Sanhedrin 94aסנהדרין צ״ד א
The William Davidson Talmudתלמוד מהדורת ויליאם דוידסון
Save "Sanhedrin 94a"
Toggle Reader Menu Display Settings
94aצ״ד א

אינהו עדיפי מיניה ואיהו עדיף מנייהו אינהו עדיפי מיניה דאינהו נביאי ואיהו לאו נביא ואיהו עדיף מנייהו דאיהו חזא ואינהו לא חזו

Apropos Daniel, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, the Gemara notes: In certain respects, the latter three were greater than Daniel, and in certain respects, Daniel was greater than the latter three. They were greater than he, as they were prophets and he was not a prophet. Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi were designated to transmit their visions of God to the Jewish people, but Daniel was not designated to share his visions with others. And he was greater than they, as he saw this vision, and they did not see this vision.

וכי מאחר דלא חזו מאי טעמא איבעות אע"ג דאינהו לא חזו מידי מזלייהו חזי אמר רבינא ש"מ האי מאן דמבעית אף על גב דאיהו לא חזי מזליה חזי

The Gemara asks: And since they did not see the vision, what is the reason that they were frightened? The Gemara answers: Although they did not see the vision, their guardian angels saw it, and they were overcome with fear and fled. Ravina said: Conclude from it that in the case of this person who becomes frightened with no apparent cause, although he does not see what causes his fear, his guardian angel sees it.

מאי תקנתיה לינשוף מדוכתיה ארבעה גרמידי אי נמי ליקרי קרית שמע ואי קאי במקום הטנופת לימא הכי עיזא דבי טבחא שמינא מינאי

What is his remedy? Let him leap four cubits from his current location to distance himself from the perceived danger. Alternatively, let him recite Shema, which will afford him protection. And if he is standing in a place of filth, where it is prohibited to recite verses from the Torah, let him say this formula: The goat of the slaughterhouse is fatter than I, and let the demon harm the goat instead.

(ישעיהו ט, ו) למרבה המשרה ולשלום אין קץ וגו' א"ר תנחום דרש בר קפרא בציפורי מפני מה כל מ"ם שבאמצע תיבה פתוח וזה סתום ביקש הקב"ה לעשות חזקיהו משיח וסנחריב גוג ומגוג

§ Apropos Hezekiah, the Gemara cites that which is stated: “That the government may be increased [lemarbe] and of peace there be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to establish it and uphold it through justice and through righteousness, from now and forever; the zeal of the Lord of hosts does perform this” (Isaiah 9:6). Rabbi Tanḥum says that bar Kappara taught in Tzippori: Due to what reason is it that every letter mem in the middle of a word is open and this mem, of the word lemarbe, is closed? In the Masoretic text, the letter mem in the word “lemarbe” is written in the form of a mem that appears at the end of a word, closed on all four sides. This is because the Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to designate King Hezekiah as the Messiah and to designate Sennacherib and Assyria, respectively, as Gog and Magog, all from the prophecy of Ezekiel with regard to the end of days (Ezekiel, chapter 38), and the confrontation between them would culminate in the final redemption.

אמרה מדת הדין לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע ומה דוד מלך ישראל שאמר כמה שירות ותשבחות לפניך לא עשיתו משיח חזקיה שעשית לו כל הנסים הללו ולא אמר שירה לפניך תעשהו משיח לכך נסתתם

The attribute of justice said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, and if with regard to David, king of Israel, who recited several songs and praises before You, You did not designate him as the Messiah, then with regard to Hezekiah, for whom You performed all these miracles, delivering him from Sennacherib and healing his illness, and he did not recite praise before You, will You designate him as the Messiah? It is for that reason that the mem was closed, because there was an opportunity for redemption that was thwarted.

מיד פתחה הארץ ואמרה לפניו רבש"ע אני אומרת לפניך שירה תחת צדיק זה ועשהו משיח פתחה ואמרה שירה לפניו שנאמר (ישעיהו כד, טז) מכנף הארץ זמירות שמענו צבי לצדיק וגו'

Immediately, the earth began and stated before Him: Master of the Universe, I will recite song before You in place of that righteous person, i.e., Hezekiah, and designate him as the Messiah. The earth began and recited a song before Him, as it is stated: “From the uttermost part of the earth have we heard songs: Glory to the righteous. But I said, my secret is mine, my secret is mine, woe unto me. The treacherous deal treacherously; the treacherous deal very treacherously” (Isaiah 24:16).

אמר שר העולם לפניו רבש"ע צביונו עשה לצדיק זה יצאה בת קול ואמרה רזי לי רזי לי אמר נביא אוי לי אוי לי עד מתי יצאה בת קול ואמרה (ישעיהו כד, טז) בוגדים בגדו ובגד בוגדים בגדו ואמר רבא ואיתימא ר' יצחק עד דאתו בזוזי ובזוזי דבזוזי

The angel appointed to oversee the world said before Him: Master of the Universe, perform the will of this righteous person. A Divine Voice emerged and said: “My secret is Mine, My secret is Mine”; this matter will remain secret, as I am not yet bringing the redemption. The prophet said: “Woe unto me,” woe unto me; until when will the exile continue? A Divine Voice emerged and said: “The treacherous deal treacherously; the treacherous deal very treacherously” (Isaiah 24:16). And Rava, and some say Rabbi Yitzḥak, says: Until looters and looters of looters come, the Messiah will not come.

