stated: “Neither shall your name any more be called Abram, but your name shall be Abraham; for the father of a multitude of nations [av hamon goyim] have I made you” (Genesis 17:5). The verse itself contracts av hamon into Abraham [Avraham]. The words av hamon themselves are interpreted as an abbreviation: I have made you a father [av] for the nations, I have made you chosen [baḥur] among the nations, I have made you beloved [ḥaviv] among the nations, I have made you king [melekh] for the nations, I have made you distinguished [vatik] for the nations, I have made you trusted [ne’eman] for the nations.

רבי יוחנן דידיה אמר אנכי נוטריקון אנא נפשי כתיבת יהבית רבנן אמרי אמירה נעימה כתיבה יהיבה איכא דאמרי אנכי למפרע יהיבה כתיבה נאמנין אמריה

Rabbi Yoḥanan himself said that the word anokhi that begins the Ten Commandments is an abbreviation for: I myself wrote and gave [ana nafshi ketivat yehavit]. The Rabbis said it is an abbreviation for: A pleasant statement was written and given [amira ne’ima ketiva yehiva]. Some say the word anokhi can be interpreted backwards: It was written, it was given, its statements are faithful [yehiva ketiva ne’emanim amareha].

דבי רבי נתן אמרי כי ירט הדרך לנגדי יראה ראתה נטתה דבי רבי ישמעאל תנא כרמל כר מלא רב אחא בר יעקב אמר והוא קללני קללה נמרצת נוטריקון נואף הוא מואבי הוא רוצח הוא צורר הוא תועבה הוא

The school of Rabbi Natan said that there is another abbreviation in the Torah. In the verse: “And the angel of the Lord said to him: Why did you hit your donkey these three times? Behold I have come out as an adversary because your way is contrary [yarat] against me” (Numbers 22:32). Yarat is an abbreviation for: The donkey feared [yare’a], it saw [ra’ata], and it turned aside [nateta]. The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: The word karmel in the verse: “And bread, and toasted grain flour, and toasted grain [karmel]” (Leviticus 23:14) means: A full kernel [kar maleh], i.e., the seed fills the stalk. Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said in King David’s words: “And behold, with you is Shimi ben Gera from Benjamin, of Bahurim, who cursed me with a grievous [nimretzet] curse on the day that I went to Mahanaim” (I Kings 2:8). The word nimretzet is an abbreviation for: He is an adulterer [noef], he is a Moabite [Moavi], he is a murderer [rotze’aḥ], he is an oppressor [tzorer], he is an abomination [to’eva].

רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר מה נדבר ומה נצטדק נכונים אנחנו צדיקים אנחנו טהורים אנחנו דכים אנחנו קדושים אנחנו:

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said that there is another abbreviation in the Bible: “And Judah said: What can we say to my master, what can we speak, and how can we justify [nitztadak]” (Genesis 44:16), which stands for: We are honest [nekhonim], we are righteous [tzaddikim], we are pure [tehorim], we are innocent [dakkim], we are holy [kedoshim].

מתני׳ הכותב שתי אותיות בשתי העלמות אחת שחרית ואחת בין הערבים רבן גמליאל מחייב וחכמים פוטרין:

MISHNA: With regard to one who writes two letters on Shabbat in two separate lapses of awareness separated by a period of awareness that the day was Shabbat, writing one letter in the morning and one letter in the afternoon, Rabban Gamliel deems him liable to bring a sin-offering like someone who has unintentionally performed a full-fledged prohibited labor, and the Rabbis deem him exempt.

גמ׳ במאי קמיפלגי רבן גמליאל סבר אין ידיעה לחצי שיעור ורבנן סברי יש ידיעה לחצי שיעור:

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: With regard to what do they disagree? Rabban Gamliel holds: There is no awareness for half a measure. One is not liable to bring a sacrifice for half a measure; therefore, the fact that he became aware between performance of the two halves of the prohibited labor is of no significance. His awareness does not demarcate between one act of writing a letter and the second act of writing a letter with regard to liability to bring a sin-offering. And the Rabbis hold: There is awareness for half a measure. If an individual became aware of his transgression between the two parts of the prohibited labor, each individual part is independent of the other, and the two halves of the prohibited labor do not join together to create liability.



הדרן עלך הבונה

מתני׳ רבי אליעזר אומר האורג שלשה חוטין בתחילה ואחת על האריג חייב וחכמים אומרים בין בתחילה בין בסוף שיעורו שני חוטין העושה שתי בתי נירין בנירין בקירוס בנפה בכברה ובסל חייב והתופר שתי תפירות והקורע על מנת לתפור שתי תפירות:

MISHNA: Rabbi Eliezer says: One who weaves on Shabbat is liable to bring a sin-offering if he wove three threads at the beginning of something new, or if he adds one thread to a preexisting woven fabric. And the Rabbis say: Both at the beginning and at the end, its measure for liability is two threads. One who makes two meshes, i.e., ties the threads of the warp, attaching them to either the nirin or the keiros, which will be explained in the Gemara, in a winnow, sieve, or basket, is liable for making meshes. And one who sews is liable if he sews two stitches. And one who tears is liable if he tears enough fabric in order to sew two stitches to repair it.