(ישעיהו כא, יא) משא דומה אלי קורא משעיר שומר מה מלילה שומר מה מליל וגו' א"ר יוחנן אותו מלאך הממונה על הרוחות דומה שמו נתקבצו כל הרוחות אצל דומה אמרו לו שומר מה מלילה שומר מה מליל אמר שומר אתא בקר וגם לילה אם תבעיון בעיו שובו אתיו

On a similar note, Isaiah said: “The burden of Dumah. One calls to me out of Seir: Watchman, what of the night? Watchman, what of the night? The Watchman said: The morning comes and also the night; if you will inquire, inquire; return, come” (Isaiah 21:11–12). Rabbi Yoḥanan says: That angel, who is appointed over the spirits [seirim], his name is Dumah. All the spirits assembled near Dumah and said to him: “Watchman of the night, what of the night? Does God, Guardian of Israel, say that the time for redemption has arrived?” The angel answered: “The Watchman said: The morning comes and also the night; if you will inquire, inquire; return, come.” The Holy One, Blessed be He, said that the morning of redemption has come as well as the night of the exile. If you inquire and seek repentance, inquire and repent, and return to God and redemption will come.

תנא משום רבי פפייס גנאי הוא לחזקיה וסייעתו שלא אמרו שירה עד שפתחה הארץ ואמרה שירה שנא' מכנף הארץ זמירות שמענו צבי לצדיק וגו' כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (שמות יח, י) ויאמר יתרו ברוך ה' אשר הציל אתכם תנא משום רבי פפייס גנאי הוא למשה וששים ריבוא שלא אמרו ברוך עד שבא יתרו ואמר ברוך ה'

It was taught in the name of Rabbi Pappeyas: It is a disgrace for Hezekiah and his associates that they did not recite a song themselves and that a song was not recited until the earth began and recited a song, as it is stated: “From the uttermost part of the earth have we heard songs: Glory to the righteous” (Isaiah 24:16). On a similar note, you say: “And Jethro said: Blessed be the Lord, Who has delivered you out of the hand of Egypt and out of the hand of Pharaoh” (Exodus 18:10). It was taught in the name of Rabbi Pappeyas: It is a disgrace for Moses and the six hundred thousand adult men of the children of Israel whom he led out of Egypt that they did not say: Blessed, until Yitro came and said: “Blessed be the Lord.”

ויחד יתרו רב ושמואל רב אמר שהעביר חרב חדה על בשרו ושמואל אמר שנעשה חדודים חדודים כל בשרו אמר רב היינו דאמרי אינשי גיורא עד עשרה דרי לא תבזה ארמאי קמיה

It is written in the previous verse: Vayyiḥad Yitro for all the goodness that the Lord had done to Israel, whom He had delivered out of the hand of Egypt” (Exodus 18:9). Rav and Shmuel disagreed with regard to the meaning of vayyiḥad. Rav says: He passed a sharp [ḥad] sword over his flesh, i.e., he circumcised himself and converted. And Shmuel says: He felt as though cuts [ḥiddudim] were made over his flesh, i.e., he had an unpleasant feeling due to the downfall of Egypt. Rav says with regard to this statement of Shmuel that this is in accordance with the adage that people say: With regard to a convert, for ten generations after his conversion one should not disparage a gentile before him and his descendants, as they continue to identify somewhat with gentiles and remain sensitive to their pain.

(ישעיהו י, טז) לכן ישלח האדון ה' צבאות במשמניו רזון מאי במשמניו רזון אמר הקב"ה יבא חזקיהו שיש לו שמונה שמות ויפרע מסנחריב שיש לו שמונה שמות חזקיה דכתיב (ישעיהו ט, ה) כי ילד יולד לנו בן ניתן לנו ותהי המשרה על שכמו ויקרא שמו פלא יועץ אל גבור אבי עד שר שלום והאיכא חזקיה שחזקו יה דבר אחר חזקיה שחיזק את ישראל לאביהם שבשמים

§ The verse states: “Therefore shall the Master, the Lord of hosts, send among his fat ones [mishmanav] leanness” (Isaiah 10:16). What is the meaning of the phrase “send among his fat ones leanness”? The meaning is that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Let Hezekiah, who has eight [shemona] names, come, and exact retribution from Sennacherib, who has eight names. The Gemara elaborates: The eight names of Hezekiah are as it is written: “For to us a child is born, to us a son is given; and the government is upon his shoulder; and his name is called Pele Joez El Gibbor Abi Ad Sar Shalom” (Isaiah 9:5). The Gemara asks: But isn’t there an additional name, Hezekiah? The Gemara explains: That was not a given name; rather, it is an appellation based on the fact that God strengthened him [ḥizzeko]. Alternatively, he was called Hezekiah due to the fact that he strengthened the devotion of the Jewish people to their Father in Heaven.