גמ׳ כי אתא רבי יצחק תני שתים והאנן תנן שלש לא קשיא הא באלימי הא בקטיני אמרי לה להאי גיסא ואמרי לה להאי גיסא אמרי לה להאי גיסא אלימי תלתא לא סתרי תרי סתרי קטיני תרי נמי לא סתרי ואמרי לה להאי גיסא קטיני תלתא ידיעי תרי לא ידיעי אלימי תרי נמי ידיעי

GEMARA: When Rabbi Yitzḥak came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he taught that Rabbi Eliezer said: Two threads is the measure that determines liability for beginning a weave. The Gemara asks: Didn’t we learn three in the mishna? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, because this source is referring to thick threads and that source is referring to thin threads. Some say it this way, that one is liable when weaving two thick threads, and some say it that way, that one is liable when weaving two thin threads. The Gemara elaborates: Some say it this way: One who weaves thick threads, three threads will not unravel, but two will unravel. With regard to thin threads, two will also not unravel. And some say it this way: One who weaves thin threads, three threads are conspicuous, two are not conspicuous. With regard to thick threads, two are also conspicuous.

תניא האורג שלשה חוטין בתחילה ואחד על האריג חייב וחכמים אומרים בין בתחילה בין בסוף שיעורן שני חוטין ובשפה שני חוטין ברוחב שלשה בתי נירין הא למה זה דומה לאורג צלצול קטן שני חוטין ברוחב שלשה בתי נירין והאורג שלשה חוטין בתחילה ואחד על האריג חייב סתמא כרבי אליעזר

It was taught in a baraita: One who weaves three threads at the beginning or one thread onto a preexisting woven fabric is liable. And the Rabbis say: Both at the beginning and at the end, its measure for liability is two threads. And if one weaves a hem with a thread or color different from the original garment, he is liable for weaving two threads across a width of three meshes, i.e., three threads of the warp. Why is one liable in that case? To what is this similar? It is similar to weaving a small belt in which one weaves two threads across a width of three meshes, the width of the belt. And when it is taught in the baraita: One who weaves three threads at the beginning or one thread onto a preexisting woven fabric is liable, that unattributed baraita is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer.

תניא אידך האורג שני חוטין על הגס ועל האימרא חייב רבי אליעזר אומר אפילו אחד ובשפה שני חוטין ברוחב שלשה בתי נירין חייב הא למה זה דומה לאורג צלצול קטן שני חוטין על רוחב שלשה בתי נירין והאורג שני חוטין על הגס ועל האימרא חייב סתמא כרבנן:

It was taught in another baraita: One who weaves two threads onto a large fabric or onto the border of a fabric alongside the woof on Shabbat is liable. Rabbi Eliezer says: One is liable even if he weaves one thread. And along the edge of the warp, one who weaves two threads across a width of three meshes is liable. To what is this similar? It is similar to weaving a small belt in which one weaves two threads across a width of three meshes. The Gemara comments: When it was taught in the baraita: One who weaves two threads onto a large fabric or onto the border is liable, that unattributed baraita is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis.

העושה שני בתי נירין כו׳: מאי [בנירין] אמר אביי תרתי בבתי נירא וחדא בנירא: בקירוס: מאי בקירוס אמר רב מצוביתא:

We learned in the mishna that one who makes two meshes, attaching them to either the nirin or the keiros, is liable. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of to the nirin? Abaye said: One ties two to the meshes, the thread of the warp, and ties one to the crosspiece, the thread that extends from the weaving rod. We learned in the mishna that one is liable for attaching the meshes to the keiros, and the Gemara asks: What is a keiros? Rav said: It refers to the slips, the parts that go up and down on a stationary loom and are parallel to the pole.

והתופר שתי תפירות: הא תנינא באבות מלאכות והתופר שתי תפירות משום דקבעי למיתנא סיפא והקורע על מנת לתפור שתי תפירות קתני נמי התופר והקורע הא נמי תנינא באבות מלאכות אלא משום דקבעי למיתני סיפא הקורע בחמתו ועל מתו משום הכי קתני [התופר שתי תפירות]:

And we also learned in the mishna that one who sews on Shabbat is liable if he sews two stitches. The Gemara asks: We already learned that on the list of primary categories of prohibited labor: And one who sews two stitches is liable. The Gemara answers: Since the mishna wanted to teach in the latter clause: And one who tears in order to sew two stitches, it also taught the halakha of one who sews. And one who tears, did we not also learn this in the mishna enumerating the list of primary categories of prohibited labor? Since the mishna wanted to teach a new halakha in the latter clause, namely: One who tears in his anger or for his dead relative, therefore, it also taught the halakha of one who sews two stitches.

והקורע על מנת לתפור שתי תפירות: היכי משכחת לה

With regard to what we learned in the mishna: And one who tears in order to sew two stitches, the Gemara asks: Where do you find that case where it is necessary to tear a garment in order to sew it?