סנחריב דכתיב ביה (מלכים ב טו, כט) תגלת פלאסר (דברי הימים ב כח, כ) פלנאסר (מלכים ב יז, ג) שלמנאסר (מלכים ב טו, יט) פול (ישעיהו כ, א) סרגון (סרגין) (עזרא ד, י) אסנפר רבא ויקירא והאיכא סנחריב שסיחתו ריב דבר אחר שסח וניחר דברים כלפי מעלה

The eight names of Sennacherib are as it is written in his regard among the kings of Assyria: “Tiglath-Pileser” (II Kings 15:29), Tiglath-Pilneser” (II Chronicles 28:20), “Shalmaneser” (II Kings 17:3), “Pul” (II Kings 15:19), “Sargon” (Isaiah 20:1), and “the great and noble Asenappar” (Ezra 4:10). And the Gemara asks: But isn’t there an additional name, Sennacherib [Sanḥeriv]? The Gemara explains: That was not a given name; rather, it is an appellation based on the fact that his speech is contentious [siḥato riv], leading to quarrel and shame. Alternatively, he was called Sanḥeriv due to the fact that he spoke [saḥ] and snorted out [niḥer] contemptuous statements vis-à-vis the Transcendent.

א"ר יוחנן מפני מה זכה אותו רשע לקרותו אסנפר רבא ויקירא מפני שלא סיפר בגנותה של ארץ ישראל שנאמר (מלכים ב יח, לב) עד בואי ולקחתי אתכם אל ארץ כארצכם

Rabbi Yoḥanan says: For what reason was that wicked person privileged to be named “the great and noble Asenappar”? It was due to the fact that he did not speak [sipper] in disparagement of Eretz Yisrael, as it is stated: “Until I come and take you to a land like your own” (II Kings 18:32), and he did not say that he was taking them to a superior land.

רב ושמואל חד אמר מלך פקח היה וחד אמר מלך טיפש היה למאן דאמר מלך פקח היה אי אמינא להו עדיפא מארעייכו אמרו קא משקרת ומאן דאמר מלך טיפש היה אם כן מאי רבותיה

Rav and Shmuel disagreed with regard to that statement of Sennacherib: One says he was a clever king and one says he was a foolish king. According to the one who says he was a clever king, he said that he is taking them to a land like their own, as he thought: If I say to them: I am taking you to a land that is superior to your land, they will say: You are lying. And as for the one who says he was a foolish king, he explains: If so, if he said that he is not taking them to a superior land, what is his greatness and how would they be convinced to go into exile?

להיכא אגלי להו מר זוטרא אמר לאפריקי ורבי חנינא אמר להרי סלוג אבל ישראל ספרו בגנותה של ארץ ישראל כי מטו שוש אמרי שויא כי ארעין כי מטו עלמין אמרו כעלמין כי מטו שוש תרי אמרי על חד תרין

The Gemara asks: To where did Sennacherib exile the ten tribes? Mar Zutra says: He exiled them to Afrikei, and Rabbi Ḥanina says: To the Selug Mountains. The Gemara adds: But those exiled from the kingdom of Israel spoke in disparagement of Eretz Yisrael and extolled the land of their exile. When they arrived at one place, they called it Shosh, as they said: It is equal [shaveh] to our land. When they arrived at another place, they called it Almin, as they said: It is like our world [almin], as Eretz Yisrael is also called beit olamim. When they arrived at a third place they called it Shosh the second [terei], as they said: For one measure of good in Eretz Yisrael, there are two [terein] here.

(ישעיהו י, טז) ותחת כבודו [יקד] יקוד כיקוד אש א"ר יוחנן תחת כבודו ולא כבודו ממש כי הא דרבי יוחנן קרי ליה למאני מכבדותי רבי אלעזר אמר תחת כבודו ממש כשריפת בני אהרן מה להלן שריפת נשמה וגוף קיים אף כאן שריפת נשמה וגוף קיים

The Gemara cites additional verses written with regard to Sennacherib. “And beneath his glory shall be kindled a blaze like the blaze of a fire” (Isaiah 10:16). Rabbi Yoḥanan says: A blaze was kindled beneath his glory, but it was not actually kindled on his glory. The blaze consumed the bodies of the troops of Sennacherib beneath their garments, which were referred to as glory, as in that practice of Rabbi Yoḥanan, who would call his garments: My glory. Rabbi Elazar says: It means beneath his actual glory, i.e., the blaze consumed their souls, and their flesh was not consumed, like the burning of the sons of Aaron. Just as there, the death of the sons of Aaron entailed the burning of the soul, and the body remained intact, so too here, the death of the troops of Sennacherib entailed the burning of the soul, and the body remained intact.

תנא משמיה דרבי יהושע בן קרחה פרעה שחירף בעצמו נפרע הקב"ה ממנו בעצמו סנחריב שחירף

It was taught in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa: With regard to Pharaoh, who himself blasphemed God, the Holy One, Blessed be He, Himself exacted retribution from him. With regard to Sennacherib, who blasphemed God